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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Childhood COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and preference from caregivers and healthcare workers in China: a survey experiment

Zhiyuan Hou; Kuimeng Song; Qian Wang (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Preventive Medicine
With approval of more COVID-19 vaccines for children, vaccine attributes may influence parental acceptance and choices. This study aimed to assess effects of vaccine attributes and information on herd immunity on childhood COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. A survey experiment was conducted with caregivers of children aged 6 months to 11 years old and health care workers (HCWs) in China from September 14 to November 18, 2021. Respondents were randomly assigned to receive differing information on herd immunity (> 80% of the entire population must be vaccinated; or no information). Respondents then completed eight discrete choice tasks to assess vaccine acceptance based on attributes. 2331 (90.07%) of 2588 surveyed caregivers and 1576 (92.71%) of 1700 surveyed HCWs would accept COVID-19 vaccination for children, respectively.
Children's rates of COVID-19 vaccination as reported by parents, vaccine hesitancy, and determinants of COVID-19 vaccine uptake among children: a multi-country study from the Eastern Mediterranean Region

Moawiah Khatatbeh; Samir Albalas; Haitham Khatatbeh (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health volume

Huge efforts are being made to control the spread and impacts of the coronavirus pandemic using vaccines. However, willingness to be vaccinated depends on factors beyond the availability of vaccines. The aim of this study was three-folded: to assess children’s rates of COVID-19 Vaccination as reported by parents, to explore parents’ attitudes towards children’s COVID-19 vaccination, and to examine the factors associated with parents’ hesitancy towards children’s vaccination in several countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). This study utilized a cross-sectional descriptive design. A sample of 3744 parents from eight countries, namely, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia (KSA), and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), was conveniently approached and surveyed using Google forms from November to December 2021. The participants have responded to a 42-item questionnaire pertaining to socio-demographics, children vaccination status, knowledge about COVID-19 vaccines, and attitudes towards vaccinating children and the vaccine itself. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS- IBM, Chicago, IL, USA) was used to analyze the data. A cross-tabulation analysis using the chi-square test was employed to assess significant differences between categorical variables and a backward Wald stepwise binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the independent effect of each factor after controlling for potential confounders.

Attitude of parents toward vaccination against COVID-19 for own children in Jordan: a cross-sectional study

Sawsan Abuhammad; Yousef Khader; Shaher Hamaideh

Published: July 2022   Journal: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked

This study aimed to evaluate parents' attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccination for their children and determine predictors of parents’ attitudes towards their children receiving the Vaccine against COVID-19. This study used a cross-sectional design. The subjects were Jordanian parents with a child less than 18 years old. The survey was made available on different social media platforms and other networks such as community organizations, academic posts, and private groups.

Parents' perception towards the national COVID-19 immunisation programme for children (PICKids): a cross-sectional, internet-based survey

Ishak Mas’ud; Surina Mohamad Shafi; Mohd Zulkifli Awang (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: International Journal of Human and Health Sciences
The Ministry of Health Malaysia’s (MOH) National COVID-19 Immunisation Programme for Children (PICKids) is a public health initiative aimed at achieving herd immunity and prevent illness among Malaysian children. The COVID-19 outbreak and the efficacy of the COVID-19 immunisation programme for children are facing tremendous stress among parents. The purpose of this study was to see how parents in Klang Valley, Malaysia viewed and accepted the COVID-19 vaccination for their children. Parents were distributed a set of questionnaires over social media via Qualtrics XM. A simple random sampling technique was used to choose the participants. The total number of participants in the study was 88, with 30 males (34.09%) and 58 females (65.91%). The findings show a statistically significant correlation between parents’ knowledge of COVID-19 and their willingness to vaccinate their children.
Parents' perceptions on COVID-19 vaccination as the new routine for their children ≤ 11 years old

