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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 285
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent vaccinations: projected time to reverse deficits in routine adolescent vaccination in the United States

Kunal Saxen; Jessica R. Marden; Cristina Carias (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Current Medical Research and Opinion

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant reductions in the administration of routinely recommended vaccines among adolescents in the US including tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap); meningococcal (ACWY); and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. The extent to which these deficits could persist in 2021 and beyond is unclear. To address this knowledge gap, this study estimated the cumulative deficits of routine vaccine doses among US adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic and estimated the time and effort needed to recover from those deficits. Monthly reductions in Tdap, meningococcal, and HPV doses administered to US adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic were quantified using MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters data. The time and effort required to reverse the vaccination deficit under various catch-up scenarios were estimated.

Parents’ attitudes toward children’s vaccination as a marker of trust in health systems

Orna Tal; Yifat Ne’eman; Rotem Sadia (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Children’s vaccination is a major goal in health-care systems worldwide; nevertheless, disparities in vaccination coverage expose socio-demographic accessibility gaps, unawareness, physicians’ disapproval and parents’ incomplete adherence reflecting insufficient public-provider trust. This study aimed to analyze parents’ attitude toward children’s vaccination in correlation with trust among stakeholders. A total of 1031 parents replied to a “snowball” questionnaire; 72% reported high trust in their physician, 42% trusted the authorities, 11% trusted internet groups. Among minorities, parents who fully vaccinate their children were younger, live in urban areas, eat all kinds of foods and trust the authorities, similar to the general population. Low adherence to children’s vaccination was correlated with trusting internet groups.
Maternal level of awareness and predictors of willingness to vaccinate children against COVID 19; a multi-center study

Awoere T. Chinawa; Josephat M. Chinawa; Edmund N. Ossai (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

Several controversies surround mothers’ willingness to vaccinate against the COVID-19 pandemic especially when mortality is not frequently reported in children. This study aimed to ascertain the willingness of mothers of children attending two institutions in Southeast Nigeria to accept the COVID-19 vaccine and factors that may be associated with their choices.This was a cross-sectional study carried out among 577 mothers who presented with their children in two tertiary health institutions in southeast Nigeria.

Parents’ hesitation about getting their children vaccinated against COVID-19 in Japan

Takeshi Yoda; Hironobu Katsuyama

Published: October 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Given the urgent global need for vaccinating individuals of all ages against the COVID-19 pandemic, understanding the extent and reasons for parents’ willingness to get their children vaccinated is important. This study used an internet-based questionnaire survey to determine parents’ willingness to get their children (0 to 15 years) vaccinated in Japan and was conducted in April 2021 before COVID-19 vaccination for children began. Socio-demographic information, information about parents’ willingness to get children vaccinated, reasons for their responses, and parents’ willingness to get themselves vaccinated were obtained. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate parents’ willingness to get children vaccinated based on the other variables.
Engaging Latino families about COVID-19 vaccines: a qualitative study conducted in Oregon, USA

Jonathan Garcia; Nancy Vargas; Cynthia de la Torre (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Health Education & Behavior

Latinos are disproportionately vulnerable to severe COVID-19 due to workplace exposure, multigenerational households, and existing health disparities. Rolling out COVID-19 vaccines among vulnerable Latinos is critical to address disparities. This study explores vaccine perceptions of Latino families to inform culturally centered strategies for vaccine dissemination. Semistructured telephone interviews with Latino families (22 mothers and 24 youth, 13–18 years old) explored COVID-19 vaccine perceptions including (1) sources of information, (2) trust of vaccine effectiveness and willingness to get vaccinated, and (3) access to the vaccine distribution. We identified thematic patterns using immersion–crystallization.

Is symptom screening useful for identifying COVID-19 infection in school settings? Georgia, USA

Megan Swanson; Marisa Hast; Eleanor Burnett (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: The Journal of School Nursing
This study’s goal was to characterize the utility of symptom screening in staff and students for COVID-19 identification and control of transmission in a school setting. It conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data for staff, students and associated household members in a Georgia school district exposed to COVID-19 cases who received RT-PCR testing and symptom monitoring. Among positive contacts, 30/49 (61%) of students and 1/6 (17%) of staff reported no symptoms consistent with COVID-19. Symptom sensitivity was 30% in elementary students and 42% in middle/high students. Fifty-three percent (10/19) of symptomatic positive contacts had at least one household member test positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared with 50% (10/20) of asymptomatic positive contacts. The absence of symptoms in children is not indicative of a lack of SARS-CoV-2 infection or reduced risk of infection for associated household members. Testing all close contacts of people with COVID-19 in schools is needed to interrupt transmission networks.
Children’s conceptions of coronavirus

Fotini Bonoti; Vasilia Christidou; Penelope Papadopoulou

Published: October 2021   Journal: Public Understanding of Science
The present study aimed to examine children’s conceptions of coronavirus as denoted in their verbal descriptions and drawings and whether these vary as a function of children’s age and the mode of expression. Data were collected in Greece during spring 2020 and 344 children aged 4 to 10 years were first asked to verbally describe coronavirus and then to produce a drawing of it. Content analysis of data revealed the following main themes: (a) Coronavirus, (b) Medical, (c) Psychological, and (d) Social. Results showed that children from an early age present a remarkable level of understanding of coronavirus and the COVID-19 disease as a multidimensional construct, which can be designated not only through characteristics of the Sars-Cov-2 but also through its medical, social, and psychological consequences on people’s lives. Moreover, children were found to emphasize different aspects of this construct depending on their age and the mode of expression.
Providing children with COVID-19 vaccinations is challenging due to lack of data and wide-ranging parental acceptance

Jiatong She; lanqin Liu; Wenjun Liu

Published: October 2021   Journal: Acta Paediatrica

Vaccines are vital to ending the COVID-19 pandemic and we reviewed the data on vaccinating children, and including them in clinical trials, as most of the activity has focused on adults. English and Chinese databases, including PubMed, Elsevier Scopus, Web of Science, CNKI and CQVIP were searched, along with websites such as the World Health Organization and the University of Oxford.

