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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Parent-for-child mask behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada and the United States: an investigation of attitudes, norms, and perceived control using the theory of planned behavior

AUTHOR(S)
Adina Coroiu; Chelsea Moran; Brittany L. Lindsay (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Preventive Medicine Reports
Face masks continue to be a necessity until a large proportion of the population, including children, receive immunizations for COVID-19. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parental attitudes and beliefs about masks and parent-for-child mask behavior using the Theory of Planned Behavior. A survey was administered in August 2020 to parents of school-aged children residing in the United States and Canada. Measures included sociodemographic variables for the parent and child, attitudes, norms, perceived control over children’s mask use, intentions and enforcement of mask wearing among children (also titled “parent-for-child mask behavior”).
Are COVID-19 mitigation measures reducing preterm birth rate in China?
Published: August 2021   Journal: BMJ Global Health

Preterm birth is the leading cause of child morbidity and mortality globally. We aimed to determine the impact of the COVID-19 mitigation measures implemented in China on 23 January 2020 on the incidence of preterm birth in our institution. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between the national COVID-19 mitigation measures implemented in China and the incidence of preterm birth.

The roles of life stress and preventive health behaviors on parent mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Cindy H. Liu; Patricia A. Smiley; Jessica M. Vicman (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Health Psychology
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted millions of lives, with life stress and daily hassles having a potential impact on parent mental health. This study examined whether preventive health behaviors (e.g. social distancing, mask wearing) and social support relate to parent mental health. In a cross-sectional analysis of parents (N = 176, May–September 2020), life events and daily hassles were positively associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Preventive health behaviors moderated the association between daily hassles and depressive symptoms. Preventive health behaviors may protect those with high levels of daily hassles from moderate levels of depression.
Adherence to masking requirement during the COVID-19 pandemic by early elementary school children

AUTHOR(S)
Geoffrey E. Mickells; Janet Figueroa; Kelly Withers West (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of School Health

Top public health experts and organizations strongly recommend universal masking for children older than 2 years old during the COVID-19 pandemic, but speculate it may be difficult for young children. This study sought to assess the usage of cloth face masks in grades pre-K-2 and identify associated characteristics and adverse events. It is the first data to assess mask wearing by young children in school. This online, prospective, observational, survey in multiple schools within a single school district in a major metropolitan area measured adherence to face covering mandates by students in grades pre-K-2 as measured by percentage of day with appropriate face mask wearing per report via daily teacher surveys for the first 4 weeks of school.

The impact of personal protective equipment and social distancing on communication and relation between nurses, caregivers and children: a descriptive qualitative study in a maternal and child health hospital

AUTHOR(S)
Giada Ferrari; Raffaella Dobrina; Sara Buchini (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of Clinical Nursing

The main objective was to explore the impact of personal protective equipment and social distancing on nurses, caregivers and children's communication and relationship in a maternal and child health hospital. The spread of COVID-19 pandemic made it necessary to apply infection prevention and control measures, including interpersonal distancing and the use of personal protective equipment. These measures may impact communication and relationship between nurses, patients and caregivers especially in a complex environment, such as a paediatric setting.

Impacts of blood gas concentration, heart rate, emotional state, and memory in school's age children with and without the use of facial coverings in school during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Jenna Smith; Airianna Culler; Kelsey Scanlon

Published: May 2021   Journal: The FASEB Journal
Although researchers from hospitals, universities, and government agencies have concluded that facial coverings (masks) could be one of the most cost-effective tools to slow the spread of COVID-19 and accelerate economic recovery (Greenhalgh et al., 2020), parental concern for elementary school children wearing masks is still an issue. Face masks can cause discomfort which may lead to general irritation resulting in potential anxiety and subsequent distraction from instructional material delivered in a school setting (Lee et al., 2005). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of wearing a facial covering and the impacts on memory, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and emotional state on a 5-point Likert scale (Buron & Curtis, 2003) throughout 30 minutes of regularly scheduled academic content in students grades K-5.
Views on COVID-19 and use of face coverings among U.S. youth

AUTHOR(S)
Melissa DeJonckheere; Marika Waselewski; Xochitl Amaro (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

Little is known about the views of U.S. youth on COVID-19 or their use of face coverings. Closing this gap could facilitate messaging to promote COVID-19 risk mitigation behaviors. In July 2020, a five-question text message survey was sent to 1,087 youth aged 14–24 years. Questions assessed youths' perceptions regarding the likelihood of contracting COVID-19, the potential impact of contracting COVID-19 on their lives, the possibility of spreading COVID-19 to others, and their use of face coverings around others with whom they do not live. Coding was conducted to assign responses to discrete categories and to identify common themes.

