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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Social network analysis research report: realizing relationships for distance education
Institution: Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies
Published: February 2023

This report explores how social network analysis (SNA) could shed light on educational shifts, such as the switch to distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic, and presents findings from pilot SNA studies of distance education for refugees in Jordan and Uganda. SNA measures how actors are connected within a network. It illuminates how the structure of or an actor’s positionality within a network affects social outcomes (Folke, 2006; Light & Moody, 2020), in this case the provision of distance education for refugees. Traditionally, the provision of education has been viewed as the output of a static system governed by hierarchical relationships. However, it is increasingly understood as a complex and dynamic ecosystem in which influence, resources, and ideas enter at different points and travel along diverse pathways. The pilot studies conducted in Jordan and Uganda explored what facilitated and what inhibited distance education for refugees in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, with particular attention given to the network of relationships among distance education policy, content development and curation, teacher preparation, and delivery actors. Data was collected from individuals who worked for organizations that delivered, or supported the delivery of, distance education for refugees in Uganda and Jordan in 2021.

Why and how to measure the physical and psychological wellbeing of adolecent students: pilot study 2022, Bogotá

Gustavo Tovar; Javier Gutiérrez; Felipe Alejandro Riveros C. (et al.)

Institution: UNESCO
Published: January 2023

The purpose of the present study is to review and update methodologies, tools, and instruments for measuring physical and psychological well-being among students in Bogotá, as part of the aim to strengthen comprehensive education in the city, especially in the post-pandemic period

The impact of COVID-19 on education in Latin America: long-run implications for poverty and inequality

Jessica Bracco; Matías Ciaschi; Leonardo Gasparini (et al.)

Institution: The World Bank
Published: January 2023
The shock of the COVID-19 pandemic affected the human capital formation of children and youths. As a consequence of this disruption, the pandemic is likely to imply permanent lower levels of human capital. This paper provides new evidence on the impact of COVID-19 and school closures on education in Latin America by exploiting harmonized microdata from a large set of national household surveys carried out in 2020, during the pandemic. In addition, the paper uses microsimulations to assess the potential effect of changes in human capital due to the COVID-19 crisis on future income distributions. The findings show that the pandemic is likely to have significant long-run consequences in terms of incomes and poverty if strong compensatory measures are not taken soon.
Adolescent feelings on COVID-19 distance learning support: associations with mental health, social-emotional health, substance use, and delinquency

Karen Kwaning; Ayman Ullah; Christopher Biely (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health
School social support is associated with improved adolescent wellbeing. However, positive school relationships were potentially disrupted when schools transitioned to distance learning in 2020 to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. This study investigated associations among perceived distance learning school support, mental health, social-emotional wellbeing, substance use, and delinquency among low-income, public high school students. This study analyzed longitudinal survey data, collected between June 2020 and June 2021, from 372 students attending five large urban public high schools. Mixed-effects regression models examined associations among changes in distance learning support and changes in mental health, social-emotional wellbeing, substance use, and delinquency, controlling for time, social-demographics, and baseline health.
Myopia progression among school-aged children in the COVID-19 distance-learning era

Yasser I. Althnayan; Nawal M. Almotairi; Manal M. Alharbi (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Clinical Ophthalmology
This study aimed to investigate the effect of online learning and other environmental factors on myopia progression during the Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). A retrospective cohort study from 2018 to 2021. Data from children aged 6– 14 were gathered during three visits: pre-pandemic, at the beginning, and during the pandemic. Demographics (hours spent on screens for educational, recreational purposes, outdoors, and type of screen), best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA), uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCDVA), and cycloplegic refraction were gathered.
Boredom in online activity during COVID-19 outbreak causing dysfunctional behaviors of adolescent students: phenomenological study to the creation of virtual reality classroom

Sovaritthon Chansaengsee

Published: January 2023   Journal: European Journal of Psychology of Education
Boredom is the phenomenon most adolescent students have been struggling with, especially during the pandemic; they were regularly mandated to stay in a new normal way. This research aimed to study the life experience of boredom towards online activities leading to dysfunctional behaviours of teens, to survey the preference for online learning methods of Thai adolescent students, and to create a virtual reality classroom for English writing classes. The first study, transcendental phenomenology, included ten teens between 13 and 18 years old selected by purposive sampling. In study, 285 Thai teens were recruited to answer the questionnaire, and the last phase included five experts to discuss the strategies for creating a VR classroom.
Distant science practicals–COVID-19 experience from Czech lower secondary schools

Vanda Janštová; Helena Zdobinská

Published: January 2023   Journal: Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education
This study contributes to description of teaching changes resulting from COVID-19 epidemic. It focuses on online teaching of practical exercises in science subjects from pupils’ and teachers’ perspectives. Views on the distance learning of practical exercises were obtained from Czech lower-secondary school pupils (n=543) and science teachers (n=24). Most teachers conducted science practicum classes using a combination of synchronous and asynchronous methods and rated support from school management as rather adequate. Teachers assigned fewer hands-on activities, specifically experiments, observations, and activities resulting in a product, in distance teaching than in face-to-face lessons, although they rated them as the most useful. Pupils found experimentation and observation to be the most interesting and useful, followed by activities that result in a product (e.g., herbarium). Pupils generally preferred the present form of practical activities.
Italian children's accounts of the lockdown: insights and perspectives

Michele Capurso; Tiziana Pedale; Valerio Santangelo (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Journal of Child and Family Studies volume
COVID-19 lockdown-imposed restrictions emerged as a risk to children’s well-being. However, the extant literature often ignored children’s experiences, emotions, struggles, hopes, and expectations. Based on a large sample of Italian students (N = 906; mean age = 9.4 years, 48.8% female), this study drews data from a post-lockdown school re-entry program where students completed narrative activities in 2020. These narratives underwent quantitative content analysis according to gender and school level.
Impact of implementing and lifting COVID-19 lockdown on study and physical activity patterns among youths in China

