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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Group well-child care model for Latino children in immigrant families: adapting to and learning from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) context

AUTHOR(S)
Nomi S. Weiss-Laxer; Amelia J. Brandt; Jennifer Acosta (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Families, Systems, & Health
Group well-child care (GWCC) is an alternative to traditional pediatric well-child care designed to increase parental social support and peer learning. This mixed methods study explored the adaptation and implementation of GWCC to a virtual format during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19 pandemic) among Spanish-speaking Latino immigrant families. Interviews were conducted with eight providers and 10 mothers from May through September 2020. Qualitative analyses used a priori codes based on an implementation science framework. Quantitative data included demographics, the COVID-19 Impact Scale, and virtual group attendance. Bivariate analyses identified correlates of virtual visit attendance.
Online positive parenting programme for promoting parenting competencies and skills: randomised controlled trial.

AUTHOR(S)
Sararat Tuntipuchitanon; Ing‑on Kangwanthiti; Ketsupar Jirakran (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Scientific Reports
Positive parenting programmes (PPP), albeit effective, are not readily accessible to the general public, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. In 103 healthy caregiver-child dyads, tyhis study investigated the effectiveness of online PPP on parenting sense of competencies (primary outcome), parenting styles and behavioural concerns of children aged 3–6 years (secondary outcomes) between 2 blinded, parallel groups. After block of 4 randomisations, intervention group (n = 52) attended live, group-based, internet delivered PPP while both intervention and active control group (n = 51) received weekly general education via communication application. Outcomes were measured at baseline, 8 and 14 weeks.
COVID-19 pandemic impact on US childhood caries and potential mitigation

AUTHOR(S)
C. Scherrer; S. Naavaal; M. Lin (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of dental research
Non-Hispanic Black (NHB) and Hispanic and low-income US children have a higher prevalence of untreated caries than their higher-income and non-Hispanic White (NHW) counterparts. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many dental offices and school sealant programs closed beginning March 2020. This study examines the effect of reduced access to restorative care and sealants on the oral health of children from low-income households overall and by race/ethnicity and how increased sealant delivery in September 2022 could mitigate these effects.
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on intimate partner violence during pregnancy: evidence from a multimethods study of recently pregnant women in Ethiopia

AUTHOR(S)
Shannon N. Wood; Robel Yirgu; Abigiya Wondimagegnehu (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: BMJ Open

This multimethods study aimed to: (1) compare the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy pre-COVID-19 and during the COVID-19 pandemic using quantitative data and (2) contextualise pregnant women’s IPV experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic through supplemental interviews. Quantitative analyses use data from Performance Monitoring for Action-Ethiopia, a cohort of 2868 pregnant women that collects data at pregnancy, 6 weeks, 6 months and 1-year postpartum. Following 6-week postpartum survey, in-depth semistructured interviews contextualised experiences of IPV during pregnancy with a subset of participants (n=24).

Intimate partner violence during pregnancy and maternal and child health outcomes: a scoping review of the literature from low-and-middle income countries from 2016 - 2021

AUTHOR(S)
Thao Da Thi Tran; Linda Murray; Thang Van Vo

Published: April 2022   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is significantly associated with negative outcomes for both mother and child. Current evidence indicates an association between low levels of social support and IPV, however there is less evidence from low-and-middle income countries (LMIC) than high-income countries. Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has radically altered how women can access social support. Hence since 2020, studies investigating IPV and pregnancy have occurred within the changing social context of the pandemic. This scoping review summarizes the evidence from LMICs about the effects of IPV during pregnancy on maternal and child health. The review includes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on social support as mentioned in studies conducted since 2020.

A ramp that leads to nothing: outdoor recreation experiences of children with physical disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Annika L. Vogt; Chris A. B. Zajchowski; Eddie L. Hill

Published: March 2022   Journal: Leisure Studies
During the global COVID-19 pandemic, access to outdoor recreation is desperately needed for youth; however, children with physical disabilities who regularly experience barriers and constraints to engagement in outdoor physical activity may experience additional challenges. This study examined the outdoor recreation experiences of children with physical disabilities (ages 6–10) living in Coastal Virginia during the COVID-19 pandemic by interviewing their parents using a modified Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Responses were coded inductively and then deductively using a typology of factors related to physical activity participation among children and adults with physical disabilities.
Changes in healthcare provision during covid-19 and their impact on children with chronic illness: a scoping review

AUTHOR(S)
Sapfo Lignou; Jenny Greenwood; Mark Sheehan (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: INQUIRY: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing
This paper provides an overview of the evidence around how the health systems and policy response to the Covid-19 pandemic affected children with long-term conditions in the UK. It conducted a scoping review guided by the PRISMA-ScR Checklist. The PubMed and PsycINFO databases (2019-August 2021) were searched and screened for papers (of any design) by 2 reviewers independently. The electronic database search was supplemented by manual searching. A total of 32 papers were identified, including studies on UK paediatric populations, studies on chronic illness in the UK, and international studies on chronic illness and children (including data from the UK).
‘We are not going anywhere’: a qualitative study of Kenyan healthcare worker perspectives on adolescent HIV care engagement during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Leslie A. Enane; Edith Apondi; Claire Liepmann (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: BMJ Open

Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) may be vulnerable to widescale impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and to health system responses which impact HIV care. This study assessed healthcare worker (HCW) perspectives on impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent HIV care delivery and engagement in western Kenya. It performed in-depth qualitative interviews with HCW at 10 clinical sites in the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare in Kenya, from January to March, 2021. Semistructured interviews ascertained pandemic-related impacts on adolescent HIV care delivery and retention.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 12 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 12 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, COVID-19 response, health care, health services, HIV and AIDS, lockdown, social distance | Countries: Kenya
Outcomes of COVID-19 in children with cancer – Report from the Indian pediatric oncology group (InPOG) COVID-19 registry in India

