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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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166 - 180 of 246
Sharing a household with children and risk of COVID-19: a study of over 300 000 adults living in healthcare worker households in Scotland

AUTHOR(S)
Rachael Wood; Emma Thomson; Robert Galbraith (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Archives of Disease in Childhood

Children are relatively protected from COVID-19, due to a range of potential mechanisms. This cohort study based on linked administrative data in Scotland investigated if contact with children also affords adults a degree of protection from COVID-19.

Impact of outpatient SARS-CoV-2 infections in minority children

AUTHOR(S)
Vanessa Denny; Niva Shah; Karolina Petro (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Medicine
Data regarding COVID-19 in the adult population and hospitalized children is rapidly evolving, but little is known about children infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 who do not require hospitalization. This observational, retrospective study analyzed risk factors, demographics and clinical course of non-hospitalized patients  21 years of age with COVID-19 infection.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 100 | Issue: 8 | No. of pages: 3 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child care services, child health, COVID-19, hospitalization, infectious disease
Management of malaria in children younger than 5 years old during Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Sierra Leone: a lesson learned?

AUTHOR(S)
Danilo Buonsenso; Francesco Iodice; Bianca Cinicola (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Growing evidences are showing the potential indirect effects of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the health systems of low-resource settings, where diseases such as Tuberculosis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Malaria represent major killers. Therefore, this study performed a retrospective study aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on Malaria programs in a peripheral region of Sierra Leone, previously involved by the Ebola outbreak in 2015, when malaria care have been impaired since local health systems were overwhelmed by Ebola cases. During COVID-19 in Sierra Leone, it has not been noticed a significant drop in malaria diagnosis in children, suggesting that a proactive approach in the management of malaria in endemic countries during COVID-19 may have had a positive impact. A comprehensive approach that include also educational activities to sensitize the local population, was useful to guarantee successful malaria diagnosis and treatment, and prevents excess of malaria deaths due to potential disruption of the local health systems related to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
The importance of advancing severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 vaccines in cildren

AUTHOR(S)
Carol M. Kao; Walter A. Orenstein; Evan J. Anderson

Published: February 2021   Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases
While the role of children in the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains to be defined, children likely play an important role based on our knowledge of other respiratory viruses. Children are more likely to be asymptomatic or have milder symptoms and less likely to present for healthcare and be tested for SARS-CoV-2. Thus, our current estimates are likely under-representative of the true burden of SARS-CoV-2 in children. Given the potential direct benefit of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in children and the substantial indirect benefit through community protection, or “herd immunity,” this study argues that planning and implementation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines should include children.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 72 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 515-518 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, disease transmission, infectious disease, respiratory diseases, vaccination, vaccination policies
Difference in SARS-CoV-2 attack rate between children and adults may reflect bias

AUTHOR(S)
Zoë Hyde

Published: February 2021   Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases
The epidemiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children has been challenging to establish, owing to the high prevalence of asymptomatic infection in this population. Lower secondary attack rates in children compared to adults have been observed in household contact studies, but there is evidence this may reflect lower testing in children and reduced exposure, rather than a genuine difference in biological susceptibility. Additionally, children may shed infectious virus for a shorter period than adults and their antibody response may be less broad, with implications for both polymerase chain reaction and serological testing. Improvements in study design, data collection, and data interpretation are required to better understand the epidemiology of COVID-19 in children.
Differences in immune responses between children and adults with COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Yin Yuan; Qiu-peng Wang; Dan Sun (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Current Medical Science
Over 85 590 000 individuals have been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although there have been an increasing number of reports on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is unclear why infected children show milder symptoms than adults. A retrospective case study was performed at two designated hospitals for COVID-19. Patients (56 children and 63 adults) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and mild pneumonia were randomly enrolled in this study. The median age of the children was 7.0 years, and 51.79% of them were boys. The median age of the adults was 57 years, and 47.62% were men. The most common symptoms were fever, cough, sputum and diarrhoea. There were no significant differences in symptoms between children and adult patients.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 58-61 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, immunization, infectious disease, respiratory diseases | Countries: China
Saliva for molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 in school-aged children

AUTHOR(S)
Hanan Al Suwaidi; Abiola Senok; Rupa Varghese (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
The high diagnostic accuracy indices for saliva SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) reported in adults has not been demonstrated in children and adequately powered studies focused on the paediatric population are lacking. This study was carried out to determine the diagnostic accuracy of saliva for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in ambulatory children. From 1st-23rd October 2020, we recruited a population-based sample of children presenting for COVID-19 screening in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Each child provided paired nasopharyngeal (NP) swab and saliva for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR N, E and RdRp genes detection.
SARS-CoV-2 infections in children following the full re-opening of schools and the impact of national lockdown: prospective, national observational cohort surveillance, July-December 2020, England

