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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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46 - 60 of 72
Expecto patronum! Leveraging the positive force of COVID-19 vaccines for pregnant and lactating individuals

AUTHOR(S)
Ann Kinga Malinowski; Wendy Whittle; Kellie Murphy (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada
For over a year, the world has been gripped by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has had far-reaching effects on society. The integrity of national health care systems has also been challenged, owing to shifts in guidance and misinformation. While initial reports suggested that pregnant people were not at increased risk of severe COVID-19 disease, current data arising from the “third wave” paint a much more concerning picture. Additionally, pregnant and lactating people were excluded from vaccine trials, which has hindered the ability of health care professionals to provide evidence-based counselling regarding the safety and efficacy of the available vaccines in these populations. This commentary reviews the current data on the safety of COVID-19 vaccines in pregnancy. The evidence is clear that the risks of hospitalization and severe maternal and potentially fetal morbidity from COVID-19 in pregnancy far outweigh the very minimal risks of COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy.
Vaccinating children against SARS-CoV-2

AUTHOR(S)
Jennie S. Lavine; Ottar Bjornstad; Rustom Antia

Published: May 2021   Journal: BMJ
Following widespread vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 of older adults and other highly vulnerable groups, some high income countries are now considering vaccinating children; just days ago, the US Food and Drug Administration authorized the use of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine in children 12-15 years of age. Young people have been largely spared from severe covid-19 so far, and the value of childhood vaccination against respiratory viruses in general remains an open question for three reasons: the limited benefits of protection in age groups that experience only mild disease; the limited effects on transmission because of the range of antigenic types and waning vaccine induced immunity; and the possibility of unintended consequences related to differences in vaccine induced and infection induced immunity. Each issue is discussed in turn.
Acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine and associated factors among pregnant women in China: a multi-center cross-sectional study based on health belief model

AUTHOR(S)
Liyuan Tao; Ruitong Wang; Na Han (et al.)

Published: May 2021

Vaccine hesitancy has been recognized as an urgent public health issue. This study aimed to explore the acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine and related factors among pregnant women, a vulnerable population for vaccine-preventable diseases. A multi-center cross-sectional study among pregnant women was conducted in five provinces of mainland China from November 13 to 27, 2020.

Childhood and adolescent vaccination in alternative settings

AUTHOR(S)
Annika M. Hofstetter; Stanley Schaffer

Published: May 2021   Journal: Academic Pediatrics
Although pediatric and adolescent vaccination rates are generally high in the United States, delayed and under-vaccination exist within certain patient populations and communities, leaving them vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. One strategy for addressing this major public health concern is to offer vaccinations in nonprimary care settings such as schools, emergency rooms, hospitals, and pharmacies. This article reviews the unique advantages, challenges, and experiences regarding vaccine delivery in each alternative setting.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 21 | Issue: 4 | No. of pages: 7 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19 response, immunization, immunization programmes, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: United States
Older adolescents and young adults willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine: implications for informing public health strategies

AUTHOR(S)
Tracie O. Afifi; Samantha Salmon; Tamara Taillieu (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Vaccine

The success in ending the COVID-19 pandemic rests partly on the mass uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine. Little work has been done to understand vaccine willingness among older adolescents and young adults. This is important since this age group may be less likely to adhere to public health guidelines.This article aims to understand willingness of getting a vaccine and reasons for vaccine hesitancy among a sample of older adolescents and young adults.

The incremental burden of invasive pneumococcal disease associated with a decline in childhood vaccination using a dynamic transmission model in Japan: a secondary impact of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Taito Kitano; Hirosato Aoki

Published: May 2021   Journal: Computers in Biology and Medicine
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted childhood vaccinations, including pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). Evaluating the possible impact on the invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence associated with a decline in childhood pneumococcal vaccination is important to advocate the PCV programs. Using a deterministic, dynamic transmission model, the differential incidence and burden of IPD in children younger than 5 years in Japan were estimated between the rapid vaccination recovery (January 2021) and the delayed vaccination recovery (April 2022) scenarios for the next 10 years.
Pediatricians’ COVID-19 experiences and views on the willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccines: a cross-sectional survey in Turkey

AUTHOR(S)
Erdem Gönüllü; Ahmet Soysal; Serkan Atıcı (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Developing an effective and safe vaccine against Covid-19 will facilitate return to normal. Due to hesitation toward the vaccine, it is crucial to explore the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine to the public and healthcare workers. In this cross-sectional survey, we invited 2251 pediatricians and 506 (22%) of them responded survey and 424 (84%) gave either nasopharyngeal swap or antibody assay for COVID-19 and 71 (14%) of them got diagnosis of COVID-19. If the effective and safe COVID-19 vaccine was launched on market, 420 (83%) of pediatrician accepted to get vaccine shot, 422 (83%) of them recommended vaccination to their family members, 380 (75%) of them accepted to vaccine their children and 445 (85%) of them offered vaccination to their pediatric patients.
Parents’ willingness to pay for a COVID-19 vaccine for themselves and their children in the United States