AUTHOR(S)
Revathi Raja; Ramya Uppuluri; Badira Parambil (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Pediatric Hematology Oncology Journal

The clinical outcomes of COVID-19 infection in children with cancer have been variable worldwide. Therefore, we aimed to collect data from all regions in India through a national collaborative study and identify factors that cause mortality directly related to COVID-19 infection. Data was collected prospectively on children across India on cancer therapy and diagnosed with COVID-19 infections from 47 centers from April 2020 to October 2021. Information was recorded on the demographics, the number of children that required intervention, and the outcome of the infection. In addition, we analyzed the impact of the delta variant in 2021.

The impact of COVID-19 on children's lives in the United States: amplified inequities and a just path to recovery

AUTHOR(S)
Charles Oberg; H. R. Hodges; Sarah Gander (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
The novel coronavirus, or SARS-CoV-2, is a potentially deadly virus that causes COVID-19 disease and has led to the current pandemic.1 It has affected virtually everyone in the world since its emergence in 2019, with social, economic, and health effects that will probably last long past the end of the pandemic. In the long term, the impact of this health and social crisis may fall disproportionately upon children. This review will first highlight systemic/institutional inequities accentuated by the pandemic for subgroups of vulnerable children. These include Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPI), Black and Latinx, Indigenous populations, refugee communities, those with disability and LGBTQIA+ youth. It will then examine the impact of COVID-19 on the lives of American children including the effects on poverty, food insecurity and housing instability. It then explores the disruptions in health care access and utilization, childcare, and education. It will then review the overarching implications for childhood mental health and well-being. Finally, it will provide a series of recommendations on how best to achieve a just and equitable recovery for families and children.
Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on children’s oral health and dental care use

AUTHOR(S)
Wei Lyu; George L. Wehby

Published: February 2022   Journal: The Journal of the American Dental Association

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led to early restrictions on access to dental care and social distancing requirements. This study examines the early effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on children’s oral health and access to dental care in the United States. Using nationally representative data from the National Survey of Children’s Health, this study compares several measures of children’s oral health and dental care use early during the pandemic in 2020, and one year earlier. Logistic (multinomial or binary) regression models are estimated adjusting for several child/household covariates and state fixed effects. Similar comparisons are estimated for 2019 relative to 2018 to evaluate pre-pandemic trends.

A response to COVID-19 school closures: the feasibility of a school-linked text message intervention as an adaptation to school-supervised asthma therapy

AUTHOR(S)
Juliana Arenas; Sarah Becker; Hannah Seay (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Pediatric Pulmonology

School-supervised asthma therapy improves asthma medication adherence and morbidity, particularly among low-income and underrepresented minority (URM) children. However, COVID-19-related school closures abruptly suspended this therapy. In response, we developed a school-linked text message intervention. The purpose of the study is to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of a school-linked text message intervention.

Assessing changes to adolescent health-promoting behaviors following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic: A multi-methods exploration of the role of within-person combinations of trait perfectionism

AUTHOR(S)
Melissa Blackburn; Tabitha Methot-Jones; Danielle S. Molnar (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Personality and individual differences
The current work provides a multi-methods exploration of how within-person subtypes of self-oriented perfectionism (SOP) and socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) were related to shifts in health-promoting behaviors among adolescents following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Study One tested the 2 × 2 and tripartite models of perfectionism through a quantitative test of how such subtypes predicted changes in health behaviors pre-pandemic to intra-pandemic among 202 adolescents (M = 17.86, SD = 1.421). Results indicated that the combination of high SOP/high SPP was linked to the most maladaptive changes to health-promoting behaviors, supporting the tripartite model. Study Two aimed to contextualize these findings by analyzing semi-structured interviews with 31 adolescent self-identified perfectionists (M = 15.97, SD = 1.991) during the initial lockdown mandate.
The COVID-19 pandemic impact on households of young children with special healthcare needs

AUTHOR(S)
Sihong Liu; Joan Lombardi; Philip A. Fisher

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Psychology

This study examined how the COVID-19 pandemic differently affected households of children with versus without special healthcare needs. It compared caregivers’ and children’s emotional well-being (Aim 1), the utilization of preventive healthcare services for young children (Aim 2), and the promotive effects of social support on well-being outcomes (Aim 3) during the pandemic between the two groups. Data were drawn from an ongoing, large, longitudinal, and national survey that assessed the pandemic impact on households of young children (0–5). Analyses for Aims 1 and 2 were based on 10,572 households, among which 10.96% had children with special healthcare needs. Analyses for Aim 3 were based on a subsample of 821 families, among which 12.54% had children with special healthcare needs.

Characterization of pediatric imaging trends and likelihood of exam cancellation in the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Fedel Machado-Rivas; Sebastian Gallo Bernal; Daniel Briggs (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Academic Radiology

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented changes in radiology practice worldwide. There is a need for a framework of pediatric radiology resource allocation for future acute resource-limited settings. This study aims to quantify and analyze changes in pediatric radiology practice during the COVID-19 pandemic considering demographic and clinical characteristics. It retrospectively searched our institution's electronic health record for pediatric imaging exams from 09/15/19 to 05/01/20, with 03/15/20 as the dividing date between baseline and pandemic periods. Age, modality, exam indication, need for anesthesia/sedation, and exam completion or cancellation were recorded. All exams were compared between baseline and pandemic periods using a chi-square test and a logistic regression multivariate analysis.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.