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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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151 - 165 of 264
Maternal respiratory SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy is associated with a robust inflammatory response at the maternal-fetal interface

AUTHOR(S)
Alice Lu-Culligan; Arun R. Chavan; Pavithra Vijayakumar (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Med
Pregnant women with COVID-19 are at increased risk for severe illness and pregnancy complications compared with non-pregnant women. Researchers at Yale School of Medicine analyzed placentas from SARS-CoV-2-infected women at the time of delivery and found that, although placental cells are susceptible to infection in vitro, viral RNA is rarely detected in clinical samples. The Yale team observed local immune responses at the maternal-fetal interface, including upregulation of interferon pathways and activation of T and NK cells. Although placental immune activation during maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection likely represents a host defense mechanism of shielding the maternal-fetal interface from infection, these inflammatory changes may contribute to the increased risk for complications seen in COVID-19-affected pregnancies.
Comparison of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2-specific antibodies' binding capacity between human milk and serum from Coronavirus disease 2019-recovered women

AUTHOR(S)
Veronique Demers-Mathieu; Ciera DaPra; Elena Medo

Published: April 2021   Journal: Breastfeeding Medicine
Human milk from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-recovered women may be useful as oral antibody therapy to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and provide long-term immunity to neonates and young children. As convalescent plasma is already used as antibody therapy, this study aimed to compare the binding capacity of antibodies specific to the receptorbinding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 between human milk.
Evaluation of the Abbott BinaxNOW rapid antigen test for SARS-CoV-2 infection in children: Implications for screening in a school setting

AUTHOR(S)
Neeraj Sood; Rashmi Shetgiri; Anna Rodriguez (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Plos One
Rapid antigen tests hold much promise for use in the school environment. However, the performance of these tests in non-clinical settings and among one of the main target populations in schools—asymptomatic children—is unclear. To address this gap, we examined the positive and negative concordance between the BinaxNOW™ rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen assay and an RT-PCR test among children at a community-based Covid-19 testing site.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 8 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, health services, infectious disease, schools | Countries: United States
Characteristics and risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 in children tested in the early phase of the pandemic: a cross-sectional study, Italy, 23 February to 24 May 2020

AUTHOR(S)
Marzia Lazzerini; Idanna Sforzi; Sandra Trapani (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Eurosurveillance

The pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) affected Italy as first country in Europe. The Italian government declared a state of emergency on 31 January 2020 and by 24 May 2020, a total of 229,858 cases of COVID-19 had been diagnosed across the country. From the very beginning of the pandemic, data suggested that children are less affected than adults by COVID-19. However, timely diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is not only important for the single individual, it is crucial to prevent the spread of the pandemic. A better understanding of the predictors of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test results may facilitate timely case finding and contact tracing and thus contribute to control the pandemic. It may also improve organisation of care in settings where diagnostic facilities are available but still require a considerable processing time, where diagnostic facilities are lacking and where diagnosis, in the absence of other tools, may need to be based on clinical characteristics alone.

Cite this research | Vol.: 26 | Issue: 14 | No. of pages: 12 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19 response, disease transmission, infectious disease, lockdown, school attendance, social distance | Countries: Italy
Relationship between viral load, infection‐to‐delivery interval and mother‐to‐child transfer of anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 antibodies

AUTHOR(S)
L. C. Poon; B. W. Leung; T. Ma (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
This study aims to investigate the association between SARS‐CoV‐2 viral load and infection‐to‐delivery interval with maternal and cord sera anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 IgG antibody levels in pregnant women with active or recovered SARS‐CoV‐2 infection.
Effects of the COVID‐19 pandemic and lockdown on symptom control in preschool children with recurrent wheezing

AUTHOR(S)
Nicola Ullmann; Annalisa Allegorico; Andrew Bush (et al.)

Published: April 2021
Preschool wheezers are at high risk of recurrent attacks triggered by respiratory viruses, sometimes exacerbated by exposure to allergens and pollution. Because of the COVID‐19 infection, the lockdown was introduced, but the effects on preschool wheezers are unknown. This study hypothesized that there would be an improvement in outcomes during the lockdown, and these would be lost when the lockdown was eased.
Mortality in children with COVID-19: Lessons learned from a tertiary referral hospital in Indonesia

AUTHOR(S)
Rismala Dewi; Nastiti Kaswandani; Mulya Rahma Karyanti (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: International journal of infectious diseases
The incidence of COVID-19 is still rapidly increasing, but little is known about the prevalence and characteristics of fatal cases in children in Indonesia. This study aims to describe the characteristics of pediatric COVID-19 cases with fatal outcomes in Indonesia's tertiary referral hospital. This is a cross-sectional study with data collected from the medical records of COVID-19 patients admitted to Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia, from March to October 2020.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 31 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child mortality, COVID-19, hospitalization, infectious disease | Countries: Indonesia
COVID-19 vaccination of adolescents and young adults of color: viewing acceptance and uptake with a health equity lens

AUTHOR(S)
Tamera Coyne-Beasley; Samantha V. Hill; Gregory Zimet (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health
The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged health-care systems across the world and magnified health inequalities related to systemic racism and globalization. As of February 2021, there have been over 100 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and over two million deaths reported to the World Health Organization. Within the United States (U.S.), Black, Indigenous, Latinx, and other People of Color (BILPOC) are diagnosed, hospitalized, and die at 1.5, 3.3, and 2.8 times the rates of Whites, respectively. BILPOC are also more likely to have defined medical conditions associated with higher risk of severe COVID-19 infections. The disproportionate morbidity and mortality seen among BILPOC adults also impacts BILPOC adolescents and young adults (AYAs). Compared with Whites, BILPOC AYAs are 1) more likely to be essential workers and unable to work from home; 2) less likely to be able to take sick or medical leave, jeopardizing their jobs and families' livelihoods, 3) more likely to reside in intergenerational households with greater crowding; 4) more likely to experience the grief and psychological stress from the death of a loved one due to COVID-19, and 5) more likely to live in households with increased incidence of COVID-19 comorbidities. These and other effects of structural racism can undermine AYA success in remaining free from COVID-19, including limiting vaccine access and uptake.
Management of COVID-19-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: A comprehensive literature review
Published: April 2021   Journal: Progress in Pediatric Cardiology

