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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 174
Maternal outcomes and risk factors for COVID-19 severity among pregnant women

AUTHOR(S)
Manon Vouga; Guillaume Favre; Oscar Martinez‑Perez (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports
Pregnant women may be at higher risk of severe complications associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which may lead to obstetrical complications. We performed a case control study comparing pregnant women with severe coronavirus disease 19 (cases) to pregnant women with a milder form (controls) enrolled in the COVI-Preg international registry cohort between March 24 and July 26, 2020. Risk factors for severity, obstetrical and immediate neonatal outcomes were assessed. A total of 926 pregnant women with a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 were included, among which 92 (9.9%) presented with severe COVID-19 disease. Risk factors for severe maternal outcomes were pulmonary comorbidities [aOR 4.3, 95% CI 1.9–9.5], hypertensive disorders [aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0–7.0] and diabetes [aOR2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.5].
Children’s role in the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review of early surveillance data on susceptibility, severity, and transmissibility

AUTHOR(S)
KatyA. M. Gaythorpe; Sangeeta Bhatia; Tara Mangal (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports
SARS-CoV-2 infections have been reported in all age groups including infants, children, and adolescents. However, the role of children in the COVID-19 pandemic is still uncertain. This systematic review of early studies synthesises evidence on the susceptibility of children to SARS-CoV-2 infection, the severity and clinical outcomes in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 by children in the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed. Reviewers extracted data from relevant, peer-reviewed studies published up to July 4th 2020 during the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak using a standardised form and assessed quality using the NIH Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies.
Passive and active immunity in infants born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy: prospective cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Dongli Song; Mary Prahl; Stephanie L. Gaw (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: BMJ Open

This is a prospective observational study aiming toinvestigate maternal immunoglobulins’ (IgM, IgG) response to SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and IgG transplacental transfer, to characterise neonatal antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to longitudinally follow actively and passively acquired antibodies in infants. It was performed in the public healthcare system in Santa Clara County (California, USA).

The influence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including the COVID-19 pandemic, and toxic stress on development and health outcomes of Latinx children in the USA: a review of the literature

AUTHOR(S)
Natalie Claypool; Arelis Moore de Peralta

Published: July 2021   Journal: International Journal on Child Maltreatment: Research, Policy and Practice
The purpose of this review is to synthesize existing literature to analyze the influence of the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), including the COVID-19 pandemic, and toxic stress on child development and lifelong health outcomes of Latinx children in the USA, utilizing the ACE framework. Without adequate protective factors, children’s early experiences with adversity and toxic stress have implications for their physiological, psychological, and social health. The COVID-19 pandemic has shown to exacerbate childhood adversity and toxic stress and has disproportionately harmed Latinx communities. In applying the ACE framework to US-Latinx populations, relevant findings concerning a potential failure of ACEs to accurately capture Latinx experiences of adversity were highlighted, as well as the need to classify the COVID-19 pandemic as an ACE. Research suggest that first-generation Latinx immigrants report lower-than-average rates of ACEs despite the various disparities ethnic minorities face in the USA.
Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 testing in children during a low prevalence period (VIGIL study 1)

AUTHOR(S)
Eleonore Eskander; Camille Jung; Corinne Levy (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Infectious Diseases Now

SARS-CoV-2 induces a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, which overlap with other viral infections very common in children. This study aimed to describe the percentage of positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests in symptomatic and asymptomatic ambulatory children and to determine the predictive factors for positivity. From June 1 to July 31, 2020,  a cross-sectional prospective, multicenter study (13 hospital emergency units and 59 ambulatory pediatricians) was conducted throughout France. Children under 15 years of age with a prescription of nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test were enrolled.

Presentation of a participatory approach to develop preventive measures to reduce COVID-19 transmission in child care

AUTHOR(S)
Mathias Diebig; Susan Gritzka; Nico Dragano (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology volume
It can be suspected that work in child care facilities is associated with an elevated exposure risk towards SARS-CoV-2 infections. It is still unclear under which conditions employees in those facilities can safely pursue their work. Preventive workplace-related measures to reduce transmission dynamics in this work environment need to be developed. These measures need to build on a solid scientific foundation and be ready for practical use at the same time. Therefore, the aim of the study is to present a participatory approach to identify, minimize, and eliminate workplace-specific COVID-19 transmission within child care. The approach presented combines quantitative as well as qualitative elements and includes a screening of critical workplace conditions and the development of preventive measures to foster a safe workplace design.
Predictive value of cardiac markers in the prognosis of COVID-19 in children

AUTHOR(S)
Ufuk Utku Güllü; Şükrü Güngör; Sevcan İpek

Published: July 2021   Journal: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Occasionally, children with COVID-19 may develop arrhythmia, myocarditis, and cardiogenic shock involving multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). This study aimed to identify the laboratory parameters that may predict early cardiovascular involvement in these patients.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 43 | No. of pages: 307-311 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, Heart diseases, infectious disease
COVID-19 in children: where do we stand?

