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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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46 - 60 of 200
Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness and perinatal outcomes of COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy.

Smriti Prasad; Erkan Kalafat; Helena Blakeway (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Nature Communications
Safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy is a particular concern affecting vaccination uptake by this vulnerable group. Here we evaluated evidence from 23 studies including 117,552 COVID-19 vaccinated pregnant people, almost exclusively with mRNA vaccines. This study shows that the effectiveness of mRNA vaccination against RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection 7 days after second dose was 89·5% (95% CI 69·0-96·4%, 18,828 vaccinated pregnant people, I2 = 73·9%). The risk of stillbirth was significantly lower in the vaccinated cohort by 15% (pooled OR 0·85; 95% CI 0·73–0·99, 66,067 vaccinated vs. 424,624 unvaccinated, I2 = 93·9%). There was no evidence of a higher risk of adverse outcomes including miscarriage, earlier gestation at birth, placental abruption, pulmonary embolism, postpartum haemorrhage, maternal death, intensive care unit admission, lower birthweight Z-score, or neonatal intensive care unit admission (p > 0.05 for all). COVID-19 mRNA vaccination in pregnancy appears to be safe and is associated with a reduction in stillbirth.
Second wave of the study of Taiwanese caregivers of children with ADHD in the COVID-19 pandemic: intentions to vaccinate their children for COVID-19, and related factors

Ching-Shu Tsai; Liang-Jen Wang; Ray C. Hsiao (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Vaccines
The second wave of the Study of Taiwanese Caregivers of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the COVID-19 Pandemic was conducted at the time of a severe COVID-19 outbreak. The aims of this study were to compare the level of the intentions of caregivers of children with ADHD to vaccinate their children between the first and second waves of study, as well as to examine the COVID-19 pandemic and non-COVID-19 pandemic factors related to caregivers’ intentions. In total, 252 caregivers of children with ADHD completed the structured questionnaires, including the Drivers of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale; the Risk Perception of the COVID-19 Scale; caregivers’ Difficulties in Asking Their Children to Adopt Self-Protective Behavior Scale; the Brief Symptom Rating Scale; the Parental Bonding Instrument; the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham version IV Scale; and the questionnaires for the intentions to vaccinate their children and child’s medication use for treating ADHD.
Uptake of COVID-19 vaccines among pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Petros Galanis; Irene Vraka; Olga Siskou (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Vaccines
Mass vaccination against COVID-19 is essential to control the pandemic. COVID-19 vaccines are now recommended during pregnancy to prevent adverse outcomes. This review aimed to evaluate the evidence in the literature regarding the uptake of COVID-19 vaccinations among pregnant women. A comprehensive search was performed in PubMed, Medline, Scopus, ProQuest, Web of Science, CINAHL, and medRxiv from inception to 23 March 2022. A meta-analysis to estimate the overall proportion of pregnant women vaccinated against COVID-19 was performed. 11 studies including 703,004 pregnant women were found.
In-person schooling amidst children's COVID-19 vaccination: exploring parental perceptions just after Omicron variant announcement

Fadi Aljamaan; Ali Alhaboob; Basema Saddik (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Vaccines
The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron spread fast globally and became the predominant variant in many countries. Resumption of public regular life activities, including in-person schooling, presented parents with new sources of worry. Thus, it is important to study parental worry about the Omicron variant, willingness to vaccinate their children, and knowledge about school-based COVID-19 precautionary measures. Methods: A national, cross-sectional, pilot-validated online questionnaire targeting parents in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) was distributed between 31 December 2021, and 7 January 2022. The survey included sociodemographic, COVID-19 infection data, parental and children vaccination status, attitudes towards booster vaccine, parents’ Omicron-related perceptions and worries, and attitude towards in-person schooling.
COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among older adolescents and young adults: a national cross-sectional study in China

Panpan Zhang; Yan Li; Huanchun Wang (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

With promotion of COVID-19 vaccinations, there has been a corresponding vaccine hesitancy, of which older adolescents and young adults represent groups of particular concern. This report investigated the prevalence and reasons for vaccine hesitancy, as well as potential risk factors, within older adolescents and young adults in China. To assess these issues, an online survey was administered over the period from March 14 to April 15, 2021. Older adolescents (16–17 years old) and young adults (18–21 years old) were recruited nationwide from Wechat groups and results from a total of 2,414 respondents were analyzed. Socio-demographic variables, vaccine hesitancy, psychological distress, abnormal illness behavior, global well-being and social support were analyzed in this report.

