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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 127
SARS-CoV-2 infection in households with and without young children: nationwide cohort study, Denmark, 27 February 2020 to 26 February 2021

AUTHOR(S)
Anders Husby; Giulia Corn; Tyra Grove Krause

Published: August 2022   Journal: Eurosurveillance
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Infections with seasonally spreading coronaviruses are common among young children during winter months in the northern hemisphere; the immunological response lasts around a year. However, it is not clear if living with young children changes the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among adult. This study aimed to investigate the association between living in a household with younger children and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections and hospitalisation.


Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 27 | Issue: 32 | No. of pages: 7 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease transmission, hospitalization, infectious disease, pandemic | Countries: Denmark
COVID-19 hospitalization among children <18 years by variant wave in Norway

AUTHOR(S)
Robert Whittaker; Margrethe Greve-Isdahl; Håkon Bøås (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Pediatrics
here is limited evidence on whether the relative severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children and adolescents differs for different severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants. This study compares the risk of hospitalization to acute COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) among unvaccinated persons <18 years with COVID-19 (cases) between waves of the Alpha, Delta, and Omicron (sublineage BA.1) variants in Norway.
Depressive anxiety symptoms in hospitalized children with chronic illness during the first Italian COVID-19 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Cinzia Correale; Chiara Falamesca; Ilaria Tondo (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Children
COVID-19 is continuing to spread around the world, having a direct impact on people’s daily lives and health. Although the knowledge of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in the general population is now well established, there is less information on its effect on specific and vulnerable populations, such as children with chronic illness (CI). This is a multi-centered cross-sectional study among pediatric patients in six public children’s hospitals in Italy during the first lockdown, with the aim of assessing the proportion of children with CI presenting anxiety and depressive symptoms, and the clinical and demographic characteristics affecting such symptomatology. It included children with at least one chronic condition, with no cognitive delay, aged between 11 and 18 years. Brief standardized questionnaires were administered during medical scheduled visits to screen anxiety and depressive symptoms.
'Long COVID': symptom persistence in children hospitalised for COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Ali A. Asadi-Pooya; Meshkat Nemati; Hamid Nemati

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health

This study aimed to describe the long-term outcome with respect to symptom persistence amongst children hospitalised for COVID-19. This was a follow-up study of 58 children and adolescents hospitalised with COVID-19. For all patients, the data were collected in a phone call to the family in December 2021 (9 months after the initial study and more than 13 months after their admission to hospital). It inquired about their current health status and obtained information, if the responding parent consented orally to participate and answer the questions.

Feeding practices in public hospitals' neonatal intensive care units: An exploration into the ways in which COVID-19 affected the best practice in Gauteng

AUTHOR(S)
Kim A. Coutts; Joanne Neille; Nicole Louw

Published: July 2022   Journal: South African Journal of Communication Disorders

South Africa’s healthcare system has a multitude of pre-existing challenges prior to the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, ranging from reduced number of staff, lack of resources and units being at overcapacity both in the adult and paediatric populations. The neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) require a team approach to ensure best practice with vulnerable infants, but little is known about how the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resultant lockdown restrictions impacted the feeding practices within the NICU. This study aimed to explore the impact that COVID-19 had on the feeding practices within the NICU settings in public hospitals in Gauteng. A qualitative design was employed with data collected in two NICUs in Gauteng. Data were collected in the form of observations and semi-structured interviews with healthcare workers (HCWs) in the NICU. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis.

The impact of COVID-19 on adolescents with eating disorders: increased need for medical stabilization and decreased access to care

AUTHOR(S)
Marissa A. Feldman; Callie K. King; Sarah Vitale (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: International Journal of Eating Disorders

This study aimed to identify trends of patients with eating disorders (EDs) requiring hospitalization before and during the pandemic at a children's hospital in the southeastern United States. A retrospective chart review was completed for 71 adolescents and young adults (ages 10–21 years; M = 14.61, SD = 2.121).

