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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 119
Risk factors for COVID-19 hospitalization in school-age children

Liam O’Neill; Neale R. Chumbler

Published: June 2022   Journal: Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology

With the recent emergence of the Omicron variant, there has been a rapid and alarming increase in the number of COVID-19 cases among pediatric populations. Yet few US pediatric cohort studies have characterized the clinical features of children with severe COVID-19. The objective of this study was to identify those chronic comorbidities that increase the risk of hospitalization for pediatric populations with severe COVID-19. A retrospective cohort study that utilized the Texas Inpatient Public Use Data file was conducted. The study included 1187 patients (ages 5 to 19) from 164 acute-care Texas hospitals with the primary or secondary ICD-10CM diagnosis code U07.1 (COVID-19, virus identified). The baseline comparison group included 38 838 pediatric patients who were hospitalized in 2020. Multivariable binary logistic regression, controlling for patient characteristics, sociodemographic factors, and health insurance, was used to estimate the adjusted risk of hospitalization for COVID-19.

Rate of adolescent inpatient admission for psychosis during the COVID-19 pandemic: a retrospective chart review.

Barbara Deren; Katherine Matheson; Paula Cloutier (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Early Intervention in Psychiatry

Given the concerns for mental health (MH) impacts on children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the relative paucity of research in this field, this retrospective study compares the rate of paediatric inpatient MH admissions for psychosis for a period of 11 months before and during the pandemic. This study used administrative data to compare the rate and clinical characteristics of patients (<18 years) admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit for a psychotic illness before (March 17, 2019 to February 17, 2020) and during (March 17, 2020 to February 17, 2021) the COVID-19 pandemic.

Incidence and clinical phenotype of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children after infection with the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant by vaccination status: a Danish nationwide prospective cohort study.

Ulrikka Nygaard; Mette Holm; Ulla Birgitte Hartling (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) occurs after infection with SARS-CoV-2 and its incidence is likely to depend on multiple factors, including the variant of the preceding SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccine effectiveness. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of MIS-C, and describe the clinical phenotype, following the delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.617.2 and sublineages) according to vaccination status. It aimed to compare the incidence and clinical phenotype of MIS-C from our cohort during the pre-delta era. This prospective, population-based cohort study included patients aged 0–17 years hospitalised with MIS-C in Denmark, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition, from Aug 1, 2021, to Feb 1, 2022, a period dominated by the delta variant. It identified MIS-C cases via a nationwide research collaboration involving real-time data collection from all 18 paediatric departments. Aggregated number of SARS-CoV-2 infections by vaccination status was obtained from the Danish COVID-19 surveillance registries. The incidence of MIS-C was calculated using the estimated number of infected individuals by vaccination status
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 6 | Issue: 7 | No. of pages: 459-465 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, hospitalization, infectious disease, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Denmark
The significance of D-dimer investigation in Iraqi children with COVID-19

Raed Khudhair Farhan; Ahmed Jawad Kadhim Al Abdullah; Mundher Abdzaid Shamhood

Published: May 2022   Journal: International Journal of Health Sciences,
The proportion of children affected with COVID-19 accounted for approximately 1 to 2 % of all infected cases and the disease often follows a mild to moderate disease. Increased coagulation and events that are thrombotic were repeatedly recorded in adult patients with COVID-19. Nevertheless, till now, there is no consensus about thrombotic events in children in published articles.  This studyaimes to make evaluation of d-dimer level in children with COVID-19 and the rate of thrombotic complications. The present research that is of cross sectional type was carried out in Children and Maternity Teaching Hospital in Al-Diwaniyah Province, Iraq. The study included 168 children with COVDI-19 proved by positive RT-PCR results following nasopharyngeal swabs. The age ranged from one month up to 15 years and the study included 77 girls and 91 boys.
COVID-19 infections in infants

