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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 55
Financial and work burden, psychosocial functioning, and family interactions during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia: effects on child outcomes

AUTHOR(S)
Yulina Eva Riany; Alina Morawska

Published: September 2021   Journal: Child Psychiatry & Human Development
The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected all aspects of family life worldwide. This study aimed to examine the effects of several family factors on child outcomes during the pandemic in Indonesia, a country with approximately 260 million people. A range of child maladjustment and child competency variables were examined, along with a set of associated variables, including family income, psychosocial functioning, and family interactions, which were modelled via Structural Equation Modelling to understand the interrelationships between variables associated with child adjustment. Using an online survey, a total of 354 parents with at least one typically developing child between the age of 2 and 10 years participated in this study.
The negative impact of noise on adolescents’ executive function: an online study in the context of home-learning during a pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Brittney Chere; Natasha Kirkham

Published: September 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
UNICEF estimates that 1.6 billion children across the world have had their education impacted by COVID-19 and have attempted to continue their learning at home. With ample evidence showing a negative impact of noise on academic achievement within schools, the current pre-registered study set out to determine what aspects of the home environment might be affecting these students. Adolescents aged 11–18 took part online, with 129 adolescents included after passing a headphone screening task. They filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire, followed by a home environment and noise questionnaire. Participants then completed three executive function tasks (the Flanker, the Backward Digit Span, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test) while listening to a soundtrack of either white noise or home-like environmental noise. For purposes of analysis, based on the noise questionnaire, participants were separated into quieter and noisier homes.
"Life in Lockdown child and adolescent mental health and well-being in the time of COVID-19"

AUTHOR(S)
Priscilla Idele; Prerna Banati; David Anthony (et al.)

Institution: *UNICEF
Published: September 2021

COVID-19 lockdowns have significantly disrupted the daily lives of children and adolescents, with increased time at home, online learning and limited physical social interaction. This report seeks to understand the immediate effects on their mental health. Covering more than 130,000 children and adolescents across 22 countries, the evidence shows increased stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as increased alcohol and substance use, and  externalizing behavioural problems. Children and adolescents also reported positive coping strategies, resilience, social connectedness through digital media, more family time, and relief from academic stress. Factors such as demographics, relationships and pre-existing conditions are critical.

Language use of Russian Roma children in their home environments during the COVID 19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Hristo Kyuchukov

Published: September 2021   Journal: Intercultural Education
The paper presents results from a fieldwork study with Russian Roma children. Two groups of children, 6–8 years and 8–10 years old, were involved in the study. Before the pandemic crisis began in Russia, a large number of Roma children were kept home by the parents. The study was conducted in a Roma settlement of a small town not so far from Moscow, and the author was living with the Roma family for a week. Using an ethnographic approach, he observed the communication between children and adults, children and siblings, children and neighbours. The ROMLAT test was used to measure the knowledge of Roma children regarding different grammatical categories from their mother tongue. The Roma oral tradition served among the community as a factor stimulating the language development of the children and maintaining their Romani.
Kalayaan, katurungan, karangalan and kapwa: a provisional exploration of children’s responses to the Covid-19 pandemic through Philippine virtue ethics

AUTHOR(S)
Noah Romero

Published: September 2021   Journal: Pastoral Care in Education
This article presents a qualitative study in which families recorded themselves reading a child-friendly book about a bear in lockdown and combines ethnographic and autoethnographic methods to examine the reactions of home educated and traditionally schooled children during Aotearoa New Zealand’s Covid-19 lockdowns. This research theorizes data sourced from family reading sessions through the writings of Philippine psychologist Virgilio Enriquez and the indigenous Philippine concepts of kalayaan (relational autonomy), katurungan (justice), karangalan (self-respect) and kapwa (shared inner identity). In so doing, it looks to subjugated knowledge, home education, and children themselves to consider the epistemological and ontological possibilities intimated in interactions rooted in a heightened sense of responsibility and care.
COVID-19 life events spill-over on family functioning and adolescent adjustment