Covid-19, children, clinical trials and compassion: the ethical case for using innovative or compassionate treatments.

V. Larcher; A. Caplan; J. Brierley

Published: October 2021   Journal: Acta Paediatrica

Safe, effective SARS-CoV-2 treatment has not yet been determined, though some drugs have favourable mortality and morbidity benefits in specific situations. No treatments have been explicitly tested in children, who are, therefore, once again therapeutic orphans. We echo calls to enrol patients, including children, into trials but note children recruited to date have been additions to adult studies. Few were recruited during the initial pandemic despite the emergence of PIMS-TS/MIS-C, which surely demanding paediatric-specific research.

Likelihood of COVID-19 vaccination among primary school students in Hong Kong

Kin On Kwok; Kin-Kit Li; Wan In Wei (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Clinical Microbiology and Infection

Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may pose a lower risk of transmission to children than to adults, and schools have contributed little to infection among parents, many countries nevertheless implemented school closure. Following the emergence of the δ variant, which is more transmissible and globally dominant, the percentage of primary school-aged children testing positive has been increasing. Progressively, the circumstances have become more favourable to recommend vaccination of children because of the increased burden on children resulting from the new variants and the supporting evidence from the ongoing vaccine trials among school-aged children. The rollout of COVID-19 vaccines for children is an important step in reopening schools safely. Understanding parental intention to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 will help inform broad strategies to maximize immunization rates among children. This study was conducted in Hong Kong, a densely populated travel hub in southeast China where residents average 12.5 daily contacts

‘We are going into battle without appropriate armour’: a qualitative study of Indonesian midwives' experiences in providing maternity care during the COVID-19 pandemic

Alya Hazfiarinia; Shahinoor Akter; Caroline S. E. Homer (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Women and Birth

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the provision of maternity care worldwide. The continuation of maternity services during the pandemic is vital, but midwives have reported feeling overwhelmed in providing these services at this time. However, there are limited studies in Indonesia that have explored the experiences of midwives in providing care during the pandemic. This study aims to explore Indonesian midwives’ experiences in providing maternity care during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Hand hygiene and mask-wearing behaviors and related factors during COVID 19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study in students

Gülsün Ayran; Semra Köse; Arzu Sarıalioğlu (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing

The research was conducted to determine the hand hygiene and mask-wearing behaviors and related factors of secondary school students in the COVID-19 pandemic process. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between March 02–April 022021 with 1284 students who continued their secondary education in a province in the east of Turkey. The data were collected face-to-face through the Descriptive Characteristics Form, the Mask-Wearing Behavior Form, and the Hand Hygiene Behavior Form. Percentage, mean, t-test in independent groups, Mann Whitney U test and Multiple Regression analysis were used in the evaluation of the data. Ethical principles were observed at all stages of the study.

Disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on racial and ethnic minority groups in the United States: a 2021 update

Don Bambino Geno Tai; Irene G. Sia; Chyke A. Doubeni (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
The COVID-19 pandemic’s disproportionate impact on people from some racial and ethnic groups in the U.S. persisted throughout 2021. Black, Latinx, and American Indian persons have been hospitalized and died at a higher rate than White persons consistently from the start of the pandemic. Early data show that hospitalization and mortality rates for Black, Latinx, and American Indian children are higher than White children in a worrying trend. The pandemic has likely worsened the gaps in wealth, employment, housing, and access to health care: the social determinants of health that caused the disparities in the first place. School closures will have a long-lasting impact on the widening achievement gaps between Black and Latinx students and White students. In the earlier vaccination phase, Black and Latinx persons were being vaccinated at a lower rate than their proportion of cases due to vaccine hesitancy, misinformation, and barriers to access. Vaccine hesitancy rates among these groups have since decreased and are now comparable to White persons. Aggregated data make it challenging to paint a picture of the actual impact of COVID-19 on Asian Americans as they are a diverse group with significant disparities.
A critical assessment of the potential vertical transmission hypotheses: Implications for research on the early-life infection with COVID-19

Mengqin Yang; Qiuqin Wang; Yulei Song (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Placenta
The risk of potential vertical transmission in SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnant women is currently a topic of debate. To explore the correlation between the two, this study searched PubMed, Embase®, and Web of Science for studies on vertical transmission of COVID-19. The quality of the studies was evaluated by the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Detailed information of each included case including methods of delivery, protection measures for mothers and neonates at birth, types of specimens, inspection time, results of testing and feeding patterns was collected to assess the possibility of vertical transmission.
Early exploration of COVID-19 vaccination safety and effectiveness during pregnancy: interim descriptive data from a prospective observational study

Inna Bleicher; Einav Kadour-Peero; Lena Sagi-Dain (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Vaccine
During December 2020, a massive vaccination program was introduced in our country. The Pfizer-BioNTech, BNT162b2 vaccine was first offered exclusively to high-risk population, such as medical personnel (including pregnant women). This study compares short term outcomes in vaccinated vs. non-vaccinated pregnant women. In this prospective observational cohort study, vaccinated and non-vaccinated pregnant women were recruited using an online Google forms questionnaire targeting medical groups on Facebook and WhatsApp. A second questionnaire was sent one month after the first one for interim analysis.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.