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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Pediatric routine vaccinations in the COVID 19 lockdown period: the survey of the Italian Pediatric Society

AUTHOR(S)
Rocco Russo; Elena Bozzola; Paolo Palma (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
COVID-19 pandemic was responsible for disrupting routine immunization activities all over the world. Aim of the study was to investigate the reduced adherence to the national children vaccination schedule during the lockdown period in Italy. Through social channels, the Italian Pediatric Society conducted a survey among Italian families on children vaccination during lockdown period.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 4 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, immunization programmes, vaccination, COVID-19 | Countries: Italy
Demographic, psychological, and experiential correlates of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination intentions in a sample of Canadian families

AUTHOR(S)
Christine L. Lackner; Charles H. Wang

Published: March 2021   Journal: Vaccine: X
The COVID-19 pandemic has been ongoing for close to a year, with second waves occurring presently and many viewing vaccine uptake as the most likely way to curb successive waves and promote herd immunity. Reaching herd immunity status likely necessitates that children, as well as their parents, receive a vaccine targeting SARS-CoV-2. This exploratory study investigated the demographic, experiential, and psychological factors associated with the anticipated likelihood and speed of having children receive a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in a sample of 455 Canadian families (858 children; parents’ mean age = 38.2 ± 6.82 years).
Post-disruption catch-up of child immunisation and health-care services in Bangladesh

AUTHOR(S)
Shohel Rana; Rashed Shah; Sabbir Ahmed (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
After the first COVID-19 case was diagnosed in March, 2020, child health service delivery and use declined in rural remote communities in Bangladesh. This paper retrieved annual data for 2019 and 2020 from Bangladesh's district health information system (DHIS) for child immunisation and sick children's care-seeking in six subdistricts of Barishal, Bangladesh.
Monitoring progress of maternal and neonatal immunization in Latin America and the Caribbean

AUTHOR(S)
Martha Velandia-González; Alba Vilajeliu; Marcela Contreras (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Vaccine
The Americas committed to strengthening maternal and neonatal immunization (MNI) through the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) Regional Immunization Action Plan (RIAP)2016–20. This paper describes the progress toward RIAP MNI-related targets and those related to improvement of data quality and information systems; analyze national MNI policies and vaccination coverages; and identify enablers and challenges of monitoring and reporting MNI vaccination coverage in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC).
SARS-CoV-2 vaccine testing and trials in the pediatric population: biologic, ethical, research, and implementation challenges

AUTHOR(S)
Dan M. Cooper; Behnoush Afghani; Carrie L. Byington

Published: February 2021   Journal: Pediatric Research
As the nation implements SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in adults at an unprecedented scale, it is now essential to focus on the prospect of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations in pediatric populations. To date, no children younger than 12 years have been enrolled in clinical trials. Key challenges and knowledge gaps that must be addressed include (1) rationale for vaccines in children, (2) possible effects of immune maturation during childhood, (3) ethical concerns, (4) unique needs of children with developmental disorders and chronic conditions, (5) health inequities, and (6) vaccine hesitancy.
Digital technologies for real-time monitoring of immunization activities: good practices and lessons learned
Institution: *UNICEF, GAVI
Published: January 2021
This report compiles the good practices and lessons learned from countries implementing real-time monitoring (RTM) - activities that employ digital technologies to accelerate the sharing, analysis and use of data to improve campaign quality - for immunization campaigns. Data and information were collected using a mix of interviews (United Nations Children's Fund, World Health Organization, and regional and country office staff); consultations with key partners; a field mission to Pakistan; and documents and journal articles. Four countries with robust experience implementing RTM technologies for immunization campaigns - Indonesia, Pakistan, Uganda and Zambia - were included as case studies.
Cite this research | No. of pages: 78 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: immunization, immunization programmes, monitoring, COVID-19, multi-country | Publisher: *UNICEF
Willingness to vaccinate children against Influenza after the Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Ran D. Goldman; Sophie McGregor; Shashidhar R. Marneni (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: The Journal of Pediatrics
This study aims to determine factors associated with parents who plan to vaccinate their children against influenza next year, especially those who did not vaccinate against influenza last year using a global survey. A survey of caregivers accompanying their children aged 1-19 years old in 17 pediatric emergency departments in 6 countries at the peak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Anonymous online survey included caregiver and child demographic information, vaccination history and future intentions, and concern about the child and caregiver having COVID-19 at the time of emergency department visit.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 228 | No. of pages: 87-93.e2 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: immunization programmes, parents, vaccination, vaccination policies, COVID-19 response | Countries: United States
Evaluation of COVID-19 vaccine refusal in parents

AUTHOR(S)
Metin Yigit; Aslinur Ozkaya-Parlakay; Emrah Senel

Published: January 2021   Journal: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
The frequency of vaccine refusal, which is associated with many factors, is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to predict the frequency of vaccine refusal against domestic and foreign COVID-19 vaccines and identify the factors underlying refusal.
Parents’ and guardians’ views and experiences of accessing routine childhood vaccinations during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic: a mixed methods study in England

