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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Masking for school-age children with epilepsy: we do have consensus!: masking for children with epilepsy

AUTHOR(S)
Anthony I. Fine; Lily C. Wong-Kisiel; Katherine C. Nickels (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of child neurology

This study was designed to assess current recommendations from child neurologists and epileptologists on masking for school-age children with epilepsy. A 7-item survey was created and sent out to members of the Child Neurology Society and Pediatric Epilepsy Research Consortium in August of 2021 to assess current practice and provider recommendations on masking.

Association between mask wearing and anxiety symptoms during the outbreak of COVID 19: a large survey among 386,432 junior and senior high school students in China

AUTHOR(S)
Qingqing Xu; Zhenxing Mao; Dandan Wei (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Psychosomatic Research

This study aims to evaluate the association between mask wearing practice and the risk of anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 epidemic among Chinese students aged 12–18 years old. Totally, 386,432 junior and senior high school students were recruited using a cluster sampling method across three cities of Henan Province in China during February 4–12, 2020. Mask wearing practice was defined according to its type and the behavior exhibited in relation to wearing a mask. Presence of anxiety symptoms was determined by Generalized Anxiety Disorder tool (GAD-7). Multiple logistic regression was performed to estimate the association between mask wearing and anxiety symptoms.

Children and parents' preferences about the appearance of dentists with respect to personal protective equipment in pediatric dentistry

AUTHOR(S)
Ipek Arslan; Sema Aydinoğlu

Published: December 2021   Journal: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry

Personal protective equipment (PPE) gained importance during the COVID-19 pandemic, which is a global hot topic for all healthcare staff. This study aims to assess children and parents preferences about dentists’ appearance concerning their PPE and to determine the relationship between the preferences of the children and their parents. A total of 250 children aged 6-12 years and their parents were enrolled in the study. Standardised pictures with different sexes, attires, eye protectors, hair protectors, masks and gloves were shown to children and their parents separately and they were asked to chose their preferences. The dental anxiety of the children and their parents were determined using the MCDASf and MDAS, respectively. Decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) indices were employed for the children.

Prospective pilot study evaluating SARS-CoV-2 transmission-limiting measures in an on-site school

AUTHOR(S)
Shilpa G. Jani; Jasmin Ma; Uma Pulendran (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Academic Pediatrics

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of a comprehensive set of preventive measures in limiting secondary transmission of COVID-19 in schools. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 transmission in an independent K-8 school in San Mateo County, California. The research was conducted between September 14, 2020 through March 22, 2021 and consisted of: (1) demographic and epidemiological questionnaires; (2) daily symptom reporting; (3) weekly RT-PCR testing; and (4) periodic on-site qualitative observations.

Assessment of respiratory function in children wearing a N95 mask with or without an exhalation valve: data compared

AUTHOR(S)
Riccardo Lubrano; Silvia Bloise; Alessia Marcellino (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Data in Brief

In response to the current COVID-19 pandemic, universal face masking represents one of the most important strategies to limit the spread of infection. However, their use in children is still highly debated (Esposito and Principi, 2020; Esposito et al., 2020) and there are few data (Lubrano et al., 2021a, 2021b) describing their possible effects on respiratory function in children. A dataset in this paper presents a comparison of the data related to the effects on respiratory function of children wearing a filtering facepiece 2 (N95 mask) with or without exhalation valve. 22 healthy children were randomly assigned to two groups, both groups wearing an N95 mask: one without an exhalation valve (group A), another with an exhalation valve (group B).

Dynamic masking: a proposal of burden-based metrics for masking in K-12 schools during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Leah C. Rowland; Martin D. Klinkhammer; Dana W .E. Ramirez

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of School Health

Ongoing masking of K-12 children has not been universally accepted despite recommendation from public health authorities. In states without universal mask mandates for schools, district administrators are forced to make masking decisions under significant local political pressures. There is a call for endpoints to masking to allow communities to tailor mitigation while keeping schools safe, focusing on harm reduction. This study reviewed existing measures for the safe opening of schools and designed a stepwise, accessible approach to the removal of masks in the K-12 setting.

Community attachments are associated with COVID-19 public health behaviors among adolescents in Pakistan

AUTHOR(S)
Faiza Nisar; Sadaf Zeb; Benjamin Oosterhoff (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Child & Youth Care Forum

Community attachments are thought to promote adolescents’ engagement in public health behaviors. To date, past research has exclusively examined the social benefits of community attachments among adolescents in the United States and less is known about these benefits among youth in low-income adolescent-dense countries such as Pakistan. The present study examined associations between Pakistani adolescents’ community attachments and COVID-19 public health behaviors, including social distancing, disinfecting, hoarding, news monitoring. Adolescents living in Pakistan (N = 1,110; 13–18 years; M = 16.70) reported on their COVID-19 public health behavior (social distancing, disinfecting behaviors, hoarding behaviors, news monitoring) and community attachments (social responsibility values, social trust, self-interest values).

