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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 56
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on delayed/missed routine immunization in children (0-24 months) in Islamabad, Pakistan

AUTHOR(S)
Sabeen Abid Khan; Muhammad Imran; Rabia Tabassum (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health
It is very important to understand the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on routine immunization uptake in children in Islamabad, Pakistan. This cross-sectional study was done from November 2020 to January 2021. Children aged 0 to 24 months were enrolled from vaccination centers in public and private sector hospitals. In the private center vaccination services were suspended from March 20 2020 till August 2020. The public center continued to provide vaccination service during the lockdown. Delayed vaccination was defined as a lapse of 4 weeks from the due date. Children who had missed vaccination due to health issue or on doctors' recommendations were excluded.
Education level and COVID-19 vaccination willingness in adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Elke Humer; Andrea Jesser; Paul L. Plener (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Vaccination is essential to control the COVID-19 pandemic. High vaccination willingness is a key for successful vaccination programs. This study assessed attitudes toward vaccination in Austrian adolescents and determined whether there are differences in vaccination readiness regarding education status, gender and migration background. Two cross-sectional online surveys were conducted from March to July 2021 in apprentices and high school students. Willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination was rated on a 5-point scale. In total, n = 2006 (n = 1442 apprentices and n = 564 high school students) completed the survey. Willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination was higher in students compared to apprentices (p < 0.001). Furthermore, migration background (p = 0.023) and female gender (p = 0.001) were associated with lower vaccination willingness. In conclusion, more efforts are required to improve confidence and willingness to vaccinate adolescents with lower educational levels, those with migrant backgrounds and females.
Impact of the first phase of COVID-19 pandemic on childhood routine immunisation services in Nepal: a qualitative study on the perspectives of service providers and users

AUTHOR(S)
Asmita Priyadarshini Khatiwada; Smriti Maskey; Nistha Shrestha (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected all essential healthcare services delivery in low-resource settings. This study aimed to explore the challenges and experiences of providers and users of childhood immunisation services in Nepal during the COVID-19 pandemic. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with childhood immunisation service providers and users (i.e., parents of children) from Kathmandu valley, Nepal. All interviews were conducted through phone or internet-based tools, such as Zoom, WhatsApp, and messenger. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using theme-based content analysis in an Excel spreadsheet.

How can we best use COVID-19 vaccines in adolescents? A perspective from the United States

AUTHOR(S)
Donna L. Tyungu; Sean T. O’Leary; Amy B. Middleman

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health
With interest, we read the commentary by Zhong et al. entitled, ”How can we best use COVID-19 vaccines in adolescents?” discussing the risk and benefits of vaccination for the adolescent age group and concluding that the risk-benefit ratio for vaccinating healthy adolescents was equivocal [1]. The authors noted in the first sentence of the article, “Mass vaccination of the world population is our ticket out of the COVID-19 pandemic.” This study posits that the adolescent age group, a significant proportion of the “world population,” is an important group to vaccinate to curb the spread of COVID-19 disease and to directly protect children and adolescents at risk of disease and disease complications.
Parent and peer norms are unique correlates of COVID-19 vaccine intentions in a diverse sample of US adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Adam A. Rogers; Rachel E. Cook; Julie A. Button

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

Recent studies have documented worrisome levels of hesitancy and resistance to the COVID-19 vaccine, including within the adolescent population. In this study, we examined attitudinal (perceived severity of COVID-19, vaccine-related concerns) and interpersonal (parent and peer norms) antecedents of adolescents’ intentions to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Participants were 916 adolescents (ages 12 – 17) from across the United States (47.3% male) representing diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds (26% African American, 22% Hispanic/Latinx; 35% White; 7% Asian American). They completed a survey on their experiences and attitudes surrounding COVID-19 and the COVID-19 vaccine.

