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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 33
Short-term outcome of pregnant women vaccinated by BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine

AUTHOR(S)
S. Bookstein Peretz; N. Regev; L. Novick (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology

This study aims to determine the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of Pfizer's BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine among pregnant women compared with non-pregnant women, and to evaluate the obstetric outcome following vaccination. An observational case-control study of pregnant women, who were vaccinated by a 2-dose regimen of BNT162b2 vaccine during gestation between January-February 2021 (study group) and were compared to age-matched non-pregnant women who received the vaccine during the same time period (control group).

Should older adult pneumococcal vaccination recommendations change due to decreased vaccination in children during the pandemic? A cost-effectiveness analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Kenneth J. Smith; Angela R. Wateska; Mary Patricia Nowalk (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Vaccine
The COVID-19 pandemic is causing declines in childhood immunization rates. This study examined potential COVID-19-related changes in pediatric 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) use, subsequent impact on childhood and adult pneumococcal disease rates, and how those changes might affect the favorability of PCV13 use in non-immunocompromised adults aged ≥65 years.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 39 | Issue: 31 | No. of pages: 4278-4282 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease transmission, immunization, infectious disease, vaccination, vaccination policies
Vaccinating children and adolescents against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): the Israeli experience

AUTHOR(S)
Daniel Glikman; Michal Stein; Eric S. Shinwell

Published: June 2021   Journal: Acta Paediatrica
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread to almost all countries, with many severely affected. Vaccines, in general, have proven their profound value in preventing illnesses and terminating epidemics, as seen for example in measles, polio and smallpox. Vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are already showing a significant positive impact on the number of COVID-19 cases in countries with a rapid and effective roll-out of vaccinations. Israel is among world leaders, with an effective vaccination campaign that began at the end of December 2020. Vaccines are free of charge and given to all adults. Indeed, as of 13 May 2021, 63% of the population have received at least one dose and 59% are fully vaccinated.1 Vaccine coverage is lower in minorities in Israel but steadily increasing, as seen for example in the Arab population: in mid-February 2021, 19% were vaccinated with at least one dose, while by May 2021, 54% were already fully vaccinated. Accordingly, the daily number of new COVID-19 cases in Israel has declined from 10 000 at the peak of the third wave in January 2021 to less than 100 in May this year
COVID-19 and social distancing among children and adolescents in Brazil

AUTHOR(S)
Fernando Barros; Fernando P. Hartwig; Aluísio J. D. Barros (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Revista de Saude Publica

The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and the adherence to measures of social distancing in children and adolescents studied in three national surveys conducted in Brazil between May–June 2020. Three national serological surveys were conducted in 133 sentinel cities located in all 27 Federative Units. Multistage probability sampling was used to select 250 individuals per city. The total sample size in age ranges 0–9 and 10–19 years old are of 4,263 and 8,024 individuals, respectively. Information on children or adolescents was gathered with a data collection app, and a rapid point-of-case test for SARS-CoV-2 was conducted on a finger prick blood sample.

Emerging and re-emerging infections in children: COVID/ MIS-C, Zika, Ebola, Measles, Varicella, Pertussis ... immunizations

AUTHOR(S)
Carol C. Chen; Anne Whitehead

Published: June 2021   Journal: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America

Although the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) seems to be less common and less severe in children, it remains unclear what role pediatric populations play in the spread of the virus. The understanding of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection is continuing to evolve, and guidelines for evaluation and treatment may depend on local and institutional recommendations. Emergency providers can play an important role in advocating for public health in the form of vaccine advocacy and education. While still rare, emergency providers must also consider nonendemic, mostly tropical infections in children presenting with fever who are recently returning from international travel.

Impact of COVID-19 on pediatric Immunocompromised patients

AUTHOR(S)
James A. Connelly; Hey Chong; Adam J. Esbenshade (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Pediatric Clinics of North America
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused critical coronavirus disease (COVID-19) most often in the elderly and individuals with co-morbid medical conditions. Although growing evidence supports the importance of an intact innate immune response at the onset of viral infection, mortality caused by dysregulated immune responses, particularly in adults, has shown a spotlight on the delicate balance of a robust, but coordinated and controlled immune activity against infection.  This complex network of infection, immune response, and inflammation with SARS-CoV-2 has created concerns, questions, and challenges for immunocompromised children beyond fear of death from contracting SARS-CoV-2. This review examines how adaptations by health care systems to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission and treat the surge of COVID-19 patients impacted immunocompromised pediatric patients.

Expecto patronum! Leveraging the positive force of COVID-19 vaccines for pregnant and lactating individuals

AUTHOR(S)
Ann Kinga Malinowski; Wendy Whittle; Kellie Murphy (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada
For over a year, the world has been gripped by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has had far-reaching effects on society. The integrity of national health care systems has also been challenged, owing to shifts in guidance and misinformation. While initial reports suggested that pregnant people were not at increased risk of severe COVID-19 disease, current data arising from the “third wave” paint a much more concerning picture. Additionally, pregnant and lactating people were excluded from vaccine trials, which has hindered the ability of health care professionals to provide evidence-based counselling regarding the safety and efficacy of the available vaccines in these populations. This commentary reviews the current data on the safety of COVID-19 vaccines in pregnancy. The evidence is clear that the risks of hospitalization and severe maternal and potentially fetal morbidity from COVID-19 in pregnancy far outweigh the very minimal risks of COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy.
Vaccinating children against SARS-CoV-2

AUTHOR(S)
Jennie S. Lavine; Ottar Bjornstad; Rustom Antia

Published: May 2021   Journal: BMJ
Following widespread vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 of older adults and other highly vulnerable groups, some high income countries are now considering vaccinating children; just days ago, the US Food and Drug Administration authorized the use of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine in children 12-15 years of age. Young people have been largely spared from severe covid-19 so far, and the value of childhood vaccination against respiratory viruses in general remains an open question for three reasons: the limited benefits of protection in age groups that experience only mild disease; the limited effects on transmission because of the range of antigenic types and waning vaccine induced immunity; and the possibility of unintended consequences related to differences in vaccine induced and infection induced immunity. Each issue is discussed in turn.
Acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine and associated factors among pregnant women in China: a multi-center cross-sectional study based on health belief model

AUTHOR(S)
Liyuan Tao; Ruitong Wang; Na Han (et al.)