Modelling the potential impact of mask use in schools and society on COVID-19 control in the UK

AUTHOR(S)
J. Panovska-Griffiths; C. C. Kerr; W. Waites (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports
As the UK reopened after the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic, crucial questions emerged around the role for ongoing interventions, including test-trace-isolate (TTI) strategies and mandatory masks. This study assessed the importance of masks in secondary schools by evaluating their impact over September 1–October 23, 2020. It showed that, assuming TTI levels from August 2020 and no fundamental changes in the virus’s transmissibility, adoption of masks in secondary schools would have reduced the predicted size of a second wave, but preventing it would have required 68% or 46% of those with symptoms to seek testing (assuming masks’ effective coverage 15% or 30% respectively). With masks in community settings but not secondary schools, the required testing rates increase to 76% and 57%.
Implementation of preventive measures to prevent COVID-19: a national study of English primary schools in summer 2020

AUTHOR(S)
Neisha Sundaram; Chris Bonell; Shamez Ladhani (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Health Education Research
This study examined the feasibility of implementing preventive measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission across 105 English primary schools in summer 2020 via a survey and interviews with headteachers. High rates of implementation of most recommended measures were noted with the exception of requiring 2 m distance for students, fitting hand sanitizers in classrooms and introducing one-way systems in school corridors. Measures such as regular handwashing and stopping assemblies were considered easy to implement. Majorly challenging measures included distancing between individuals (for students: 51%, N ¼ 99; for staff: 34%; N ¼ 98; for parents: 26%, N ¼ 100), spacing out desks (34%, N ¼ 99), keeping same staff assigned to each student group (33%, N¼ 97) and staggering break times (25%, N¼ 99).
Problematic internet-related behaviors mediate the associations between levels of internet engagement and distress among schoolchildren during COVID-19 lockdown: a longitudinal structural equation modeling study

AUTHOR(S)
I-Hua Chen; Chao-Ying Chen; Amir H. Pakpour (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Due to the rapid spread of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), policies based on the nature of “spatial distancing” have been implemented and have resulted in school suspensions and online learning among schoolchildren. In order to examine the impact of such policies on schoolchildren, the aims of the present study were to (i) assess changes in the level of engagement in three internet-related activities (smartphone use, social media use, and gaming) before and during the COVID-19 outbreak, including prolonged and problematic engagement in these activities; (ii) investigate the differences of psychological distress before and after COVID-19 outbreak; and (iii) to use structural equation modeling to investigate the mediating roles of problematic internet-related behaviors in the causal relationships of psychological distress and time spent on internet-related activities.
COVID-19: knowledge of mode of spread and preventive practices among college adolescents in Nigeria

AUTHOR(S)
Ann E. Aronu; Awoere T. Chinawa; Edmund N. Ossai (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics

Corona virus pandemic (COVID 19) has emerged as the single most important topical issue and poses a challenge to medicine. Adolescent school children are exposed to a varying degree. The study is aimed to determine the knowledge of the mode of spread and preventive practices among college adolescents attending six secondary schools in Enugu metropolis.

School in Italy: a safe place for children and adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Alberto Villani; Luana Coltella; Stefania Ranno

Published: January 2021   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
During the first SARS-CoV-2 pandemic phase, the sudden closure of schools was one of the main measures to minimize the spread of the virus. In the second phase, several safety procedures were implemented to avoid school closure. To evaluate if the school is a safe place, students and staff of two school complexes of Rome were monitored to evaluate the efficacy of prevention measures inside the school buildings.
Comprehensive and safe school strategy during COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Susanna Esposito; Nicola Cotugno; Nicola Principi

Published: January 2021   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Although several studies have tried to evaluate the real efficacy of school closure for pandemic control over time, no definitive answer to this question has been given. Moreover, it has not been clarified whether children or teenagers could be considered a problem for SARS-CoV-2 diffusion or, on the contrary, whether parents and school workers play a greater role. The aims of this review are to discuss about children’s safety at school and the better strategies currently able to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection at school.
COVID-19 awareness, adoption of COVID-19 preventive measures, and effects of COVID-19 lockdown among adolescent boys and young men in Kampala, Uganda

AUTHOR(S)
Joseph K. B. Matovu; Stephen N. Kabwama; Tonny Ssekamatte (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Journal of Community Health
There is growing evidence of the challenges with adherence to COVID-19 prevention measures and the effect of the prevention measures on the health of populations in various parts of the world but with limited documentation in sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed COVID-19 awareness, adoption of COVID-19 prevention measures, and the effects of COVID-19 lockdown on the mental health status, socio-economic disruptions and engagement in unhealthy behaviours among 2500 in- and out-of-school adolescent boys and young men (ABYM) aged 10–24 years in Kampala, Uganda.
Korean mothers’ morality in the wake of COVID-19 contact-tracing surveillance

AUTHOR(S)
Eun-Sung Kim; Ji-Bum Chung

Published: January 2021   Journal: Social Science & Medicine
The Korean government collects and releases sociodemographic information about people infected with COVID-19, their travel histories, and whether or not the patients wore masks. Korean mothers then upload this information on the boards of online groups called “mom cafes.” Based upon a digital ethnography of 15 “mom cafes,” this article examines how Korean mothers understand the travel histories of virus patients and explore the relationships between morality and materiality in the context of infectious disease surveillance.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.