Robin M. Humble; Hannah Sell; Sarah Wilson (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Preventive Medicine
Canadian children 5–11 years old became eligible for COVID-19 vaccination on November 19, 2021, with
eligibility for younger children expected later. This study aimed to descriptively assess parents' COVID-19 vaccine in-
tentions and acceptability of future doses, including co-administration and annual vaccination for their children.
A cross-sectional Canadian online survey of parents was conducted from October 14–November 12, 2021, just
prior to authorization of the pediatric formulation of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine for children aged 5–11
Routine SARS-CoV-2 vaccination for all children

Kristina De Paris; Sallie R. Permar

Published: July 2022   Journal: Immunological Reviews
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented health and economic losses. Children generally present with less severe disease from this virus compared with adults, yet neonates and children with COVID-19 can require hospitalization, and older children can develop severe complications, such as the multisystem inflammatory syndrome, resulting in >1500 deaths in children from COVID-19 since the onset of the pandemic. The introduction of effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in school-age children and adult populations combined with the emergence of new, more highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants has resulted in a proportional increase of infections in young children. Here, we discuss (1) the current knowledge on pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathogenesis in comparison with adults, (2) the data on vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy in children, and (3) the benefits of early life SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.
Immunologic response, efficacy, and safety of vaccines against COVID-19 infection in healthy and immunosuppressed children and adolescents aged 2–21 years old: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Sara Sadeghi; Yasamin Kalantari; Sima Shokri (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Clinical Virology
Children and adolescents form a large proportion of societies and play an important role in the transmission of COVID-19. On the other hand, their education, mental and physical wellness, and safety are compromised which makes vaccination a crucial step to return to normal life. In the current systematic review, the COVID-19 vaccination was evaluated in a total of 50,148 children and adolescents in 22 published studies and 5,279 participants in two ongoing clinical trials. The study was registered in the PROSPERO with the ID# CRD42022303615. Data were collected about multiple vaccines including BNT162b2 (Pfizer), mRNA-1273 (Moderna), JNJ-78436735 (Johnson and Johnson), CoronaVac (Sinovac), BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm), adenovirus type-5-vectored vaccine, ZyCov-D, and BBV152 (COVAXIN). The immune response and efficacy of such vaccines were 96% – 100% in healthy children and adolescents and were also acceptable in those with underlying diseases and suppressed immune systems.
COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and influential factors among Thai parents and guardians to vaccinate their children

Amornphat Kitro; Wachiranun Sirikul; Ekkamon Dilokkhamaruk (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Vaccine: X

The ongoing COVID-19 has had a huge worldwide influence. Vaccinations are a crucial component of illness prevention. Thailand's vaccination program for children above the age of five is in its initial stages. Many Thai parents are still unwilling to vaccinate their children with the COVID-19 vaccine. The purpose of this study was to analyze the rate of parental hesitancy and influential variables among Thai parents and guardians living in Thailand. This was a cross-sectional survey in Thailand during October and November of 2021. Through online social media networks, an online survey (REDcap) was distributed. Thai parents and guardians with at least one child under the age of 18 were invited to participate.

Parental COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in diverse communities: a national survey

Annabelle de St Maurice; Ray Block; Gabriel Sanchez (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Academic Pediatrics
This study surveyed a diverse group of US participants to understand parental COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. It administered a telephone and online survey from May 7-June 7, 2021 using stratified sampling to ensure robust sample sizes of racial and ethnic minorities. Of the 20,280 contacted, 12,288 respondents completed the survey (response rate 61%). It used chi-square tests and adjusted risk ratios to compare results by racial/ethnic group.
Safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vVaccines in children and adolescents: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

Fangyuan Tian; Ruonan Yang; Zhaoyan Chen

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Medical Virology
This paper aims to systematically review and synthesize the safety and efficacy of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in children and adolescents. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library databases, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), the Chinese Clinical Trials Registry (ChiCTR), and website were searched to collect accessible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the safety and efficacy of human COVID-19 vaccines in children and adolescents until May 1, 2022. Three steps, including duplicate removal, title and abstract screening, and full-text review, were used to screen the studies. The Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for RCTs was used to assess the bias risk of the included studies.
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign: risk perception, emotional states, and vaccine hesitancy in a sample of adolescents' vaccinated parents in Southern Italy