‘Long COVID’: symptom persistence in children hospitalised for COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Ali A. Asadi-Pooya; Meshkat Nemati; Hamid Nemati

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health

This study aimed to describe the long-term outcome with respect to symptom persistence amongst children hospitalised for COVID-19. This was a follow-up study of 58 children and adolescents hospitalised with COVID-19. For all patients, the data were collected in a phone call to the family in December 2021 (9 months after the initial study and more than 13 months after their admission to hospital). We inquired about their current health status and obtained information, if the responding parent consented orally to participate and answer the questions.

Prevalence and risk factors of post-COVID-19 condition in adults and children at 6 and 12 months after hospital discharge: a prospective, cohort study in Moscow (StopCOVID)

AUTHOR(S)
Ekaterina Pazukhina; Margarita Andreeva; Ekaterina Spiridonova (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: BMC Medicine

Previous studies assessing the prevalence of COVID-19 sequelae in adults and children were performed in the absence of an agreed definition. This research investigated prevalence of post-COVID-19 condition (PCC) (WHO definition), at 6- and 12-months follow-up, amongst previously hospitalised adults and children and assessed risk factors. Prospective cohort study of children and adults with confirmed COVID-19 in Moscow, hospitalised between April and August, 2020. Two follow-up telephone interviews, using the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium survey, were performed at 6 and 12 months after discharge.

Risk factors for COVID-19 hospitalization in school-age children

AUTHOR(S)
Liam O’Neill; Neale R. Chumbler

Published: June 2022   Journal: Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology

With the recent emergence of the Omicron variant, there has been a rapid and alarming increase in the number of COVID-19 cases among pediatric populations. Yet few US pediatric cohort studies have characterized the clinical features of children with severe COVID-19. The objective of this study was to identify those chronic comorbidities that increase the risk of hospitalization for pediatric populations with severe COVID-19. A retrospective cohort study that utilized the Texas Inpatient Public Use Data file was conducted. The study included 1187 patients (ages 5 to 19) from 164 acute-care Texas hospitals with the primary or secondary ICD-10CM diagnosis code U07.1 (COVID-19, virus identified). The baseline comparison group included 38 838 pediatric patients who were hospitalized in 2020. Multivariable binary logistic regression, controlling for patient characteristics, sociodemographic factors, and health insurance, was used to estimate the adjusted risk of hospitalization for COVID-19.

Rate of adolescent inpatient admission for psychosis during the COVID-19 pandemic: a retrospective chart review.

AUTHOR(S)
Barbara Deren; Katherine Matheson; Paula Cloutier (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Early Intervention in Psychiatry

Given the concerns for mental health (MH) impacts on children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the relative paucity of research in this field, this retrospective study compares the rate of paediatric inpatient MH admissions for psychosis for a period of 11 months before and during the pandemic. This study used administrative data to compare the rate and clinical characteristics of patients (<18 years) admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit for a psychotic illness before (March 17, 2019 to February 17, 2020) and during (March 17, 2020 to February 17, 2021) the COVID-19 pandemic.

Incidence and clinical phenotype of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children after infection with the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant by vaccination status: a Danish nationwide prospective cohort study.

AUTHOR(S)
Ulrikka Nygaard; Mette Holm; Ulla Birgitte Hartling (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) occurs after infection with SARS-CoV-2 and its incidence is likely to depend on multiple factors, including the variant of the preceding SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccine effectiveness. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of MIS-C, and describe the clinical phenotype, following the delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.617.2 and sublineages) according to vaccination status. It aimed to compare the incidence and clinical phenotype of MIS-C from our cohort during the pre-delta era. This prospective, population-based cohort study included patients aged 0–17 years hospitalised with MIS-C in Denmark, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition, from Aug 1, 2021, to Feb 1, 2022, a period dominated by the delta variant. It identified MIS-C cases via a nationwide research collaboration involving real-time data collection from all 18 paediatric departments. Aggregated number of SARS-CoV-2 infections by vaccination status was obtained from the Danish COVID-19 surveillance registries. The incidence of MIS-C was calculated using the estimated number of infected individuals by vaccination status
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 6 | Issue: 7 | No. of pages: 459-465 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, hospitalization, infectious disease, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Denmark
The significance of D-dimer investigation in Iraqi children with COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Raed Khudhair Farhan; Ahmed Jawad Kadhim Al Abdullah; Mundher Abdzaid Shamhood

