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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 55
The psychiatric sequelae of the COVID‐19 pandemic in adolescents, adults, and health care workers
Published: December 2020   Journal: Depression and Anxiety
The COVID‐19 pandemic is the most serious global public health crisis since the 1918 influenza pandemic. This study is the first to assess its mental health impact across the lifespan in the United States in adolescents, adults, and health care workers.
COVID-19 and the case for universal health coverage: accountability – the beating heart of UHC

AUTHOR(S)
Tara Brace-John

Institution: Save the Children
Published: December 2020

The connection between civic space, civil society engagement and access to healthcare has been sharply highlighted during the COVID-19 pandemic. Civil society around the world has mobilised to bring attention to the needs of the most vulnerable people, and demonstrated the invaluable role it plays in addressing inequities and championing health for all. It is this commitment and zeal that will make UHC possible. This study sets out why accountability is vital to achieving universal health coverage. It also makes the case for protecting and expanding civic space as a way of encouraging civic engagement, resulting in accountability. We put forward recommendations to governments and global health actors to improve meaningful civil society inclusion in health governance.


Cite this research | No. of pages: 12 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19 response, health care, pandemic | Publisher: Save the Children
Caregiver satisfaction and effectiveness of teleconsultation in children and adolescents with migraine during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Indar Kumar Sharawat; Prateek Kumar Panda

Published: November 2020   Journal: Journal of Child Neurology
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown measures have forced clinicians across the world to look on telemedicine. Although migraine as such seems an ideal option for telemedicine, a systematic study reviewing feasibility, efficacy, and advantages of current advanced telecommunication technologies in children with migraine is lacking.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 296-303 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19 response, health care, lockdown, social distance, teleworking | Countries: India
No increase in psychosocial stress of Dutch children with cancer and their caregivers during the first months of the COVID‐19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Marloes van Gorp; Heleen Maurice‐Stam; Layla C. Teunissen (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
This study aimed to show the psychosocial impact of the start of the COVID‐19 pandemic on Dutch children with cancer in outpatient care and their caregivers (n = 799) using regular monitoring and screening outcomes. No differences were observed between the pre‐COVID‐19 and early‐COVID‐19 periods in health‐related quality of life and fatigue of children. Fewer caregivers were distressed during the COVID‐19 period than pre‐COVID‐19. In conclusion, the additional stress of COVID‐19 did not deteriorate psychosocial functioning of children with cancer and their caregivers.
Supporting Families and Children Beyond COVID-19: Social protection in high-income countries
COVID-19 constitutes the greatest crisis that high-income countries have seen in many generations. While many high-income countries experienced the global financial crisis of 2007–2008, or have had national recessions, the COVID-19 pandemic is much more than that. COVID-19 is a social and economic crisis, sparked by a protracted health crisis.

High-income countries have very limited experience of dealing with health crises, having their health and human services stretched beyond capacity, restricting the travel of their populations or having to close workplaces and schools – let alone experience of all of these things combined. These unique conditions create new and serious challenges for the economies and societies of all high-income countries. As these challenges evolve, children – as dependants – are among those at greatest risk of seeing their living standards fall and their personal well-being decline.

This new UNICEF Innocenti report explores how the social and economic impact of the pandemic is likely to affect children; the initial government responses to the crisis; and how future public policies could be optimized to better support children. 
Supporting Families and Children Beyond COVID-19: Social protection in high-income countries
COVID-19 constitutes the greatest crisis that high-income countries have seen in many generations. While many high-income countries experienced the global financial crisis of 2007–2008, or have had national recessions, the COVID-19 pandemic is much more than that. COVID-19 is a social and economic crisis, sparked by a protracted health crisis.

High-income countries have very limited experience of dealing with health crises, having their health and human services stretched beyond capacity, restricting the travel of their populations or having to close workplaces and schools – let alone experience of all of these things combined. These unique conditions create new and serious challenges for the economies and societies of all high-income countries. As these challenges evolve, children – as dependants – are among those at greatest risk of seeing their living standards fall and their personal well-being decline.

This new UNICEF Innocenti report explores how the social and economic impact of the pandemic is likely to affect children; the initial government responses to the crisis; and how future public policies could be optimized to better support children. 
Favorable outcomes among neonates not separated from their symptomatic SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers

AUTHOR(S)
Antoine Martenot; Imad Labbassi; Amélie Delfils-Stern (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Pediatric Research
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), resulting from infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), can affect pregnant women. Their newborns are at a higher risk of prematurity and early separation from their mothers, who may subsequently require intensive care for their own health. Although neonates born of mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy are seemingly vulnerable to infection, studies have found that they were not at a high risk for severe infection and were very rarely affected by COVID-19. The presence of virus by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been reported in newborns before H 12 of life. In addition, antiviral immunoglobulin M has been detected in newborns at birth, suggesting that mother-to-infant viral transmission may occur. To date, however, only one case of vertical transmission has been clearly demonstrated. In several cases of early neonatal infection, postnatal contamination cannot be excluded. Moreover, only one case report found that the virus could pass from mother to infant through the mother’s breast milk.
Management of newborns exposed to mothers with confirmed or suspected COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Shaili Amatya Amatya; Tammy E. Corr; Chintan K. Gandhi (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Journal of Perinatology
There is limited information about newborns with confirmed or suspected COVID-19. Particularly in the hospital after delivery, clinicians have refined practices in order to prevent secondary infection. While guidance from international associations is continuously being updated, all facets of care of neonates born to women with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 are centerspecific, given local customs, building infrastructure constraints, and availability of protective equipment. Based on anecdotal reports from institutions in the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic close to our hospital, together with our limited experience, in anticipation of increasing numbers of exposed newborns, this study has developed a triage algorithm at the Penn State Hospital at Milton S. Hershey Medical Center that may be useful for other centers anticipating a similar surge.
Pandemics, epidemics and inequities in routine childhood vaccination coverage: a rapid review

AUTHOR(S)
Nick Spencer; Rita Nathawad; Emmanuele Arpin (et al.)