The prevalence and severity of COVID-19 is greatly reduced in children, yet some pediatric patients develop a syndrome resembling Kawasaki Disease (KD), termed Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). With an estimated incidence of 2/100,000 children, MIS-C is relatively rare, but can be fatal. Clinical features can include fever, hyperinflammatory state, gastrointestinal symptoms, myocardial dysfunction, and shock. The pathogenesis of MIS-C, although yet to be completely elucidated, appears to be distinct from KD in terms of epidemiology, severity, and biochemical signature. This comprehensive review searched AMED, EBM Reviews, Embase, Healthstar, MEDLINE, ERIC, and Cochrane for studies that reported treatments and outcomes of MIS-C.

Supply and delivery of vaccines for global health

AUTHOR(S)
Jean-Louis Excler; Lois Privor-Dumm; Jerome H. Kim

Published: April 2021   Journal: Current Opinion in Immunology

Vaccines developed in high-income countries have been enormously successful in reducing the global burden of infectious diseases, saving perhaps 2.5 million lives per year, but even for successful cases, like the rotavirus vaccine, global implementation may take a decade or more. For unincentivized vaccines, the delays are even more profound, as both the supply of a vaccine from developing country manufacturers and vaccine demand from countries with the high disease burdens have to be generated in order for impact to be manifest. A number of poverty-associated infectious diseases, whose burden is greatest in low-income and middle-income countries, would benefit from appropriate levels of support for vaccine development such as Group A Streptococcus, invasive non-typhoid salmonella, schistosomiasis, shigella, to name a few. With COVID-19 vaccines we will hopefully be able to provide novel vaccine technology to all countries through a unique collaborative effort, the COVAX facility, led by the World Health Organization (WHO), Gavi, and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI). Whether this effort can deliver vaccine to all its participating countries remains to be seen, but this ambitious effort to develop, manufacture, distribute, and vaccinate 60–80% of the world’s population will hopefully be a lasting legacy of COVID-19.

COVID-19 in children at Strasbourg University Hospital: a retrospective study of the first 2 months of the epidemic

AUTHOR(S)
O. Lavaine; J. Spizzo; C. Arbitre (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Archives de Pédiatrie

The emergence and rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have shaken the planet, both in terms of health and economical aspects, constituting a real challenge for the scientific community. At the time of the arrival of the epidemic in France, there were limited data regarding how COVID-19 could affect children. A lesser severity compared with adults was described, but knowledge concerning clinical forms and screening strategies was missing. This retrospective and non-interventional epidemiological study aimed to describe the epidemiology and the clinical features of COVID-19 pediatric disease in the first university hospital affected by the epidemic in France.

Management of acute fever in children: Consensus recommendations for community and primary healthcare providers in sub-Saharan Africa

AUTHOR(S)
Robin Green; David Webb; Prakash Mohan Jeena (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: African Journal of Emergency Medicine
Fever is one of the most common reasons for unwell children presenting to pharmacists and primary healthcare practitioners. Currently there are no guidelines for assessment and management of fever specifically for community and primary healthcare workers in the sub-Saharan Africa region. This multidisciplinary consensus guide was developed to assist pharmacists and primary healthcare workers in sub-Saharan Africa to risk stratify and manage children who present with fever, decide when to refer, and how to advise parents and caregivers.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 11 | Issue: 2 | No. of pages: 283-296 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, infectious disease, multi-country, primary health care services
Reduced inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection in children presenting to hospital with COVID-19 in China

AUTHOR(S)
Guoqing Qian; Yong Zhang; Yang Xu (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: EClinical Medicine
Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in children is associated with better outcomes than in adults. The inflammatory response to COVID-19 infection in children remains poorly characterised. This study retrospectively analysed the medical records of 127 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients aged 1 month to 16 years from Wuhan and Jingzhou of Hubei Province. Patients presented between January 25th and March 24th 2020. Information on clinical features, laboratory results, plasma cytokines/chemokines and lymphocyte subsets were analysed.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 7 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, infectious disease, respiratory diseases | Countries: China
Mothers’ and fathers’ parenting attitudes during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Lisa K. Forbes; Margaret R. Lamar; Megan Speciale (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Current Psychology
Attitudes about parenting are derived from early socialization of gender role norms and often include intensive parenting beliefs, which give mothers an outsized role in parenting. This study examined the differences in intensive parenting beliefs among cisgender mothers and fathers during the United States COVID-19 response. Data from a sample of 1048 mothers and fathers were collected during March and April 2020 to understand parenting beliefs. Results indicated that some demographic factors, including gender and ethnicity, impact intensive parenting beliefs. Additionally, the number of COVID-19 cases in a state, along with school closure length, was related to intensive parenting beliefs.
Post-COVID-19 pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome: association of ethnicity, key worker and socioeconomic status with risk and severity

AUTHOR(S)
Jonathan Broad; Julia Forman; James Brighouse (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Patients from ethnic minority groups and key workers are over-represented among adults hospitalised or dying from COVID-19. In this population based retrospective cohort, we describe the association of ethnicity, socioeconomic and family key worker status with incidence and severity of Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally associated with SARSCoV-2 (PIMS-TS).
151 - 165 of 264

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.