AUTHOR(S)
Andrea M. Hussong; Allegra J. Midgette; Adrianna N. Richards (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: The Journal of Early Adolescence
This study examined US parent and youth perceptions of how life events, both positive and negative, associated with COVID-19 resulted in changes in family and youth functioning. Families (n = 105, 80% white, 48% male, and 87% mothers) completed surveys during the pandemic (May to July 2020) and 3 years prior (for youth ages M = 10.6, SD = 1.17 and M = 13.6, SD = 1.19). Declines in youth, though not parent, report of open family communication, parental support, and family satisfaction were found. Declines were associated with various domains of pandemic-related stress in parent report, though positive life events served as buffers. Pre-pandemic family functioning also predicted pandemic stress. Spillover effects in turn impacted youth functioning. The current findings shed light on how experiences of the pandemic are linked with family functioning and have implications for how to support families during this time.
Perceived changes in family life during COVID-19: the role of family size

AUTHOR(S)
Elena Canzi; Francesca V. Danioni; Miriam Parise (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Family Relations

The current study was aimed at exploring Italian parents' perceived negative and positive changes in family life during the COVID-19 pandemic, taking into account the role of the stage of the family life and family size. During the emergency of the COVID-19 pandemic, millions of families drastically changed their daily life and routines. Little evidence exists on how family characteristics, such as family size or presence of children, are related to families' experience of family change. A large sample of 1,407 Italian parents (70.1% mothers) filled in an anonymous online survey during the third week of the lockdown period (between March 30 and April 7, 2020).

Gamification and family leisure to alleviate the psychological impact of confinement due to COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Ana Manzano-León; José Miguel Rodríguez-Ferrer; José Manuel Aguilar-Parra (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Children & Society
This study presents a quasi-experimental longitudinal mixed-methods research about the participation in leisure activities, physical activity, and games, as part of the family leisure programme (“Lunae Magic School”) for Spanish families with children under 12 years old during COVID-19 lockdown. The impact on parents and their perception of the psychological well-being of their children is evaluated. The results show that leisure activities reduce the parent's anxiety levels measured with STAI scale (p = .0001) and their perception of the physical and emotional discomfort of their children, measured with PSC scale (p < .0001). It is qualitatively argued that despite the confinement situation, the gamification, the variety of activities and the fact of being able to enjoy quality time with the family have allowed the creation of spaces of fun and flow. Therefore, although the findings on the importance of family leisure were encouraging, more research is needed on the implementation of similar programmes.
Contrasts and ambivalences in French parents’ experiences regarding changes in eating and cooking behaviours during the COVID-19 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Kaat Philippe; Sylvie Issanchou; Sandrine Monnery-Patris

Published: September 2021   Journal: Food Quality and Preference
Using open-ended questions, this study explored parents’ experiences regarding changes in their family’s food-related behaviours during the first COVID-19 lockdown in France (March-May 2020). Parents (N=498, 72% mothers) of children aged 3-12 years described which food-related changes they (1) perceived as positive during the lockdown, (2) perceived as negative, and (3) would like to maintain after the lockdown. A thematic analysis revealed that parents appreciated the choice of more local, fresh foods, the time to prepare food (home-made dishes, new recipes) and cooking and eating together with the family. In contrast, some parents highlighted a burden imposed by the increased food preparation at home. They also described a higher intake of unhealthy, palatable food (or the temptation to do so), and weight concerns. Parents would like to maintain their choice of local, fresh foods, and to continue spending more time together around food but doubt the feasibility after the lockdown. The results revealed many inter- and intra-individual contrasts in parents’ answers. An ambivalent attitude toward food pleasure was demonstrated: the sensory/commensal pleasure of eating versus the concerns about an increased intake of pleasurable food. Additionally, gender differences were observed: mothers perceived the preparation of additional meals, for example, more often as a burden than fathers. This study revealed intimate perceptions of the impact of the lockdown on eating habits in families. They give insight into possible facilitators and barriers (e.g., time) for the adoption of recommended eating and cooking behaviours in families, beyond the pandemic.
Effects of Covid-19 lockdown on parental functioning in vulnerable families

AUTHOR(S)
Maren Sand Helland; Torkild Hovde Lyngstad; Tonje Holt (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Marriage and Family

The aim of this study was to increase the knowledge about how the initial Covid-19 lockdown influenced parental functioning in vulnerable families. The Covid-19 pandemic has caused major changes to family life. Using a natural experiment design can potentially adjudicate on former inconclusive findings about the effects of lockdown on parental functioning in vulnerable families. Responses from parents in a sample of potentially vulnerable families in Norway were divided into a lockdown group if participating at baseline and during the initial Covid-19 lockdown (n = 820 responses) or into a control group if participating at baseline and before lockdown (n = 1368 responses). Mixed model regression analyses were used to mimic a wait-list design investigating direct lockdown effects on mental health, parenting stress, and three aspects of interparental conflicts, as well as moderation effects.