AUTHOR(S)
Georgia B. Nikolopoulou; Helena C. Maltezou

Published: July 2021   Journal: Archives of Medical Research
From the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic it became evident that children infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remain mostly asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. This study reviewed the epidemiologic and clinical features of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The true prevalence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection is most likely underestimated, as asymptomatic children are less frequently tested. Serologic surveys indicate that half of children tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 report no symptoms. Anosmia/ageusia is not frequent in children but it is the strongest predictor of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. In general, children with COVID-19 are at lower risk of hospitalization and life-threatening complications. Nevertheless, cases of severe disease or a post-infectious multisystem hyperinflammatory syndrome named multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) have been described. Rarely children with severe COVID-19 develop neurologic complications.
Factors associated with preventive behaviors for COVID-19 among adolescents in South Korea

AUTHOR(S)
Sunhee Park; Sumi Oh

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
COVID-19's infection rate among adolescents is increasing; hence, it is important to prevent it as it can spread in the community through transmission in schools. It is crucial to determine the extent to which adolescents follow COVID-19 preventive measures and identify factors relating to such behaviors to implement more effective health education. This study aimed to understand factors related to COVID-19 preventive behaviors using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the health belief model (HBM) among adolescents in South Korea.
Children and SARS-CoV-2

AUTHOR(S)
Dusan Bogunovic; Miriam Merad

Published: July 2021   Journal: Cell Host & Microbe
A previously immune-naive world population is experiencing natural infection with SARS-CoV-2. Severe COVID-19 predominantly impacts adults, yet multisystem inflammatory disorder primarily impacts children. Herein, this article discusses known clinical and biological features of SARS-CoV-2 in children and reflects on currently identified immune features and discusses what remains unknown.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 29 | Issue: 7 | No. of pages: 1040-1042 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease transmission, infectious disease, medical research, respiratory diseases
Thrombotic risk in children with COVID-19 infection: a systematic review of the literature

AUTHOR(S)
Marco Zaffanello; Giorgio Piacentini; Luana Nosetti (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Thrombosis Research
Coagulation and inflammatory parameters are mildly altered in children with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection, and laboratory evidence of a proinflammatory and procoagulant state has been noted in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). It is not clear whether this pediatric condition is related to thrombotic events. This study reviewed the literature for thrombotic complications in children with COVID-19 infection and MIS-C.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 205 | No. of pages: 92-98 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19 response, health services, infectious disease, lockdown
Estimating global and regional disruptions to routine childhood vaccine coverage during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020: a modelling study

AUTHOR(S)
Kate Causey; Nancy Fullman; Reed J. D. Sorensen (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: The Lancet1
The COVID-19 pandemic and efforts to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission substantially affected health services worldwide. To better understand the impact of the pandemic on childhood routine immunisation, this study estimated disruptions in vaccine coverage associated with the pandemic in 2020, globally and by Global Burden of Disease (GBD) super-region. For this analysis it used a two-step hierarchical random spline modelling approach to estimate global and regional disruptions to routine immunisation using administrative data and reports from electronic immunisation systems, with mobility data as a model input. Paired with estimates of vaccine coverage expected in the absence of COVID-19, which were derived from vaccine coverage models from GBD 2020, Release 1 (GBD 2020 R1), it estimated the number of children who missed routinely delivered doses of the third-dose diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3) vaccine and first-dose measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) in 2020.
Prevalence and determinants of symptomatic COVID-19 infection among children and adolescents in Qatar: a cross sectional analysis of 11445 individuals

AUTHOR(S)
Omran A. H. Musa; Tawanda Chivese; Devendra Bansa (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Epidemiology and Infection
There is a paucity of evidence about the prevalence and risk factors for symptomatic infection among children. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of symptomatic COVID-19 and its risk factors in children and adolescents aged 0-18 years in Qatar.
Should older adult pneumococcal vaccination recommendations change due to decreased vaccination in children during the pandemic? A cost-effectiveness analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Kenneth J. Smith; Angela R. Wateska; Mary Patricia Nowalk (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Vaccine
The COVID-19 pandemic is causing declines in childhood immunization rates. This study examined potential COVID-19-related changes in pediatric 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) use, subsequent impact on childhood and adult pneumococcal disease rates, and how those changes might affect the favorability of PCV13 use in non-immunocompromised adults aged ≥65 years.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 39 | Issue: 31 | No. of pages: 4278-4282 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease transmission, immunization, infectious disease, vaccination, vaccination policies
Intentions of public school teachers in British Columbia, Canada to receive a COVID-19 vaccine

AUTHOR(S)
C. Sarai Racey; Robine Donken; Imogen Porter (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Vaccine X
To control the COVID-19 pandemic high vaccine acceptability and uptake will be needed. Teachers represent a priority population to minimize social disruption and ensure continuity in education, which is vital for the well-being and healthy development of youth during the pandemic. The objective of this analysis was to measure public school teachers’ intentions to receive a COVID-19 vaccine in British Columbia (BC), Canada.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 7 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, infectious disease, teachers, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Canada
1 - 15 of 174

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.