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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 72
COVID-19 in Ghana: challenges and countermeasures for maternal health service delivery in public health facilities

AUTHOR(S)
Faith Agbozo; Albrecht Jahn

Published: July 2021   Journal: Reproductive Health
This study provides a situational update on COVID-19 in Ghana, the seventh African country reporting the most cases. Some modifications occurring within the health system to curtail the outbreak and its potential impact on the delivery of antenatal care services are also highlighted. With the discovery of the Delta variant in Ghana, the current attention is to prevent a third wave of infection, and also control and manage existing cases. Efforts to procure vaccines, vaccinate special populations and sensitize the public on the implications of vaccine hesitancy are ongoing.
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on routine childhood immunisation in Colombia

AUTHOR(S)
José Moreno-Montoya; Silvia Marcela Ballesteros; Jaid Constanza Rojas Sotelo (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Archives of Disease in Childhood

This article aims to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on routine childhood vaccination coverage in Colombia by age group, rural/urban residence, state and vaccine type. It is an ecological study of official monthly vaccination records.

Parental plans to vaccinate children for COVID-19 in New York city

AUTHOR(S)
Chloe A. Teasdale; Luisa N. Borrell; Yanhan Shen (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Vaccine
Once COVID-19 vaccines are approved for children < 12 years of age, high pediatric vaccination coverage will be needed to help minimize the public health threat from the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. We conducted an online survey of 1,119 parents and caregivers of children ≤ 12 years in New York City from March 9 to April 11, 2021. Among parents surveyed, 61.9% reported plans to vaccinate their youngest child for COVID-19, 14.8% said they do not plan to vaccinate their child and 23.3% were unsure. Female and non-Hispanic Black parents were least likely to report plans to vaccinate their children. Safety, effectiveness and perceptions that children do not need vaccination were the primary reasons for vaccine hesitancy/resistance. Parents who have or will vaccinate themselves were significantly more likely to report they would vaccinate their children.
Parental perspectives on immunizations: impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on childhood vaccine hesitancy

AUTHOR(S)
Kaidi He; Wendy J. Mack; Michael Neely (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Community Health
Childhood vaccine hesitancy has been studied extensively before the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic presented new barriers to pediatric vaccinations. Furthermore, the development of COVID-19 vaccines has complicated factors underlying vaccine hesitancy. This study performed a cross-sectional mobile phone-based survey at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles querying parents regarding perspectives on vaccines before and during the pandemic. Its primary aim was to understand the impact of the pandemic on routine childhood vaccine hesitancy. Secondarily, it examined intent to vaccinate, COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, and key contributing demographic factors.
Humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal coronaviruses in children and adults in north-eastern France

AUTHOR(S)
Tom Woudenberg; Stephane Pelleau; Francois Anna (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: EBioMedicine Home
Children are underrepresented in the COVID-19 pandemic and often experience milder disease than adolescents and adults. Reduced severity is possibly due to recent and more frequent seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoV) infections. This study assessed the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoV specific antibodies in a large cohort in north-eastern France. In this cross-sectional seroprevalence study, serum samples were collected from children and adults requiring hospital admission for non-COVID-19 between February and August 2020. Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoV (229E, HKU1, NL63, OC43) were assessed using a bead-based multiplex assay, Luciferase-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay, and a pseudotype neutralisation assay.
COVID-19 vaccines for children in LMICs: another equity issue

AUTHOR(S)
Beate Kampmann; Uduak Okomo

Published: July 2021   Journal: The Lancet Journal

Given the success of COVID-19 vaccines in preventing death and severe disease in adults and their impact on community transmission,  use in children and young people (CYP) inevitably requires consideration. Although severe COVID-19 is rare in CYP, they are affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection and the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, including education, mental health, and general wellbeing. As of late July, 2021, no COVID-19 vaccine is recommended for children younger than 12 years and safety and efficacy data from phase 3 clinical trials are so far limited: 1131 CYP aged 12–15 years received the Pfizer–BioNTech mRNA vaccine and safety data are available from phase 1 and 2 trials of Sinovac's inactivated CoronaVac vaccine in 438 children aged 3–17 years. Safety data have been reassuring, with published data confirming excellent immunogenicity. There is no reason to believe the vaccines should not be equally protective against COVID-19 in CYP as they are in adults. More than 30 international trials are now recruiting CYP as young as 6 months to assess safety, immunogenicity, dosing, and scheduling questions.
Leukaemia and lockdown: The delayed infection model of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Katy Lillie

Published: July 2021   Journal: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common type of leukaemia diagnosed in children. The prevailing hypothesis regarding pathogenesis of childhood ALL was developed by Greaves, and states that ALL is caused by an abnormal immune response to a common infection. The response arises either due to naivety of the immune system caused by a lack of common childhood infections, or genetic susceptibility due to specific alleles. The former explanation is known as the delayed infection hypothesis. COVID-19 is a new infection that no children in the UK were exposed to prior to 2020. Furthermore, the lockdown measures designed to prevent spread of this virus have also greatly reduced spread of other common infections. It is therefore important to examine the evidence for this hypothesis, and to consider it in the context of the pandemic to determine what effect lockdown measures may have on incidence of ALL in children.
SARS-CoV-2 antibodies started to decline just four months after COVID-19 infection in a paediatric population

AUTHOR(S)
Adin Breuer; Allon Raphael; Hagay Stern (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Acta Paediatrica

This study evaluated the prevalence of paediatric severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections using antibody testing and characterised antibody titres by time from exposure. This was a single-centre, prospective, cross-sectional cohort study. Patients under 18 years old were eligible to participate if they attended the paediatric emergency department at the tertiary Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel, from 18 October 2020 to 12 January 2021 and required blood tests or intravenous access. SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and antibody levels were tested by a dual-assay model.