Published: May 2021

Vaccine hesitancy has been recognized as an urgent public health issue. This study aimed to explore the acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine and related factors among pregnant women, a vulnerable population for vaccine-preventable diseases. A multi-center cross-sectional study among pregnant women was conducted in five provinces of mainland China from November 13 to 27, 2020.

Childhood and adolescent vaccination in alternative settings

AUTHOR(S)
Annika M. Hofstetter; Stanley Schaffer

Published: May 2021   Journal: Academic Pediatrics
Although pediatric and adolescent vaccination rates are generally high in the United States, delayed and under-vaccination exist within certain patient populations and communities, leaving them vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. One strategy for addressing this major public health concern is to offer vaccinations in nonprimary care settings such as schools, emergency rooms, hospitals, and pharmacies. This article reviews the unique advantages, challenges, and experiences regarding vaccine delivery in each alternative setting.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 21 | Issue: 4 | No. of pages: 7 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19 response, immunization, immunization programmes, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: United States
Older adolescents and young adults willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine: implications for informing public health strategies

AUTHOR(S)
Tracie O. Afifi; Samantha Salmon; Tamara Taillieu (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Vaccine

The success in ending the COVID-19 pandemic rests partly on the mass uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine. Little work has been done to understand vaccine willingness among older adolescents and young adults. This is important since this age group may be less likely to adhere to public health guidelines.This article aims to understand willingness of getting a vaccine and reasons for vaccine hesitancy among a sample of older adolescents and young adults.

The incremental burden of invasive pneumococcal disease associated with a decline in childhood vaccination using a dynamic transmission model in Japan: a secondary impact of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Taito Kitano; Hirosato Aoki

Published: May 2021   Journal: Computers in Biology and Medicine
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted childhood vaccinations, including pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). Evaluating the possible impact on the invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence associated with a decline in childhood pneumococcal vaccination is important to advocate the PCV programs. Using a deterministic, dynamic transmission model, the differential incidence and burden of IPD in children younger than 5 years in Japan were estimated between the rapid vaccination recovery (January 2021) and the delayed vaccination recovery (April 2022) scenarios for the next 10 years.
Pediatricians’ COVID-19 experiences and views on the willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccines: a cross-sectional survey in Turkey

AUTHOR(S)
Erdem Gönüllü; Ahmet Soysal; Serkan Atıcı (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Developing an effective and safe vaccine against Covid-19 will facilitate return to normal. Due to hesitation toward the vaccine, it is crucial to explore the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine to the public and healthcare workers. In this cross-sectional survey, we invited 2251 pediatricians and 506 (22%) of them responded survey and 424 (84%) gave either nasopharyngeal swap or antibody assay for COVID-19 and 71 (14%) of them got diagnosis of COVID-19. If the effective and safe COVID-19 vaccine was launched on market, 420 (83%) of pediatrician accepted to get vaccine shot, 422 (83%) of them recommended vaccination to their family members, 380 (75%) of them accepted to vaccine their children and 445 (85%) of them offered vaccination to their pediatric patients.
Parents’ willingness to pay for a COVID-19 vaccine for themselves and their children in the United States

AUTHOR(S)
Serkan Catma; Diana Reindl

Published: April 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Differences in obtaining a vaccine vary based on a multitude of factors including perceptions of vaccine safety, efficacy and willingness to pay (WTP). This study focuses on parent perceptions toward a vaccine for COVID-19 including their WTP decisions for their children and themselves. A mixed methods design using a cross-sectional survey was used to assess the perceptions of US parents, with children under 18, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was administered online in November 2020 and 584 final responses were collected.
COVID-19 vaccination in pregnant and lactating diabetic women

AUTHOR(S)
Maria Angela Sculli; Gloria Formoso; Laura Sciacca

Published: April 2021   Journal: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection are at high risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome and adverse outcomes. Pregnant women with severe COVID-19 present increased rates of preterm delivery (<37 gestational weeks), cesarean delivery and neonatal admissions to the intensive care unit. Comorbidity such as diabetes (pregestational or gestational) or obesity further increased maternal and fetal complications. It is known that diabetic or obese patients with COVID-19 present an unfavorable course and a worse prognosis, with a direct association between worse outcome and suboptimal glycol-metabolic control or body mass index (BMI) levels. Critical COVID-19 infection prevention is important for both mother and fetus. Vaccination during pregnancy is a common practice. Vaccines against COVID-19 are distributed across the world with some population considered to have a priority. Since pregnant women are excluded from clinical trials very little information are available on safety and efficacy of COVD-19 vaccines during pregnancy. However, it is well known the concept of passive immunization of the newborn obtained with transplacental passage of protective antibodies into the fetal/neonatal circulation after maternal infection or vaccination. Moreover, it has been reported that COVID-19 vaccine-induced IgG pass to the neonates through breastmilk. Therefore, maternal vaccination can protect mother, fetus and baby.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.