Published: May 2022   Journal: International Journal of Health Sciences,
The proportion of children affected with COVID-19 accounted for approximately 1 to 2 % of all infected cases and the disease often follows a mild to moderate disease. Increased coagulation and events that are thrombotic were repeatedly recorded in adult patients with COVID-19. Nevertheless, till now, there is no consensus about thrombotic events in children in published articles.  This studyaimes to make evaluation of d-dimer level in children with COVID-19 and the rate of thrombotic complications. The present research that is of cross sectional type was carried out in Children and Maternity Teaching Hospital in Al-Diwaniyah Province, Iraq. The study included 168 children with COVDI-19 proved by positive RT-PCR results following nasopharyngeal swabs. The age ranged from one month up to 15 years and the study included 77 girls and 91 boys.
COVID-19 infections in infants

AUTHOR(S)
Małgorzata Sobolewska-Pilarczyk; Maria Pokorska-Śpiewak; Anna Stachowiak (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Scientific reports
The study aimed to analyse the clinical course of COVID-19 in 300 infants, selected from 1283 children diagnosed with COVID-19 between March and December 2020, registered in the SARSTerPED multicenter database. Most of the infants were registered in October and November 2020. 44% of the group were girls, and 56% were boys. At diagnosis, the most common symptoms were fever in 77% of the children, cough in 40%, catarrh in 37%. Pneumonia associated with COVID-19 was diagnosed in 23% of the children, and gastrointestinal symptoms in 31.3%. In 52% of the infants, elevated levels of D-dimers were observed, and in 40%, elevated levels of IL-6 serum concentration were observed. During the second wave of the pandemic, 6 times more infants were hospitalized, and the children were statistically significantly younger compared to the patients during the first wave (3 months vs 8 months, p < 0.0001 respectively). During the second wave, the infants were hospitalized for longer. COVID-19 in infants usually manifests as a mild gastrointestinal or respiratory infection, but pneumonia is also observed with falls in oxygen saturation, requiring oxygen therapy.
A study of clinical profile and outcome of COVID-19 in children

AUTHOR(S)
M. V. Nagaraj; Chikkanna Somashekhar; Raj Muniraju Geetha Nithin (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics

 COVID-19 has become a major public health crisis around the world. This study aimed at identifying the different clinical presentations of children who were tested positive for SARS-COV-2. Descriptive and prospective study of the children who were seen over the fever clinic and were admitted to the Sapthagiri institute of medical science and research centre over a period of 4 months from November 2021 to February 2022. Among the 251 children admitted to the hospital majority of them were males 52.5% and the age group of 1-5 years were highest affected 46.2%. The most common symptoms noted were fever 60.5%, followed by pain abdomen 45.8%, vomiting 43.8%, running nose 39%, cough 38%, diarrhoea 30.6%, decreased appetite 26.7% and the least common symptom was skin rash 0.3%. Children with comorbidites had higher risk of ICU admission. No deaths were noted during the study period.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 9 | Issue: 5 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, health services, hospitalization, infectious disease, pandemic | Countries: India
Association between area-level material deprivation and incidence of hospitalization among children with SARS-CoV-2 in Montreal

AUTHOR(S)
Assil Abda; Francesca Del Giorgio; Lise Gauvin (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Paediatrics & Child Health,

Although sociodemographic factors have been linked with SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalizations in adults, there are little data on the association between sociodemographic characteristics and SARS-CoV-2-related hospitalization in children. The objective of this study was to determine the association between area-level material deprivation and incidence of hospitalization with SARS-CoV-2 among children. This is a retrospective cohort study of all children (0 to 17 years of age) with a PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection March 1, 2020 through May 31, 2021 at a tertiary-care paediatric hospital, in Montreal, Canada. Data were collected through chart review and included age, sex, and postal code, allowing linkage to dissemination area-level material deprivation, measured with the Pampalon Material Deprivation Index (PMDI) quintiles. The association between PMDI quintiles and hospitalization was analyzed using Poisson regression.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 27 | Issue: Supplement 1 | No. of pages: 27-32 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, health services, hospitalization, infectious disease, pandemic | Countries: Canada
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.