Short-term outcome of pregnant women vaccinated by BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine

AUTHOR(S)
S. Bookstein Peretz; N. Regev; L. Novick (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology

This study aims to determine the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of Pfizer's BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine among pregnant women compared with non-pregnant women, and to evaluate the obstetric outcome following vaccination. An observational case-control study of pregnant women, who were vaccinated by a 2-dose regimen of BNT162b2 vaccine during gestation between January-February 2021 (study group) and were compared to age-matched non-pregnant women who received the vaccine during the same time period (control group).

Should older adult pneumococcal vaccination recommendations change due to decreased vaccination in children during the pandemic? A cost-effectiveness analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Kenneth J. Smith; Angela R. Wateska; Mary Patricia Nowalk (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Vaccine
The COVID-19 pandemic is causing declines in childhood immunization rates. This study examined potential COVID-19-related changes in pediatric 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) use, subsequent impact on childhood and adult pneumococcal disease rates, and how those changes might affect the favorability of PCV13 use in non-immunocompromised adults aged ≥65 years.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 39 | Issue: 31 | No. of pages: 4278-4282 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease transmission, immunization, infectious disease, vaccination, vaccination policies
Children and COVID-19 vaccines

AUTHOR(S)
Lindsay A. Thompson; Sonja A. Rasmussen

Published: June 2021   Journal: JAMA Pediatrics

Nearly 4 million children in the US have been infected with COVID-19 as of May 2021. While most children have had mild or no symptoms, thousands have been hospitalized and several hundred have died. Children with underlying conditions are more likely to experience severe effects of COVID-19, but even healthy children can be severely affected. Children can spread COVID-19 to others and also can have long-term effects that last months. For these reasons, children need to be protected from COVID-19. Currently, 3 vaccines are authorized for adults in the United States. In studies of tens of thousands of people, these vaccines were safe and effective. The vaccine made by Pfizer was recently authorized for children 12 years and older. Two doses of this vaccine are recommended to be given 3 weeks apart. The other 2 vaccines were authorized for persons 18 years and older but are expected to be available for teenagers soon. Studies in younger children as young as age 6 months are ongoing and if these studies show that they are safe and effective, vaccines could be available for children 6 months and older by late 2021 or early 2022.

 

Vaccinating children and adolescents against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): the Israeli experience

AUTHOR(S)
Daniel Glikman; Michal Stein; Eric S. Shinwell

Published: June 2021   Journal: Acta Paediatrica
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread to almost all countries, with many severely affected. Vaccines, in general, have proven their profound value in preventing illnesses and terminating epidemics, as seen for example in measles, polio and smallpox. Vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are already showing a significant positive impact on the number of COVID-19 cases in countries with a rapid and effective roll-out of vaccinations. Israel is among world leaders, with an effective vaccination campaign that began at the end of December 2020. Vaccines are free of charge and given to all adults. Indeed, as of 13 May 2021, 63% of the population have received at least one dose and 59% are fully vaccinated.1 Vaccine coverage is lower in minorities in Israel but steadily increasing, as seen for example in the Arab population: in mid-February 2021, 19% were vaccinated with at least one dose, while by May 2021, 54% were already fully vaccinated. Accordingly, the daily number of new COVID-19 cases in Israel has declined from 10 000 at the peak of the third wave in January 2021 to less than 100 in May this year
COVID-19 and social distancing among children and adolescents in Brazil

AUTHOR(S)
Fernando Barros; Fernando P. Hartwig; Aluísio J. D. Barros (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Revista de Saude Publica

The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and the adherence to measures of social distancing in children and adolescents studied in three national surveys conducted in Brazil between May–June 2020. Three national serological surveys were conducted in 133 sentinel cities located in all 27 Federative Units. Multistage probability sampling was used to select 250 individuals per city. The total sample size in age ranges 0–9 and 10–19 years old are of 4,263 and 8,024 individuals, respectively. Information on children or adolescents was gathered with a data collection app, and a rapid point-of-case test for SARS-CoV-2 was conducted on a finger prick blood sample.

Emerging and re-emerging infections in children: COVID/ MIS-C, Zika, Ebola, Measles, Varicella, Pertussis ... immunizations

AUTHOR(S)
Carol C. Chen; Anne Whitehead

Published: June 2021   Journal: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America

Although the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) seems to be less common and less severe in children, it remains unclear what role pediatric populations play in the spread of the virus. The understanding of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection is continuing to evolve, and guidelines for evaluation and treatment may depend on local and institutional recommendations. Emergency providers can play an important role in advocating for public health in the form of vaccine advocacy and education. While still rare, emergency providers must also consider nonendemic, mostly tropical infections in children presenting with fever who are recently returning from international travel.

Impact of COVID-19 on pediatric Immunocompromised patients

AUTHOR(S)
James A. Connelly; Hey Chong; Adam J. Esbenshade (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Pediatric Clinics of North America
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused critical coronavirus disease (COVID-19) most often in the elderly and individuals with co-morbid medical conditions. Although growing evidence supports the importance of an intact innate immune response at the onset of viral infection, mortality caused by dysregulated immune responses, particularly in adults, has shown a spotlight on the delicate balance of a robust, but coordinated and controlled immune activity against infection.  This complex network of infection, immune response, and inflammation with SARS-CoV-2 has created concerns, questions, and challenges for immunocompromised children beyond fear of death from contracting SARS-CoV-2. This review examines how adaptations by health care systems to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission and treat the surge of COVID-19 patients impacted immunocompromised pediatric patients.

31 - 45 of 72

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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