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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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The impacts of COVID-19 on migration and migrants from a gender perspective
Institution: International Organisation for Migration (IOM/OIM)
Published: May 2022
This research report explores and critically examines the short- and longer-term gender implications of the COVID-19 pandemic on migration and the well-being of migrants worldwide. This research report aims to inform ongoing policy and programmatic responses to the pandemic and highlights best practices and challenges. The report analyses the gender impacts of COVID-19 on different “groups” of migrants, including health-care workers, agricultural and domestic migrant workers, internally displaced persons and international students, and assesses migrant vulnerabilities as well as the opportunities for gender-responsive migration governance that have been revealed by the pandemic.
The influence of a school social network intervention on adolescent's health behaviors: a gender-specific agent-based model

AUTHOR(S)
Shu Zhang; Tianyi Xiao; Jie He

Published: April 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health
Adolescence is a crucial stage for health behavior development, which is associated with health in adulthood. School closures caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have exposed adolescents to an increased risk of obesity due to a lack of physical activity. Although social network interventions provide an effective approach for promoting health-related behavior, current practices neglect gender differences in adolescent behavioral patterns and emotional preferences. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of centrality-based methods integrated with of gender contexts in a social network intervention to improve adolescent's health behavior.
A cross-sectional study investigating Canadian and Australian adolescents' perceived experiences of COVID-19: gender differences and mental health implications.

AUTHOR(S)
Riana Marie; Audrey-Ann Journault; Rebecca Cernik (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The coronavirus (COVID-19) disease pandemic has been associated with adverse psychological outcomes. This cross-cultural study (N = 1326, 71% female) aimed to investigate Canadian and Australian adolescents’ subjective experiences of COVID-19, gender differences, and psychological implications. Mixed-methods analyses were used to examine differences in COVID-19 experiences and mental health outcomes between country and gender in a Canadian (N = 913, 78% female) and an Australian sample (N = 413, 57% female) of adolescents. Canadian adolescents reported increased COVID-19 discussions and more concerns related to their COVID-19 experiences compared to Australian adolescents.
Portuguese adolescents' cognitive well-being and basic psychological needs during the COVID-19 outbreak: a longitudinal study

AUTHOR(S)
Ana Meireles; Sofia Marques; Maria Manuela Peixoto (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being
Confinements and social distancing measures during COVID-19 pandemic were particularly challenging to adolescents, impacting significantly their life and routines. Following a longitudinal design, this study sought to compare adolescents' cognitive well-being—satisfaction with life, social support, and quality of life—before (T1) and during (T2) the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, it aimed to clarify the predictive value of the three dimensions of the cognitive well-being to the satisfaction of basic psychological needs of adolescents at school at T2. One thousand ninety-nine Portuguese adolescents participated, showing generally increased scores in satisfaction with life, social support, and quality of life at T2. Even so, girls revealed lower changes in cognitive well-being components compared with boys, between T1 and T2.
Gender-specific related factors for suicidal ideation during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown among 5,175 Chinese adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Jin Zhu; Baohua Li; Fengcheng Hao (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health
Suicide was an urgent issue during the pandemic period in adolescents. However, few studies were focused on suicide during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic lockdown. An online survey was conducted among 5,175 Chinese adolescents from June 9th to 29th in 2020 to investigate the prevalence of suicidal ideation (SI) during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. A gender-specific stepwise logistic regression model was used. All analyses were performed with STATA 15.0
Gendered impacts of COVID-19: insights from 7 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia

AUTHOR(S)
Muzna Fatima Alvi; Shweta Gupta; Prapti Barooah (et al.)

Institution: USAID
Published: March 2022
It is widely recognized that periods of crisis affect men and women differently, mediated by their access to resources and information, as well as social and institutional structures that may systematically disadvantage women from being able to access relief, institutional support, and rehabilitation. To capture the gendered impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdowns, this study conducted phone surveys in seven countries spread across Asia and Africa. The study was designed as a longitudinal panel study with five rounds of data collection in Ghana, Nepal, Nigeria, and Senegal, and three rounds of data collection in Kenya, Niger, and Uganda. Both men and women were administered the same survey, with some modifications made across countries to adapt to local contexts. This report gives an overview of our findings covering several topics including income loss, coping strategies, labor and time use, food and water insecurity and child education outcomes.
Disentangling youth non-compliance with COVID-19 restrictions from gender, socioeconomic vulnerability and poor mental health: lessons from the first wave in Catalonia

AUTHOR(S)
Eva Padrosa; Mireia Bolíbar

Published: March 2022   Journal: Journal of Youth Studies
The COVID-19 pandemic focused public attention on youth non-compliance with restrictions, but the social and health factors underpinning this behaviour were overlooked. Hereby, this study considered the complex relationships between age (16–29 vs. 30+), non-compliance, socioeconomic vulnerabilities and poor mental health using a gender perspective. Data were derived from the ‘Survey on the impact of COVID-19’, fielded on 11–15 April 2020 in Catalonia. In a non-probabilistic sample of 14,123 individuals, this study performed gender-stratified mediation analyses using Structural Equation Models.
Parental gender differences in attitudes and willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Ran D. Goldman; Rosario Ceballo

Published: February 2022   Journal: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health

COVID-19 affects family life world-wide. Determinants of hesitancy around vaccinating children against COVID-19 are critical in guiding public health campaigns. Gender differences among parents may determine willingness to vaccinate children against COVID-19. Secondary analysis of the COVID-19 Parental Attitude Study (COVIPAS) surveying care givers of children presenting for emergency care in 17 sites in 6 countries during peak pandemic (March–June, 2020). This study assessed risk perceptions, vaccination history and plans to vaccinate children against COVID-19 once available. It compared responses given by father or mother and used multivariable logistic regression.