AUTHOR(S)
Serkan Catma; Diana Reindl

Published: April 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Differences in obtaining a vaccine vary based on a multitude of factors including perceptions of vaccine safety, efficacy and willingness to pay (WTP). This study focuses on parent perceptions toward a vaccine for COVID-19 including their WTP decisions for their children and themselves. A mixed methods design using a cross-sectional survey was used to assess the perceptions of US parents, with children under 18, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was administered online in November 2020 and 584 final responses were collected.
COVID-19 vaccination in pregnant and lactating diabetic women

AUTHOR(S)
Maria Angela Sculli; Gloria Formoso; Laura Sciacca

Published: April 2021   Journal: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection are at high risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome and adverse outcomes. Pregnant women with severe COVID-19 present increased rates of preterm delivery (<37 gestational weeks), cesarean delivery and neonatal admissions to the intensive care unit. Comorbidity such as diabetes (pregestational or gestational) or obesity further increased maternal and fetal complications. It is known that diabetic or obese patients with COVID-19 present an unfavorable course and a worse prognosis, with a direct association between worse outcome and suboptimal glycol-metabolic control or body mass index (BMI) levels. Critical COVID-19 infection prevention is important for both mother and fetus. Vaccination during pregnancy is a common practice. Vaccines against COVID-19 are distributed across the world with some population considered to have a priority. Since pregnant women are excluded from clinical trials very little information are available on safety and efficacy of COVD-19 vaccines during pregnancy. However, it is well known the concept of passive immunization of the newborn obtained with transplacental passage of protective antibodies into the fetal/neonatal circulation after maternal infection or vaccination. Moreover, it has been reported that COVID-19 vaccine-induced IgG pass to the neonates through breastmilk. Therefore, maternal vaccination can protect mother, fetus and baby.
Maternal nutrients and effects of gestational COVID-19 infection on fetal brain development

AUTHOR(S)
M. Camille Hoffman; Robert Freedman; Amanda J. Law (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Maternal gestational infection is a well-characterized risk factor for offsprings’ development of mental disorders including schizophrenia, autism, and attention deficit disorder. The inflammatory response elicited by the infection is partly directed against the placenta and fetus and is the putative pathogenic mechanism for fetal brain developmental abnormalities. Fetal brain abnormalities are generally irreversible after birth and increase risk for later mental disorders. Maternal immune activation in animals models this pathophysiology. SARS-CoV-2 produces maternal inflammatory responses during pregnancy similar to previously studied common respiratory viruses.
Missed childhood immunizations during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil: analyses of routine statistics and of a national household survey

AUTHOR(S)
Mariangela F. Silveira; Cristian T. Tonial; Ana Goretti K. Maranhão (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Vaccine

There is widespread concern that disruption to health services during the COVID-19 pandemic has led to declines in immunization coverage among young children, but there is limited information on the magnitude of such impact. High immunization coverage is essential for reducing the risk of vaccine preventable diseases.This study used data from two nationwide sources covering the whole of Brazil. Data from the Information System of the National Immunization Program (SIPNI) on the monthly number of vaccine doses administered to young children were analyzed. The second source was a survey in 133 large cities in the 27 states in the country, carried out from August 24–27. Respondents answered a question on whether children under the age of three years had missed any scheduled vaccinations during the pandemic, and available vaccination cards were photographed for later examination.

COVID-19 herd immunity by immunisation: are children in the herd?

AUTHOR(S)
Stephen Obaro

Published: April 2021   Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
The scourge of COVID-19 has been global, but the most affected subgroups in the population have largely been older people and individuals with comorbid conditions that predispose them to increasingly severe disease and poor outcomes. Overall, the disease burden in children has been reasonably mild, even in those with comorbidities, such as oncological conditions. Protection from severe disease in children might be related to a lower expression of host factors required for viral replication, and to differences in the magnitude and timing of innate or adaptive immune responses. Data for recorded COVID-19 cases show that only 7% of children younger than 18 years with severe disease required intensive care, whereas 53% of adults who had severe disease required intensive care.
Comparison of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2-specific antibodies' binding capacity between human milk and serum from Coronavirus disease 2019-recovered women

AUTHOR(S)
Veronique Demers-Mathieu; Ciera DaPra; Elena Medo

Published: April 2021   Journal: Breastfeeding Medicine
Human milk from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-recovered women may be useful as oral antibody therapy to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and provide long-term immunity to neonates and young children. As convalescent plasma is already used as antibody therapy, this study aimed to compare the binding capacity of antibodies specific to the receptorbinding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 between human milk.
Education, healthy ageing and vaccine literacy

AUTHOR(S)
J.-P. Michel; J. Goldberg

Published: April 2021   Journal: The journal of nutrition, health & aging
The Covid pandemic is a timely opportunity to try to broaden our understanding of the links between education and health literacy and explore the vaccine-decision process with a view to identifying interventions that will positively influence vaccine uptake.
Monitoring progress of maternal and neonatal immunization in Latin America and the Caribbean

AUTHOR(S)
Martha Velandia-González; Alba Vilajeliu; Marcela Contreras (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Vaccine
The Americas committed to strengthening maternal and neonatal immunization (MNI) through the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) Regional Immunization Action Plan (RIAP)2016–20. This paper describes the progress toward RIAP MNI-related targets and those related to improvement of data quality and information systems; analyze national MNI policies and vaccination coverages; and identify enablers and challenges of monitoring and reporting MNI vaccination coverage in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC).
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.