Measuring parents’ readiness to vaccinate themselves and their children against COVID-19

Franziska Rees; Mattis Geiger; Lau Lilleholt (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Vaccine
To reach high vaccination rates against COVID-19, children and adolescents should be also vaccinated. To improve childhood vaccination rates and vaccination readiness, parents need to be addressed since they decide about the vaccination of their children. This study adapted the 7C of vaccination readiness scale to measure parents’ readiness to vaccinate their children and evaluated the scale in a long and a short version in two studies. The study was first evaluated with a sample of N = 244 parents from the German COVID-19 Snapshot Monitoring (COSMO) and validated with N = 464 parents from the Danish COSMO.
Parental socioeconomic and psychological determinants of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccine uptake in children

Krista Salo-Tuominen; Tamara Teros-Jaakkola; Laura Toivonen (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Vaccine

Before COVID-19, the previous pandemic was caused by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in 2009. Identification of factors behind parental decisions to have their child vaccinated against pandemic influenza could be helpful in planning of other pandemic vaccination programmes. We investigated the association of parental socioeconomic and psychosocial factors with uptake of the pandemic influenza vaccine in children in 2009–2010. This study was conducted within a prospective birth-cohort study (STEPS Study), where children born in 2008–2010 are followed from pregnancy to adulthood. Demographic and socioeconomic factors of parents were collected through questionnaires and vaccination data from electronic registers. Before and after the birth of the child, the mother’s and father’s individual and relational psychosocial well-being, i.e. depressive symptoms, dissatisfaction with the relationship, experienced social and emotional loneliness, and maternal anxiety during pregnancy, were measured by validated questionnaires (BDI-II, RDAS, PRAQ, and UCLA).

Maternal attitudes and intentions about the COVID-19 vaccine for children 5 to 11 years

Christine A. Limbers; Rachel Thompson

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Health Care

The current study assessed maternal attitudes and intention about the COVID-19 vaccine for children ages 5 to 11 years since the onset of the Delta variant and examined if the Delta variant changed maternal perceptions about COVID-19 vaccination and COVID-19 precautions for children. Participants were 821 mothers (mean age = 40.11 years; 84.3% White) from the United States who had at least one child ages 5 to 11 years old. They were recruited online and completed questionnaires on Qualtrics about their youngest child ages 5 to 11 years. The majority of mothers (n = 595; 72.6%) reported they were very likely to have their child vaccinated for COVID-19 once a vaccine is available for children. After controlling for maternal and child factors, maternal trust in the COVID-19 vaccine development and approval process (Odds Ratios = 35.07; p <0.001), trust in the child’s physician (Odds Ratios = 1.65; p <0.01), and trust in the local public health department (Odds Ratios = 1.87; p <0.05) were associated with maternal likelihood of having one’s child vaccinated for COVID-19.

COVID-19 and mandatory vaccination: Ethical considerations
Institution: World Health Organisation
Published: May 2022
The aim of the document is to identify and articulate salient ethical considerations regarding mandatory vaccinations against COVID-19. This document updates a policy brief initially published in April 2021 in response to changes in the COVID-19 vaccine landscape, including authorization of vaccines for children and additional information about, and experiences with, vaccination mandates for COVID-19.
Disparities in high schools' vaccination coverage (COVID-19): a natural experiment in the Province of Quebec.