The impact of gender differences, school adjustment, social interactions, and social activities on emotional and behavioral reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic among Japanese school children

AUTHOR(S)
Yuma Ishimoto; Takahiro Yamane; Yuki Matsumoto

Published: February 2022   Journal: SSM - Mental Health
The COVID-19 pandemic has had negative psychological effects, such as increased depression, anxiety, and suicide, on children worldwide, including in Japan. To effectively mitigate the negative impact of the pandemic among Japanese children, it is necessary to increase understanding of the culturally specific psychological effects on Japanese children, including age and gender differences, as well as related risk and protective factors. However, no previous research has quantitatively evaluated changes in Japanese children's emotional functioning before and after the pandemic began. The present study examined changes in Japanese children's emotional functioning with pre- and mid-pandemic questionnaires, particularly focusing on age and gender differences. The present study also explored the effects of school adjustment, social interactions, and lifestyle activities on children's emotional and behavioral functioning during the pandemic.
COVID-19 and gender differences in mental health in low- and middle-income countries: Young working women are more vulnerable

AUTHOR(S)
Mobarak Hossain

Published: December 2021   Journal: SSM - Mental Health
This study examines gender differences in the relationship between COVID-19-triggered economic hardship and mental health complaints, defined by self-reported anxiety/depression, of young people (17–29) in four low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). To do this, two waves of the Young Lives (YL) phone survey have been used.
Prospective analysis of physical activity levels and associated fitness factors amid COVID-19 pandemic and social-distancing rules: a special focus on adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Ragab K. Elnaggar; Bader A. Alqahtani; Waleed S. Mahmoud (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Science & Sports

Physical activity is a significant health determinant and is likely to be influenced by social-distancing rules imposed by authorities during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study explored gender-based differences in physical activity levels (PALs) and associated factors amid COVID-19 pandemic in adolescents. In this prospective analysis, 112 healthy adolescents (15.63 ± 1.21 years) participated. They were assessed at the baseline (before the announcement of COVID-19 as a global pandemic) for anthropometry, fitness status, and PALs (baseline-PALs), and next at the follow-up (three months of imposed social-distancing rules) for PALs (follow-up-PALs) over an internet-based platform through the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents.

Assessing the gendered impacts of COVID-19 in Uzbekistan: what data are available?
Institution: UN Women, United Nations Development Programme
Published: October 2021

This brief summarizes the key findings of the assess[1]ment of the availability of data that could contribute to an understanding of the gendered impacts of COVID-19 and would be the basis for gender-responsive, evidence[1]based policy making in Uzbekistan. The assessment was conducted in December 2020 with the support of the UN Women Europe and Central Asia Regional Office in partnership with UNDP Uzbekistan. The focus of the assessment was on data and statistics compiled and disseminated by the State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on Statistics (SSC) and on recent assessments and studies related to the impact of COVID-19 that have been conducted by different United Nations (UN) organi[1]zations and development partners.

Marrying young: limiting the impact of a crisis on the high prevalence of child marriages in Niger

AUTHOR(S)
Tameshnie Deane

Published: July 2021   Journal: Laws
Child marriage is a harmful and discriminatory global practice, robbing millions of girls of their childhood. Global attention and momentum to end early marriage has increased over the years; however, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has affected this progress. It has been predicted that over the next decade up to 10–13 million more girls will be at risk of child marriage because of the pandemic. Since Niger has consistently had the highest rate of child marriage in the world, this study will explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on child marriages within the west and African region but specifically within Niger. This article will look at past response efforts to other pandemics, specifically Ebola, and show how the girl-child remains disproportionately disadvantaged, especially during pandemics. The article will conclude with recommendations on the importance of incorporating a gender analysis into preparedness and response efforts to eliminate child marriages.
Gender intersectionality and family separation, alternative care and the reintegration of children
Institution: Save the Children
Published: May 2021
Family Care First (FCF) and Responsive and Effective Child Welfare Systems Transformation (REACT), facilitated by Save the Children, is a multi-donor supported network of organizations working together to support children to live in safe, nurturing family-based care. FCF|REACT works collaboratively with the government, local and international NGOs, academic institutions and UN agencies, to promote and strengthen family-based care. With approximately 60 member organizations, some of whom are funded, FCF|REACT is working to prevent children from being separated from their families and increase the number of children that are safely and successfully integrated into family care. A key element of FCF|REACT is integrating learnings from good practice research into interventions. Given the lack of previous studies covering gender intersectionality for vulnerable children in Cambodia, FCF|REACT is trying to understand the effects of gender, identity, and institutional practices on the well-being of children in alternative care.
Policy foundations for transformation: a gender analysis of adolescent health policy documents in South Africa

AUTHOR(S)
Tanya Jacobs; Asha George; Michelle De Jong

Published: April 2021   Journal: Health Policy and Planning
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the United Nations Global Strategy (2016–30) emphasize that all women, children and adolescents ‘survive, thrive and transform’. A key element of this global policy framework is that gender equality is a stand-alone goal as well as a cross-cutting priority. Gender inequality and intersecting social and structural determinants shape health systems, including the content of policy documents, with implications for implementation. This article applies a gender lens to policy documents by national government bodies that have mandates on adolescent health in South Africa. Data were 15 policy documents, authored between 2003 and 2018, by multiple actors. The content analysis was guided by key lines of enquiry, and policy documents were classified along the continuum of gender blind to gender transformative.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.