“Poison” or “protection”? A mixed methods exploration of Australian parents' COVID-19 vaccination intentions

AUTHOR(S)
S. Evans; A.KlasabA.Mikocka-Walus Klas; A. Mikocka-Walus (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Psychosomatic Research

The success of COVID-19 vaccination programs relies on community attitudes, yet little is known about parents' views. This study aimed to explore the reasons behind Australian parents' vaccine intentions for themselves and for their children. This mixed methods study relates to Wave 13 (January 2021) of a longitudinal study of Australian parents' experiences during COVID-19 and contained 1094 participants (83% mothers). We used multinomial logistic regression to understand demographic predictors of vaccine intention, and a descriptive template thematic analysis to analyse open-ended questions about parents' reasons for vaccine intentions for themselves and their children.

COVID-19 vaccine sentiments among African American or black adolescents in rural Alabama

AUTHOR(S)
Henna Budhwani; Tiffani Maycock; Wilnadia Murrell (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health
Considering the urgent need to increase vaccine uptake in Alabama, a rural state with the lowest levels of COVID-19 vaccination in the country, we conducted an exploratory study to elucidate sentiments toward vaccination among African American or Black adolescents. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15-17 year olds in rural Alabama (N=28). About 54% of our sample were female. Nearly a third lived with an older family member; 18% knew someone who contracted COVID-19. Using Rapid Qualitative Analysis, three COVID-19 vaccine-related themes emerged: influence of community leaders and older family members, fear of side effects and mis-information, and institutional distrust.
Willingness of children and adolescents to have a COVID-19 vaccination: Results of a large whole schools survey in England

AUTHOR(S)
Mina Fazel; Stephen Puntis; Simon R. White (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: EClinicalMedicine

Vaccine hesitancy has affected COVID-19 adult vaccination programs in many countries. Data on hesitancy amongst child and adolescent populations is largely confined to parent opinion. This study investigated the characteristics of vaccine hesitant children and adolescents using results from a large, school-based self-report survey of the willingness to have a COVID-19 vaccination in students aged 9 –18 years in England. Data from the OxWell Student Survey on mental health, life experiences and behaviours were used, collected from four counties across England.

Preparedness of current and future Saudi pediatricians to face vaccine hesitancy: cross-sectional study within the capital city of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh

AUTHOR(S)
Yossef Alnasser; Mahdi A. Alnamnakani; Jawahir M. Abuhaimed (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Annals of Medicine and Surgery

Vaccines have helped in eradicating many communicable diseases. They are considered major players in preserving children's health. However, concerns about vaccines' ingredients and safety became hot topics globally. With doubt, some parents became hesitant to vaccinate their children. A recent study documented high prevalence of vaccine hesitancy among Saudi parents. This study aims to explore preparedness of current and future pediatricians to face vaccine hesitancy, a growing public health issue in Saudi Arabia. This study adopted non-interventional cross-sectional online questionnaire specifically designed to encompass general vaccine hesitancy related questions including Covid-19's vaccines.

Cite this research | Vol.: 69 | No. of pages: 5 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, immunization programmes, infectious disease, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Saudi Arabia
Vaccine hesitancy towards childhood immunizations as a predictor of mothers’ intention to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia

AUTHOR(S)
Haifa Aldakhil; Norah Albedah; Nouf Alturaiki (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Infection and Public Health

Despite the success of childhood immunization in reducing vaccine-preventable diseases, vaccine hesitancy is now a global health threat to this achievement. The current COVID-19 pandemic may change the picture of vaccine hesitancy toward childhood immunizations, which could influence the mothers’ intention to vaccinate their children against COVID-19. This study aims to measure the prevalence and related factors of vaccine hesitancy towards childhood immunization during the era of COVID-19 along with the prevalence of mothers’ intention to vaccinate their children the future COVID-19 and its association with childhood vaccine hesitancy.