Alice Morissette; Gabrielle Lefebvre; Claude Bacque-Dion (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Preventive Medicine
Teenagers' vaccination has become crucial to limit the COVID-19 transmission in the population. To increase the vaccination rate of this age group, a school-based vaccination campaign was launched in Québec, Canada from June 7 to 18, 2021. This study aimed to analyze trajectories of vaccination coverage over time among students attending 37 high schools. The study explored whether school-based vaccination campaigns contributed to the progression of the vaccination coverage and attenuated disparities in vaccination coverage across schools.
Understanding the behavioural and social drivers of vaccine uptake WHO position paper – May 2022
Institution: World Health Organisation
Published: May 2022

This is the first position paper to be published by WHO on the behavioural and social drivers (BeSD) of vaccine uptake. It summarizes the development of new tools and indicators to assess the BeSD of vaccine uptake for childhood and COVID-19 vaccination, enabling decision-makers on immunization policy, programme managers, and partners to address under-vaccination through an enhanced understanding of the underlying causes. This paper also reports the main findings of a scoping review that examined existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses on interventions to improve vaccine uptake – a first step towards understanding which interventions work to increase vaccine uptake, for whom, and in what settings. Finally, this paper makes recommendations for using the new tools and the resulting data to prioritize local interventions, and concludes with future research directions.

Parent/guardian intentions to vaccinate children against COVID-19 in the United States

Don E. Willis; Mario Schootman; Sumit K. Shah (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Vaccination is critical for protecting adults and children from COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and death. Analyzing subsamples of parent/guardians of children age 0–11 (n = 343) and 12–17 (n = 322) from a larger national survey of US adults (n = 2,022), this study aimed to assess intentions to vaccinate children and how intentions might vary across parent/guardian sociodemographic characteristics, healthcare coverage, vaccination status, political affiliation, prior COVID-19 infection, exposure to COVID-19 death(s) of family or friends, perceived norms of vaccination, and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. It also reported the prevalence of vaccinated children for parents whose oldest child was eligible for vaccination at the time of the survey.
Routine pediatric vaccination during pandemic: attitudes of parents

Sibel Baktır Altuntaş; Gizem Kara Elitok

Published: April 2022   Journal: Turkish Archives of Pediatrics
This study aimed to examine the effects of a pandemic on children’s routine vaccination between 0 months and 24 months and to determine the affecting factors on vaccination during the pandemic. It was conducted between July 17, 2020, and August 1, 2020, among 513 mothers whose children were aged between 0 months and 24 months old. A total of 21 questions were asked to participants’ sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes and behaviors towards pediatric vaccines during the pandemic.
Hyper inflammatory syndrome following COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in children: a national post-authorization pharmacovigilance study

Naïm Ouldali; Haleh Bagheri; Francesco Salvo (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Europe

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is the most severe clinical entity associated with pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection with a putative role of the spike protein into the immune system activation. Whether COVID-19 mRNA vaccine can induce this complication in children is unknown. This study aimed to assess the risk of hyper-inflammatory syndrome following COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in children. It conducted a post-authorization national population-based surveillance using the French enhanced pharmacovigilance surveillance system for COVID-19 vaccines. All cases of suspected hyper-inflammatory syndrome following COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in 12–17-year-old children between June 15th, 2021 and January 1st, 2022, were reported. Cases were reviewed according to WHO criteria for MIS-C. The reporting rate of this syndrome was compared to the MIS-C rate per 1,000,000 12–17-year-old children infected by SARS-CoV-2.

Acceptance and attitude of parents regarding COVID-19 vaccine for children: a cross-sectional study

Remiya Mohan; Vandna Pandey; Ashok Kumar (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Medical Journeys

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has claimed millions of lives worldwide. India also launched a COVID-19 vaccination drive, and clinical trials for a pediatric COVID-19 vaccine are in development. The study aims to assess the acceptance and attitude of parents regarding the COVID-19 vaccine for children in India. The study also aims to find the association between selected demographic variables and acceptance and attitudes in parents regarding the COVID-19 vaccine for children.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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