Evaluation of a graduated exposure procedure to teach extended mask wearing in various settings to children with autism

AUTHOR(S)
Hallie M. Ertel; David A. Wilder; Ansley C. Hodges

Published: October 2021   Journal: Behavior Modification
During the COVID-19 outbreak, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) recommended that everyone 2 years and older wear a face mask while in a community setting. However, children with autism may be reluctant to wear a mask, particularly for extended durations. The current study implemented a graduated exposure procedure to teach mask wearing for a minimum of 1 hour in an early intensive behavioral (EIBI) intervention clinic to three children diagnosed with autism. It subsequently probed mask wearing, and if necessary implemented the graduated exposure procedure, in each participant’s home and in a mock physician’s office. Finally, it collected probe data on mask wearing in another community setting and 1 month post-treatment maintenance data in the EIBI clinic. During baseline, participants wore masks for 0 second to 5 minutes. After treatment, all participants wore the mask for at least 1 hour in each setting, with maintenance probes indicating 4 to 5 hour mask tolerance.
Hand hygiene and mask-wearing behaviors and related factors during COVID 19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study in students

AUTHOR(S)
Gülsün Ayran; Semra Köse; Arzu Sarıalioğlu (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing

The research was conducted to determine the hand hygiene and mask-wearing behaviors and related factors of secondary school students in the COVID-19 pandemic process. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between March 02–April 022021 with 1284 students who continued their secondary education in a province in the east of Turkey. The data were collected face-to-face through the Descriptive Characteristics Form, the Mask-Wearing Behavior Form, and the Hand Hygiene Behavior Form. Percentage, mean, t-test in independent groups, Mann Whitney U test and Multiple Regression analysis were used in the evaluation of the data. Ethical principles were observed at all stages of the study.

School parks as a community health resource: use of joint-use parks by children before and during COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Kevin Lanza; Casey P. Durand; Melody Alcazar (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research of Public Health
Parks are settings for physical activity that can support the physical and mental health of children during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study determined the impact of the pandemic on the use of joint-use parks outside of school hours by children in Austin, TX, United States. In autumn of 2019 and autumn of 2020 (i.e., before and during the COVID-19 pandemic), an adapted version of the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities was used to observe whether children aged 1–12 participated in physical activity (i.e., sedentary, light and moderate, vigorous) at three parks located at schools serving mostly economically disadvantaged Latinx families. In 2020, it was also observed whether children maintained social distance and wore face coverings.
Parent-for-child mask behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada and the United States: an investigation of attitudes, norms, and perceived control using the theory of planned behavior

AUTHOR(S)
Adina Coroiu; Chelsea Moran; Brittany L. Lindsay (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Preventive Medicine Reports
Face masks continue to be a necessity until a large proportion of the population, including children, receive immunizations for COVID-19. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parental attitudes and beliefs about masks and parent-for-child mask behavior using the Theory of Planned Behavior. A survey was administered in August 2020 to parents of school-aged children residing in the United States and Canada. Measures included sociodemographic variables for the parent and child, attitudes, norms, perceived control over children’s mask use, intentions and enforcement of mask wearing among children (also titled “parent-for-child mask behavior”).
Are COVID-19 mitigation measures reducing preterm birth rate in China?
Published: August 2021   Journal: BMJ Global Health

Preterm birth is the leading cause of child morbidity and mortality globally. We aimed to determine the impact of the COVID-19 mitigation measures implemented in China on 23 January 2020 on the incidence of preterm birth in our institution. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between the national COVID-19 mitigation measures implemented in China and the incidence of preterm birth.

The roles of life stress and preventive health behaviors on parent mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Cindy H. Liu; Patricia A. Smiley; Jessica M. Vicman (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Health Psychology
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted millions of lives, with life stress and daily hassles having a potential impact on parent mental health. This study examined whether preventive health behaviors (e.g. social distancing, mask wearing) and social support relate to parent mental health. In a cross-sectional analysis of parents (N = 176, May–September 2020), life events and daily hassles were positively associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Preventive health behaviors moderated the association between daily hassles and depressive symptoms. Preventive health behaviors may protect those with high levels of daily hassles from moderate levels of depression.
Adherence to masking requirement during the COVID-19 pandemic by early elementary school children

AUTHOR(S)
Geoffrey E. Mickells; Janet Figueroa; Kelly Withers West (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of School Health

Top public health experts and organizations strongly recommend universal masking for children older than 2 years old during the COVID-19 pandemic, but speculate it may be difficult for young children. This study sought to assess the usage of cloth face masks in grades pre-K-2 and identify associated characteristics and adverse events. It is the first data to assess mask wearing by young children in school. This online, prospective, observational, survey in multiple schools within a single school district in a major metropolitan area measured adherence to face covering mandates by students in grades pre-K-2 as measured by percentage of day with appropriate face mask wearing per report via daily teacher surveys for the first 4 weeks of school.

The impact of personal protective equipment and social distancing on communication and relation between nurses, caregivers and children: a descriptive qualitative study in a maternal and child health hospital

AUTHOR(S)
Giada Ferrari; Raffaella Dobrina; Sara Buchini (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of Clinical Nursing

The main objective was to explore the impact of personal protective equipment and social distancing on nurses, caregivers and children's communication and relationship in a maternal and child health hospital. The spread of COVID-19 pandemic made it necessary to apply infection prevention and control measures, including interpersonal distancing and the use of personal protective equipment. These measures may impact communication and relationship between nurses, patients and caregivers especially in a complex environment, such as a paediatric setting.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.