Published: October 2020

Inequity in routine childhood vaccination coverage is well researched. Pandemics disrupt infrastructure and divert health resources from preventive care, including vaccination programmes, leading to increased vaccine preventable morbidity and mortality. COVID-19 control measures have resulted in coverage reductions. We conducted a rapid review of the impact of pandemics on existing inequities in routine vaccination coverage. PICO search framework: Population: children 0–18 years; Intervention/exposure: pandemic/epidemic; Comparison: inequality; Outcome: routine vaccination coverage. The review demonstrates a gap in the literature as none of the 29 papers selected for full-paper review from 1973 abstracts identified from searches met the inclusion criteria.

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19 in children in Pakistan

AUTHOR(S)
Masood Sadiq; Omeir Ali Aziz; Uzma Kazmi (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
The knowledge of COVID-19 is evolving with new aspects of the disease continuing to emerge. Children and adolescents younger than 20 years of age constitute 10·6% of the total reported confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Pakistan as of July 8, 2020, with a mortality of 0·3% for those aged 10 years or younger and 0·5% for those aged 11–20 years. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), also known as paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (PIMS-TS) is being reported primarily from Europe and the USA. Many of these children meet the criteria for complete or incomplete Kawasaki disease, but different clinical presentations of this inflammatory disorder are being reported. The ethnic origin of reported cases show that Black, Hispanic, and Asian children might be disproportionally affected. Similarly, unlike Kawasaki disease, these cases have occurred in older children and adolescents.
The importance of investing in the wellbeing of children to avert the learning crisis
Institution: UNESCO, World Food Programme, *UNICEF, World Health Organisation
Published: October 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic has created the largest disruption of education systems in history, affecting nearly 1.6 billion school-age children in more than 190 countries. Already last year, 250 million school-age children being out of school, the world was facing a “learning crisis”. But now with the COVID-19 pandemic, this crisis could turn into a generational catastrophe. While many children will continue with their education once schools reopen, others may never return to school. Current estimates indicate that 24 million children will never return to the classroom and among those, disproportional number of girls. To avert this crisis, we need to reimagine how we deliver good quality and inclusive education to the world children. Among other things, this calls for urgent investments in school health and nutrition programmes and create the conditions for children to lead healthy lives. This also includes health and nutrition literacy offered through the curriculum and through counselling in the school health services which provides young people with knowledge, skills, values, culture and behaviours they need to lead healthy, empowered lives.

Trends in clinical presentation of children with COVID-19: a systematic review of individual participant data

AUTHOR(S)
Briana Christophers; Benjamin Gallo Marin; Rocío Oliva (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Pediatric Research

There are sparse patient-level data available for children with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Therefore, there is an urgent need for an updated systematic literature review that analyzes individual children rather than aggregated data in broad age groups. Six databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, Google Scholar, medRxiv) were searched for studies indexed from January 1 to May 15, 2020, with MeSH terms: children, pediatrics, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2. 1241 records were identified, of which only unique papers in English with individual patient information and documented COVID-19 testing were included. This review of 22 eligible studies followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of individual participant data guidelines.

Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 8 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, health care, impact
Should we mandate a COVID-19 vaccine for children?

AUTHOR(S)
Douglas J. Opel; Douglas S. Diekema; Lainie Friedman Ross (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: JAMA Pediatrics

The zeal to develop and implement a vaccine to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been exceptional. Operation Warp Speed, the Trump administration's proposal, seeks to produce hundreds of millions of doses of a vaccine by January 2021. Recent polls show as many as 70% of adults in the United States plan to get vaccinated against COVID-19 once a vaccine is available. And thousands of adults have registered to participate as volunteers in human challenge trills to speed up the development of a new vaccine. We anticipate that this fervor will eventually lead to discussions about making a COVID-19 vaccine mandatory. An obvious group to target for mandatory vaccination is children. Not only do we already mandate several vaccines for them to attend school, but strategies to reopen schools or keep them open may be predicated on it.

Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 2 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19 response, health care, vaccination policies | Countries: United States
Advancing health equity by translating lessons learned from NICU family visitations during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Emily M. Pang; Rachelle Sey; Theodore De Beritto

Published: September 2020   Journal: NeoReviews
Since its emergence in December 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also referred to as the novel coronavirus 2019 or COVID-19, has created a global pandemic. To date, there are over 15 million confirmed cases worldwide and over 4 million confirmed cases in the United States. (1) Although many questions remain unanswered regarding children affected by the virus, the pandemic has highlighted inequities in the US health care system and has demonstrated the potential of advocacy to influence policy changes. Although the pandemic remains a tremendous challenge, we present a perspective on how lessons we have learned during this pandemic may translate to further advocacy for equity in neonatal care.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 22 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 11 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, health care, health policy, social inequality | Countries: United States
Impact of social distancing and travel restrictions on non-COVID-19 respiratory hospital admissions in young children in rural Alaska

AUTHOR(S)
Leisha D. Nolen; Sara Seeman; Dana Bruden (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Hospitalizations due to non-COVID-19 respiratory illnesses decreased dramatically after social distancing was implemented in a high-risk population in rural Alaska. Our data from the past ten respiratory seasons show that this decline is unprecedented. This demonstrates the potential secondary benefits of implementing social distancing and travel restrictions on respiratory illnesses.
Cite this research | Open access | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: health care | Countries: United States
31 - 45 of 55

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.