Giulia Savarese; Luna Carpinelli; Anna De Chiara (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Vaccines
The international strategic plan for COVID-19 vaccines remains the practical option for the protection of health. However, vaccine hesitancy remains an obstacle to full population vaccination, with rapid developments in COVID-19 vaccines and concerns about efficacy acting as influencing factors. The present study investigated the perception of vaccine hesitancy among parents of adolescents in order to explore the reasons and related emotional states. In January–March 2022, an online questionnaire was administered to a sample of parents who brought their children to the vaccine center of a local health unit, ASL Salerno (Campania, Italy).
Measuring parents' acceptance of non-national immunization program vaccines for children and its influencing factors during the COVID-19 pandemic in Shanghai, China

Linlin Wu; Zhuoying Huang; Xiang Guo (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
This study aimed to understand the willingness of and affecting factors of non-national immunization program (non-NIP) vaccines among children’s parents during the COVID-19 era in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with parents who attended vaccination clinics in four out of 16 districts in Shanghai, China. Data was obtained using a self-administered structured questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze factors associated with vaccination acceptability. In total, 1691 valid questionnaires were obtained.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 18 | Issue: 5 | No. of pages: 7 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, immunization, immunization programmes, infectious disease, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: China
In whose best interest? Parental hesitancy toward the COVID-19 vaccine for children in Japan: a literature survey study

Shizuko Takahashi; Eisuke Nakazawa; Akira Akabayashi

Published: June 2022   Journal: COVID
In early February 2022, the Japanese government sent COVID-19 vaccine vouchers to children ages 5–11. Using keywords obtained from the voucher, the frequently asked questions section, and experts, this study descriptively analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of vaccination for children and their parents through a web-based literature survey of media articles and government homepage statements in Japan. For children, vaccination helps prevent severe symptoms and may be particularly beneficial for children in low-income families by lowering the rate of suicide and at-home child abuse. For parents, not vaccinating their child allows them to fulfill a more traditional role as a parent (mothers in particular), reduces the gender gap for mothers, and provides greater peace of mind about their child’s future fertility. This study also examined the governmental vaccination campaigns targeting children from public health perspectives.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 2 | Issue: 7 | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, immunization, immunization programmes, infectious disease, pandemic, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Japan
The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on inequity in routine childhood vaccination coverage: a systematic review

Nicholas Spencer; Wolfgang Markham; Samantha Johnson (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Vaccines
Routine childhood vaccination coverage rates fell in many countries during the COVID-19 pandemic, but the impact of inequity on coverage is unknown. This study synthesised evidence on inequities in routine childhood vaccination coverage (PROSPERO, CRD 42021257431). Studies reporting empirical data on routine vaccination coverage in children 0–18 years old during the COVID-19 pandemic by equity stratifiers were systematically reviewed. Nine electronic databases were searched between 1 January 2020 and 18 January 2022.
Pediatric and adolescent COVID‐19 vaccination side effects: a retrospective cohort study of Iranian teenage group in 2021

Nader Tavakoli; Nahid Nafissi; Sima Shokri (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Medical Virology
This study aimed to determine the safety and efficacy profile of teenager COVID-19 vaccination. In this retrospective cohort study, contact numbers of parents of teenagers under 18 years of age referred to a teenager vaccination centers in Tehran-Iran to receive the corona vaccine were collected, and the following information was obtained via the phones: demographic information, type of vaccine, and the number of doses received, as well as additional information like complications and required treatments. Eleven thousand forty-two subjects aged 10−18 years, mean age 14.55 ± 1.83 year  including 5374 boys and 5768 girls were investigated.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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