AUTHOR(S)
Sadie Bell; Richard Clarke; Paulin Paterson (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: Plos One
This study aims to explore parents’ and guardians’ views and experiences of accessing National Health Service (NHS) general practices for routine childhood vaccinations during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in England.
Attitudes towards vaccines and intention to vaccinate against COVID-19: implications for public health communications

AUTHOR(S)
Elise Paul; Andrew Steptoe; Daisy Fancourt

Published: December 2020   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Europe
Negative attitudes towards vaccines and an uncertainty or unwillingness to receive vaccinations are major barriers to managing the COVID-19 pandemic in the long-term. Predictors of four domains of negative attitudes towards vaccines were estimated and groups most at risk of uncertainty and unwillingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine in a large sample of UK adults were identified. Data were cross-sectional and from 32,361 adults in the UCL COVID-19 Social Study. Ordinary least squares regression analyses examined the impact of socio-demographic and COVID-19 related factors on four types of negative vaccine attitudes: mistrust of vaccine benefit, worries about unforeseen effects, concerns about commercial profiteering, and preference for natural immunity. Multinomial regression examined the impact of socio-demographic and COVID-19 related factors, negative vaccine attitudes, and prior vaccine behaviour on uncertainty and unwillingness to be vaccinated for COVID-19.
COVID-19 in children: could pertussis vaccine play the protective role?

AUTHOR(S)
Mohamad Bachar Ismail; Sarah Al Omari; Rayane Rafei (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: Medical Hypotheses
While COVID-19 continues to spread across the globe, diligent efforts are made to understand its attributes and dynamics to help develop treatment and prevention measures. The paradox pertaining to children being the least affected by severe illness poses exciting opportunities to investigate potential protective factors. The Hypothesis of  this paper is that childhood vaccination against pertussis (whooping cough) might play a non-specific protective role against COVID-19 through heterologous adaptive responses in this young population. Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable infectious disease of the respiratory tract and it shares many similarities with COVID-19 including transmission and clinical features. Although pertussis is caused by a bacterium (Bordetella pertussis) while COVID-19 is a viral infection (SARS-CoV-2), previous data showed that cross-reactivity and heterologous adaptive responses can be seen with unrelated agents of highly divergent groups, such as between bacteria and viruses.
Building on an ad hoc Covid-19 response to enhance community-based care for vulnerable children in Kerala, India

AUTHOR(S)
Geeta Madathil Govindaraj; Padinharath Krishnakumar; Vinod Scaria (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: NEJM Catalyst Innovations in Care Delivery
The Covid-19–related lockdowns resulted in disruptions of care for children with inborn errors of immunity, who, without access to travel, would be unable to continue immunoglobulin replacement. A community-based care program through pediatricians in state-run peripheral hospitals has been initiated. The police network, which was already actively involved in Covid-19 prevention, helped transport essential medicines from the tertiary care center. Two months later, a virtual focus group discussions with the mothers was conducted to understand their experiences, identify possible gaps in care, and explore suggestions for improvement. Although the community-based care and subsequent virtual focus group discussions were instituted as a temporary measure to ensure continuity of care, it has been found that it is effective, feasible, and acceptable. Hence, it has been decided to continue the program even beyond the pandemic. This model of care can be extended to other chronic illnesses as well as to rare diseases in resource-constrained settings.
Impact of COVID‐19 on polio vaccination in Pakistan: a concise overview

AUTHOR(S)
Misbahud Din; Hammad Ali; Mudassir Khan (et al.)

Published: November 2020
The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) has disrupted immunization programs around the globe, potentially increasing life‐threatening vaccine‐preventable diseases. Pakistan and Afghanistan are the only countries, which are still struggling to eradicate wild poliovirus. All vaccination campaigns in Pakistan were suspended in April due to the COVID‐19 outbreak, leading 40 million children to miss out on polio vaccination. Like the climate crisis, the COVID‐19 pandemic could be regarded as a child‐rights crisis because it could have life‐threatening impact over children, who need immunization, now and in the long‐term.
Pneumonia & diarrhea progress report 2020
Institution: Save the Children
Published: November 2020

Pneumonia and diarrhea are leading killers of children under the age of five, claiming the lives of more young children globally than any other infectious disease. The impacts of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic aggravate these heath risks. International Vaccine Access Center's (IVAC) annual Pneumonia & Diarrhea Progress Report evaluates the progress across 10 high-impact indicators outlined in the Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD) in the 15 countries with the greatest burden of under-five pneumonia and diarrhea deaths.

Childhood immunization and COVID-19: an early narrative review

AUTHOR(S)
Bojana Beric-Stojsic; Julie Kalabalik-Hoganson; Denise Rizzolo (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health
The COVID-19 pandemic has evolved into arguably the largest global public health crisis in recent history—especially in the absence of a safe and effective vaccine or an effective anti-viral treatment. As reported, the virus seems to less commonly infect children and causing less severe symptoms among infected children. This narrative review provides an inclusive view of scientific hypotheses, logical derivation, and early analyses that substantiate or refute such conjectures. At the completion of a relatively less restrictive search of this evolving topic, 13 articles—all published in 2020, were included in this early narrative review.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.