Małgorzata Sobolewska-Pilarczyk; Maria Pokorska-Śpiewak; Anna Stachowiak (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Scientific reports
The study aimed to analyse the clinical course of COVID-19 in 300 infants, selected from 1283 children diagnosed with COVID-19 between March and December 2020, registered in the SARSTerPED multicenter database. Most of the infants were registered in October and November 2020. 44% of the group were girls, and 56% were boys. At diagnosis, the most common symptoms were fever in 77% of the children, cough in 40%, catarrh in 37%. Pneumonia associated with COVID-19 was diagnosed in 23% of the children, and gastrointestinal symptoms in 31.3%. In 52% of the infants, elevated levels of D-dimers were observed, and in 40%, elevated levels of IL-6 serum concentration were observed. During the second wave of the pandemic, 6 times more infants were hospitalized, and the children were statistically significantly younger compared to the patients during the first wave (3 months vs 8 months, p < 0.0001 respectively). During the second wave, the infants were hospitalized for longer. COVID-19 in infants usually manifests as a mild gastrointestinal or respiratory infection, but pneumonia is also observed with falls in oxygen saturation, requiring oxygen therapy.
A study of clinical profile and outcome of COVID-19 in children

M. V. Nagaraj; Chikkanna Somashekhar; Raj Muniraju Geetha Nithin (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics

 COVID-19 has become a major public health crisis around the world. This study aimed at identifying the different clinical presentations of children who were tested positive for SARS-COV-2. Descriptive and prospective study of the children who were seen over the fever clinic and were admitted to the Sapthagiri institute of medical science and research centre over a period of 4 months from November 2021 to February 2022. Among the 251 children admitted to the hospital majority of them were males 52.5% and the age group of 1-5 years were highest affected 46.2%. The most common symptoms noted were fever 60.5%, followed by pain abdomen 45.8%, vomiting 43.8%, running nose 39%, cough 38%, diarrhoea 30.6%, decreased appetite 26.7% and the least common symptom was skin rash 0.3%. Children with comorbidites had higher risk of ICU admission. No deaths were noted during the study period.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 9 | Issue: 5 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, health services, hospitalization, infectious disease, pandemic | Countries: India
Association between area-level material deprivation and incidence of hospitalization among children with SARS-CoV-2 in Montreal

Assil Abda; Francesca Del Giorgio; Lise Gauvin (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Paediatrics & Child Health,

Although sociodemographic factors have been linked with SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalizations in adults, there are little data on the association between sociodemographic characteristics and SARS-CoV-2-related hospitalization in children. The objective of this study was to determine the association between area-level material deprivation and incidence of hospitalization with SARS-CoV-2 among children. This is a retrospective cohort study of all children (0 to 17 years of age) with a PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection March 1, 2020 through May 31, 2021 at a tertiary-care paediatric hospital, in Montreal, Canada. Data were collected through chart review and included age, sex, and postal code, allowing linkage to dissemination area-level material deprivation, measured with the Pampalon Material Deprivation Index (PMDI) quintiles. The association between PMDI quintiles and hospitalization was analyzed using Poisson regression.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 27 | Issue: Supplement 1 | No. of pages: 27-32 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, health services, hospitalization, infectious disease, pandemic | Countries: Canada
Unexplained hepatitis in children after lifting COVID-19 pandemic restrictions.

Pablo Barreiro

Published: April 2022   Journal: AIDS Reviews
Since January 2022, almost 150 cases of acute hepatitis with epidemic features have been reported among children aged 1-15 years old, mostly below 5 years old. A wide range of symptoms has appeared, but a subset of these children has progressed to liver failure and required liver transplantation and at least one death has been reported already.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 3 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19 response, hospitalization, lockdown, social distance | Countries: Spain
Assessment of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on a children's hospital: the point of view of patients and families

Maria D. Navarro-Rubio; Ana Bosque; Arian Tarbal (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Patient Experience Journal
The coronavirus pandemic has affected our health, social behavior, and quality of life. In addition to the deaths and morbidity, the crisis also affects all spheres in society. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of hospital patients and families regarding the pandemic. This is a descriptive study conducted May-July 2020 in the Sant Joan de Déu children’s hospital, Barcelona, Spain. We developed a mix-method approach. It included online semi-structured interviews and photo voice. Seventeen patients’ representatives were interviewed.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 9 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 26-34 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19 response, health care facilities, hospitalization, lockdown, social distance | Countries: Spain
impact of the covid 19 pandemic on the process of exclusive breastfeeding