Willingness and influential factors of parents of 3-6-year-old children to vaccinate their children with the COVID-19 vaccine in China

AUTHOR(S)
Xiao Wan; Haitao Huang; Jia Shang (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
The impact of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on children aged 3–6 can be severe. Vaccination for COVID-19 is one of the most important primary preventative measures to reduce disease transmission. Parents are hesitant to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 because it was reported in the news that some adults have had adverse reactions to the vaccine. This study aims to investigate the willingness of Chinese parents of 3–6 year old children to vaccinate them with the COVID-19 vaccine and identify what factors influence their decisions. A survey was conducted using a two-stage stratified random sampling method from December 2020 to February 2021. We used univariate analysis and multivariate binary logistic analysis to explore potential factors that may determine the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine.
Repurposing of the childhood vaccines: could we train the immune system against the SARS-CoV-2

AUTHOR(S)
Divakar Sharma

Published: August 2021   Journal: Expert Review of Vaccines

The COVID-19 pandemic is a globalized health concern caused by a beta-coronavirus named Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since December 2019, when this outbreak flared in Wuhan, China, COVID-19 cases have been continuously rising all over the world. Due to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 mutants, subsequent waves are flowing in a faster manner as compared to the primary wave, which is more contagious and causing higher mortality. Recently, India has emerged as the new epicenter of the second wave by mutants of SARS-CoV-2. After almost eighteen months of this outbreak, some COVID-19 dedicated therapeutics and vaccines are available, and a few are under trial, but the situation is still uncontrolled. This perspective article covers the repurposing of childhood vaccines like Bacille Calmette–Guerin (BCG), Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR), and Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV), which are live attenuated vaccines and have been shown the protective effect through ‘trained immunity and ‘crossreactivity.'

Pediatric and parents' attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccines and intention to vaccinate for children

AUTHOR(S)
Soo-Han Choi; Yoon Hee Jo; Kyo Jin Jo (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Korean Medical Science

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination is necessary to reach herd immunity and essential for mitigating the spread of the pandemic. In May 2021, the US FDA and the EU have expanded the emergency use authorization for a COVID-19 vaccine to children aged 12 to 15. The aim of this study was to investigate parental acceptability of COVID-19 vaccination for their children, factors affecting their acceptability, and children's perceptions of COVID-19 vaccines in Republic of Korea. A questionnaire survey at two tertiary hospitals was conducted from May 25, 2021 to June 3, 2021. Subjects were parents having children under 18 years and children aged 10–18 years.

SARS-CoV-2 infection risk during delivery of childhood vaccination campaigns: a modelling study

AUTHOR(S)
Simon R. Procter; Kaja Abbas; Stefan Flasche (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: BMC Medicine

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the delivery of immunisation services globally. Many countries have postponed vaccination campaigns out of concern about infection risks to the staff delivering vaccination, the children being vaccinated, and their families. The World Health Organization recommends considering both the benefit of preventive campaigns and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when making decisions about campaigns during COVID-19 outbreaks, but there has been little quantification of the risks. This study modelled excess SARS-CoV-2 infection risk to vaccinators, vaccinees, and their caregivers resulting from vaccination campaigns delivered during a COVID-19 epidemic. It used population age structure and contact patterns from three exemplar countries (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Brazil). It combined an existing compartmental transmission model of an underlying COVID-19 epidemic with a Reed-Frost model of SARS-CoV-2 infection risk to vaccinators and vaccinees. It explored how excess risk depends on key parameters governing SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility, and aspects of campaign delivery such as campaign duration, number of vaccinations, and effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) and symptomatic screening.

COVID-19 in children and young adults with moderate/severe inborn errors of immunity in a high burden area in pre-vaccine era

AUTHOR(S)
A. Deyà-Martínez; A. García-García; E. A. Gonzalez-Navarro (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Clinical Immunology

Information regarding inborn error of immunity (IEI) as a risk factor for severe COVID-19 is scarce. This study aimed to determine if paediatric patients with moderate/severe IEI got COVID-19 at the same level as the general population, and to describe COVID-19 expression. It included patients with moderate/severe IEI aged 0–21 years old: cross-sectional study (June2020) to determine the prevalence of COVID-19; prospective study (January2020-January2021) including IEI patients with COVID-19. Assays used: nasopharyngeal swab SARS-CoV-2 PCR and SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulins.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.