Shujuan Yang; Wanqi Yu; Peng Jia

Published: January 2023   Journal: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness

The youths’ study and physical activity (PA) patterns may have been affected by lockdown measures due to COVID-19. This study aimed to reveal how youths’ study and PA patterns had changed after implementing and lifting COVID-19 lockdown in China. The COVID-19 Impact on Lifestyle Change Survey (COINLICS) was used, where 10,082 youth participants have voluntarily reported their study and PA patterns in the three periods before, during, and after COVID-19 lockdown. PA was measured as the weekly frequency of engaging in active transport for commuting/errands, leisure-time walking, leisure-time moderate-/vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), and moderate-/vigorous-intensity housework (MVH); study patterns were measured as the daily average study time and the major study modes.

Analysis of the digital educational scenario in Italian high schools during the pandemic: challenges and emerging tools

Tiziana Guzzo; Maria Chiara Caschera; Fernando Ferri (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Sustainability
During the COVID-19 pandemic, educational institutions around the world were forced to move from face-to-face lessons to distance learning. The application of distance learning fostered the use of new tools and applications that impacted the school system and produced several challenges to be addressed. This paper provides an analysis of distance learning tools that have been used during COVID-19 in Italian schools and the related emerging needs and challenges. A quantitative survey was carried out by using a standardized online questionnaire that involved 420 Italian teachers of different ages, gender, and teaching areas. This survey collected information about experiences, opportunities, and challenges of distance learning, used tools, and students’ inclusion and involvement. In addition, this work analyses emerging technologies and how they can be integrated into distance learning tools to overcome the identified challenges.
Visibility and well-being in school environments: children's reflections on the "New normal" of teaching and learning during the Covid-19 pandemic

Susann Fegter; Miriam Kost

Published: January 2023   Journal: International Journal on Child Maltreatment: Research, Policy and Practice
This paper aims to contribute to the theory on school-related well-being by applying a qualitative approach that focuses on children’s experiences during the Covid-19 pandemic and conceptualizes them as an epistemic opportunity to reconstruct aspects of school-related well-being from children’s perspectives. Within the framework of the multinational qualitative study Children’s Understandings of Well-being (CUWB), it conceptualizes well-being as a cultural construct and argues for including children’s voices in the process of knowledge production. By drawing on statements from online interviews with 11- to 14-year-old children from Berlin, Germany in spring 2021 during school lockdown and by using a discourse analytical approach, the paper outlines the findings on visibility as a central feature of well-being in school environments that children make relevant for experiences of agency, security, and self.
Parents' perspectives on distance learning mathematics during the COVID-19 pandemic: a phenomenological study in Indonesia

Muhamad Galang Isnawan; Azis ; Essa Eqal Almazroei

Published: January 2023   Journal: European Journal of Educational Research
‘Panic-gogy’ is a term that describes the educational situation during the pandemic due to the transformation phenomenon from face-to-face learning to distance learning. Various types of research are used to uncover the constraints of this phenomenon, but not many researchers use phenomenological studies with parents as participants. Therefore, we used a phenomenological study to describe parents’ views on the constraints, expectations, and approvals regarding the preparation of distance learning modules at the junior high school level (aged 13-15 years). Data collection was carried out using semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using NVivo-12-assisted thematic analysis.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents: an opportunity to build resilient systems

Erum Nadeem; Anna R. Van Meter

Published: January 2023   Journal: American Journal of Health Promotion
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents is significant. Educational progress and mental health, in particular, have been negatively affected. Among youth from vulnerable communities, pre-existing academic and health disparities have been exacerbated. Youth outcomes are often attributed to individual resilience – or lack thereof; this paper describes how failure to adapt and effectively cope at the system level (ie, lack of system resilience) is implicated in the current dual educational and mental crisis. It describes opportunities to make our systems more nimble and better-equipped to support youth moving forward.
Inclusive education for exceptional children in Egypt and the US: reforming Egyptian inclusive education system in post-pandemic world

Noha Abbas

Published: January 2023   Journal: Gulf Education and Social Policy Review
Inclusive education means that exceptional children (EC) can fully participate in the learning process alongside their typically developing peers, supported by reasonable accommodations and teaching strategies that are tailored to meet their individual needs. The main goal of inclusion policies for EC is to provide high-quality education for all without discrimination and to ensure the implementation of equal opportunity principles. The primary purpose of this study is to explore the reality of inclusive education systems in Egypt and the United States (US) and to develop a better understanding of similarities and differences and thus identify the lessons learned. The study applied a comparative analysis method.
Pakistani and Bangladeshi heritage mothers' provision of primary education to their children in England during COVID-19: recommendations for involving mothers in policy decision-making processes

Aliya Khalid; Lavinia Kamphausen; Kate Spencer-Bennett

Published: January 2023   Journal: Routledge Open Research
During COVID-19, children have suffered learning losses across the world which will likely be carried forward to the future. In England, research and various reports were conducted to understand the extent of learning loss so policy could be improved for a more equitable educational provision. Two key areas were highlighted because of these investigations. Firstly, children in marginalised communities suffered the greatest share of educational disadvantages during COVID-19. Secondly, there is a scarcity of knowledge around the processes surrounding educational environments of learners. This study focused on mothers as partners and facilitators of education especially during COVID-19. Interviews were conducted with eight mothers in England with Pakistani and Bangladeshi heritage exploring their experiences of educating their primary school-aged children during COVID-19.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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