Symbiotic harms of imprisonment and the effect on children’s right to family life

AUTHOR(S)
Shona Minson; Catherine Flynn

Published: June 2021   Journal: The International Journal of Children's Rights
Measures taken by governments to address covid-19 in prisons, have impacted significantly on the lives and rights of children. There has been consequential interference with children’s rights to family life and to contact with a parent from whom they have been separated. Since the onset of the pandemic, prisoners in many jurisdictions have lived under restricted regimes with almost universal bans on family visits. Children have not had face-to-face contact with their imprisoned parents, and alternate forms of contact have not always been available to them. Using survey and interview data collected during lockdowns in the UK and Australia, we consider the implications of the interference with the rights of children with an imprisoned parent. Focusing on their relationships, health and wellbeing and using the concept of symbiotic harms, we note how children’s experiences of the cessation of contact interacted with parents’ and caregivers’ experiences, amplifying the harms to children.
From the pandemic to the pan: the impact of COVID19 on parental inclusion of children in cooking activities – a cross-continental survey

AUTHOR(S)
Tony Benson; Blain Murphy; Amanda McCloat (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Public Health Nutrition

This study aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on time spent cooking and parental inclusion of children in cooking. A secondary aim was to investigate differences between those who frequently included their children in cooking activities during the COVID-19 pandemic and those that included their children less, on a number of factors such as working from home, parents’ diet quality and cooking skills confidence. Cross-continental survey with Wilcoxon signed ranks, Independent t-tests, Mann Whitney-U, Chi2, and a binomial logistic regression used for assessment.

Gender intersectionality and family separation, alternative care and the reintegration of children
Institution: Save the Children
Published: May 2021
Family Care First (FCF) and Responsive and Effective Child Welfare Systems Transformation (REACT), facilitated by Save the Children, is a multi-donor supported network of organizations working together to support children to live in safe, nurturing family-based care. FCF|REACT works collaboratively with the government, local and international NGOs, academic institutions and UN agencies, to promote and strengthen family-based care. With approximately 60 member organizations, some of whom are funded, FCF|REACT is working to prevent children from being separated from their families and increase the number of children that are safely and successfully integrated into family care. A key element of FCF|REACT is integrating learnings from good practice research into interventions. Given the lack of previous studies covering gender intersectionality for vulnerable children in Cambodia, FCF|REACT is trying to understand the effects of gender, identity, and institutional practices on the well-being of children in alternative care.
Consensually nonmonogamous parent relationships during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Melissa H. Manley; Abbie E. Goldberg

Published: May 2021   Journal: Sexualities
During the COVID-19 pandemic, parents in consensually nonmonogamous (CNM) relationships navigated public health directives to social distance and avoid contact between households. Many parents practicing CNM share romantic, sexual, and coparenting relationships across households, and the pandemic introduced challenges and opportunities for innovation in maintaining connection. This qualitative study sought to explore the experiences, challenges, and adaptations of CNM parents, using survey and interview data from 70 US parents collected between May and December 2020. Thematic analysis highlighted that many parents spent less time with non-cohabiting partners and more time with cohabiting partners and children, but also adapted via creative strategies such as incorporating partners into a quarantine pod, inviting partners to move in, or connecting over technology. These data illuminate the diverse ways that CNM parents engaged in and “queered” family and partner relationships during the pandemic.
Unpaid work and care during COVID-19: subjective experiences of same-sex couples and single mothers in Australia

AUTHOR(S)
Lyn Craig; Brendan Churchill

Published: March 2021   Journal: Gender & Society
This paper draws on data from Work and Care During COVID-19, an online survey of Australians during pandemic lockdown in May 2020 (n = 2,722). It focuses on how sub-samples of lesbian, gay, and bisexual mothers and fathers in couples (n = 280) and single mothers (n = 480) subjectively experienced unpaid work and care during lockdown compared with heterosexual mothers and fathers in couples, and with partnered mothers, respectively. During the pandemic, non-heterosexual fathers’ subjective reports were less negative than those of their heterosexual counterparts, but differences between heterosexual and lesbian/bisexual mothers were more mixed. Unlike their partnered counterparts, more single mothers reported feeling satisfied than before with their balance of paid and unpaid work and how they spent their time overall during the pandemic, perhaps because they avoided partnership conflicts and particularly benefited from relaxed commuting and child care deadlines.
31 - 45 of 55

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.