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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Early pandemic impacts on family environments that shape childhood development and health: a Canadian Study

AUTHOR(S)
Jessie-Lee D. McIsaac; De-Lawrence Lamptey; Jane Harley (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Child

Changes to income and employment are key social determinants of health that have impacted many families during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research aimed to understand how changes to employment and income influenced family environments that contribute to early childhood development and health. A concurrent triangulation mixed method design was used through a cross-sectional survey on early impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic involving families with young children in the Canadian Maritime provinces (n = 2158). Analyses included multivariate regression models to examine whether changes to employment and income predicted changes to Family access to resources and social support, parenting Abilities and self-care at home, and home Routines and Environments (FARE Change Scale). Content analysis was used to identify themes from the open-ended questions.

Global employment trends for youth 2022: investing in transforming futures for young people
Institution: International Labour Organisation
Published: August 2022

The COVID‑19 crisis exacerbated the numerous labour market challenges generally faced by young people. Between 2019 and 2020, those aged between 15 and 24 years experienced a much higher percentage loss in employment than adults (defined as those aged 25 years and above). Many of them dropped out of the labour force, or failed to enter it altogether, owing to the enormous difficulty of searching for and securing a job at a time when lockdowns and confinement measures were being imposed by many governments and employers suffered massive losses in revenue as a result of business closures. Moreover, steep drops in family income and the switch to distance learning by educational institutions rendered the pursuit of education and training more arduous for many. Consequently, the already high number of young people not in employment, education or training (NEET) rose even further in 2020.

The Covid-19 pandemic and gendered division of paid work, domestic chores and leisure: evidence from India’s first wave

AUTHOR(S)
Ashwini Deshpande

Published: July 2022   Journal: Economia Politica
Examining high frequency national-level panel data from Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) on paid work (employment) and unpaid work (time spent on domestic work), this paper examines the effects of the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic on the gender gaps in paid and unpaid work until December 2020, using difference-in-differences (D-I-D) for estimating the before (the pandemic) and after (the pandemic set in) effects, and event study estimates around the strict national lockdown in April 2020. The DID estimates reveal a lowering of the gender gap in employment probabilities which occurs due to the lower probability of male employment, rather than an increase in female employment.
Primary school reopenings and parental work

AUTHOR(S)
Pierre-Loup Beauregard; Marie Connolly; Catherine Haeck (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Canadian Journal of Economics
This paper exploits the geographical pattern of primary school reopenings during the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada to estimate the impact of school reopenings on parental employment and work hours. It uses a triple-difference approach, in which it first compares parents of primary-school children in regions where schools reopened to similar parents in regions where schools remained closed and add parents of older, secondary-school children as an additional control group. This study estimates the impact of school reopenings separately for mothers and fathers, and for single parents and parents living in dual-parent households.
What do you want to be: youth aspirations in the time of the COVID-19 crisis: evidence from three Sub-Saharan countries

AUTHOR(S)
Valentina Costa; Ivette Maria Contreras Gonzalez; Amparo Palacios-Lopez (et al.)

Institution: The World Bank
Published: January 2022
Understanding the aspirations and goals of the youth is essential to developing effective employment policies. Policies should be designed to allow educational and professional aspirations of young people to align with pathways to achieving them. The data collected is nationally representative and age distribution is similar across countries. Recent surveys on youth or sub-populations of youth have included questions to capture career aspirations and life goals in the time of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis. Incorporating the youth aspirations and employment module for High Frequency Phone Surveys (HFPS) into multitopic household surveys has several advantages. In conclusion, measuring youth aspirations helps shed light on the possible employment outcomes that can be observed in adulthood and play a role in breaking poverty circles, which is highly relevant for public policy.
Minimum quality regulations and the demand for child care labor

AUTHOR(S)
Umair Ali; Chris M. Herbst; Christos A. Makridis

Published: August 2021
Minimum quality regulations are often justified in the child care market because of the presence of information frictions between parents and providers. However, regulations can also have unintended consequences for the quantity and quality of services provided. This paper merges new data on states’ child care regulations for maximum classroom group sizes and child-to-staff ratios with the universe of online job postings to study the impact of regulations on the demand for and characteristics of child care labor.
Young people between education and the labour market during the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy

AUTHOR(S)
Davide Fiaschi; Cristina Tealdi

Published: June 2021
This research analyses the distribution and the flows between different types of employment (self-employment, temporary, and permanent), unemployment, education, and other types of inactivity, with particular focus on the duration of the school-to-work transition (STWT). The aim is to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy on the careers of individuals aged 15-34.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.