Nurul Anjarwati; Veny Erlisa Irawan

Published: April 2022   Journal: Jurnal Kesehatan Mesencephalon
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on health occurred in all age groups including pregnant women, mothers giving birth, and newborns. Breastfeeding during a pandemic requires special attention because of the short-term and long-term health implications. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the success of exclusive breastfeeding. The research design is qualitative with in-depth interview data collection methods on 7 participants. The sample was selected according to the inclusion criteria, namely mothers who gave birth during a pandemic and when data were collected on children aged 6-12 months in the working area of the Kepanjen Health Center, Kab. Poor. Researchers as the main instrument in the study and interview guides as a reference for questions.
Effect of COVID-19 pandemic on well child care and vaccination

Grace Onimoe; Dhanalakshmi Angappan; Marie Christianne Ravie Chandar (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics

The COVID-19 virus is highly contagious primarily via aerosol transmission and has a high mortality rate. On March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to enumerate the effect of the pandemic on vaccination rates during the COVID-19 lockdown and the aftermath in pediatric patients aged 6weeks-6 years. A retrospective review of medical records was performed of missed well childcare visits at MetroHealth from March 1, 2020 to June 30, 2020. The sample size of 400 children aged 6 weeks to 6 years were randomly selected. Demographic data, number of calls made to attempt, scheduled WCC, no show rates for clinic appointments, number of missed WCC, location of MH facility, insurance type, vaccination status prior to the pandemic were collected. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software (IBM Corp. Released 2020. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 27.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp).

Changes in unintentional cannabis exposures in children 6 months to 5 years reported to United States poison centers during the first nine months of the coronavirus-19 pandemic

Thomas W. Laudone; James B. Leonard; Elizabeth Quaal Hines (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Clinical Toxicology
Almost half of exposures reported to United States (US) poison centers are exploratory ingestions in children under the age of 5 years. Pediatric cannabis exposures reported to US poison centers have risen over the last twenty years, with greater increases in the last 5 years. In 2020, the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in widespread stay-at-home orders and subsequent changes in work, education, and daycare. This study describes the changes in pediatric cannabis exposures during the first nine months of the COVID-19 pandemic relative to the three years before the pandemic.
Outcomes and risk factors of death among hospitalized children and adolescents with obesity and COVID-19 in Brazil: An analysis of a nationwide database

Ana Cristina Simões e Silva; Mariana A. Vasconcelos; Enrico A. Colosimo (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Pediatric Obesity

Obesity is a well-recognized risk factor for critical illness and death among adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study aimed to characterize the clinical outcomes and risk factors of death related to obesity in a cohort of hospitalized paediatric patients with COVID-19. It performed an analysis of all paediatric patients with obesity and COVID-19 registered in SIVEP-Gripe, a Brazilian nationwide surveillance database, between February 2020 and May 2021. The primary outcome was time to death, which was evaluated by using cumulative incidence function.

A study to assess the risk factors contributing to psychological stress, anxiety and depression in mothers of Covid-19 positive hospitalized children in a tertiary care hospital

Nitu Malik; Abhishek Dutta; Satyabrata Roy Chowdhary (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Paediatrics and Nursing Science
Parents of the COVID -19 positive hospitalized children are facing different psychological stresses which are affecting child’s care and well-being.
This study aims to determine the psychological stress, anxiety and depression and to identify the associated influencing factors in mothers of hospitalized COVID-19 infected children. In this cross-sectional observational study, 150 mothers of COVID-19 positive hospitalized children in a paediatric tertiary care hospital were randomly selected and studied. Data collection tool was a two part questionnaire; the first part was based on ‘Perceived stress scale-10’ and ‘Hospital anxiety and depression scale’ and the second part included stressors related to COVID-19 pandemic selected based on previous researches. The incidence of these stressors and their significance in causing stress, anxiety and depression was assessed using standard statistical methods.
Caregivers' attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination in children and adolescents with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection

Danilo Buonsenso; Piero Valentini; Marina Macchi (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics

Limited data are available on the attitudes of caregivers toward COVID-19 vaccination in children and adolescents with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection or Long Covid symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the vaccine hesitancy among caregivers of children and adolescents with a documented history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and to explore the possible associations between COVID-19 manifestations and the acceptance of the vaccine. Caregivers of children or adolescents with a microbiologically confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection evaluated in two University Hospitals were interviewed.

1 - 15 of 119

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.