AUTHOR(S)
Anna A. Mensah; Mary Sinnathamby; Asad Zaidi (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Journal of Infection
The reopening of schools during the COVID-19 pandemic has raised concern for the safety of staff and students, their families and the wider community. We monitored SARS-CoV-2 infection rates in school-aged children and compared them with adult infection rates before and after schools reopened in England. Public Health England receives daily electronic reports of all SARS-CoV-2 tests nationally. SARS-CoV-2 infection rates by school year from July to December 2020 were analysed, including the effect of a national month-long lockdown whilst keeping schools open in November 2020
Update on SARS-CoV-2 infection in children

AUTHOR(S)
Marlos Melo Martins; Arnaldo Prata-Barbosa; Antônio José Ledo Alves da Cunha (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Despite the worldwide spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19), knowledge of the different clinical presentations, ways of transmission, severity and prognosis in children and adolescents is limited. An increasing number of reports describe some of these characteristics in this age range. A non-systematic review was undertaken using MEDLINE (PubMed), LILACS (VHL), Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane and CAPES Portal databases from 1 January until 30 September 2020 with the search terms SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, child, children, youth, adolescent and newborn to identify the more recent clinical aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children.
“We didn't get much schooling because we were fishing all the time”: potential impacts of irregular school attendance on the spread of epidemics

AUTHOR(S)
Jessica Dimka; Lisa Sattenspiel

Published: February 2021   Journal: American Journal of Human Biology
Especially in traditional, rural, and low‐income areas, children attend school irregularly. School‐based interventions are common mitigation strategies for infectious disease epidemics, but if daily attendance is not the norm, the impact of schools on disease spread might be overestimated.
Childhood asthma outcomes during the COVID‐19 pandemic: findings from the PeARL multi‐national cohort

AUTHOR(S)
Nikolaos G. Papadopoulos; Alexander G. Mathioudakis; Adnan Custovic (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Allergy
The interplay between COVID‐19 pandemic and asthma in children is still unclear. This article evaluated the impact of COVID‐19 pandemic on childhood asthma outcomes.
Demographic, clinical and laboratory features of COVID‐19 in children: the role of mean platelet volume in predicting the hospitalization and severity

AUTHOR(S)
Gizem Guner Ozenen; Zumrut Sahbudak Bal; Zuhal Umit (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Journal of Medical Virology

There have been limited number of studies on COVID‐19 in children. This study aimed to investigate the demographic, clinical, and laboratory features of COVID‐19 and to identify the role of mean platelet volume (MPV) in predicting the prognosis in children. A single‐center retrospective study, including 251 confirmed and 65 suspected COVID‐19 cases, was conducted between March 11, 2020, and December 11, 2020.

Innate cell profiles during the acute and convalescent phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children

AUTHOR(S)
Melanie R. Neeland; Samantha Bannister; Vanessa Clifford (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Nature Communications volume
Children have mild severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) confirmed disease (COVID-19) compared to adults and the immunological mechanisms underlying this difference remain unclear. Here, it is reported acute and convalescent innate immune responses in 48 children and 70 adults infected with, or exposed to, SARS-CoV-2. It has been found clinically that mild SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is characterised by reduced circulating subsets of monocytes (classical, intermediate, non-classical), dendritic cells and natural killer cells during the acute phase. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2-infected adults show reduced proportions of non-classical monocytes only. It has also been observed increased proportions of CD63+ activated neutrophils during the acute phase to SARS-CoV-2 in infected children. Children and adults exposed to SARS-CoV-2 but negative on PCR testing display increased proportions of low-density neutrophils that have been observed up to 7 weeks post exposure. This study characterises the innate immune response during SARS-CoV-2 infection and household exposure in children.
Comparison of acute pneumonia caused by SARS-COV-2 and other respiratory viruses in children: a retrospective multi-center cohort study during COVID-19 outbreak

AUTHOR(S)
Guang-Li Ren; Xian-Feng Wang; Jun Xu (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Military Medical Research
Until January 18, 2021, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 93 million individuals and has caused a certain degree of panic. Viral pneumonia caused by common viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus, and parainfluenza viruses have been more common in children. However, the incidence of COVID-19 in children was significantly lower than that in adults. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical manifestations, treatment and outcomes of COVID-19 in children compared with those of other sources of viral pneumonia diagnosed during the COVID-19 outbreak.
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) in an adolescent Nigerian girl with COVID-19: a call for vigilance in Africa

AUTHOR(S)
Chizaram Onyeghala; Datonye Alasia; Orezioghene Eyaru (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: International journal of infectious diseases : IJID
Most reports of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C) have come from Europe and North America. The paucity of reports in Africa is in contrast with the demographics of the series in New York, Paris and UK with children of African ancestry accounting for over 40%, of all cases of MIS-C. With the global trend of higher prevalence of MIS-C in children of African ancestry, enhanced surveillance and awareness for this syndrome in children with COVID-19 in Africa are therefore important. A case report of a 12-year old Nigerian girl with MIS-C is presented in line with the WHO global surveillance especially in areas were MIS-C is considered a rarity. This case report stimulates a call for vigilance and expanded effort at surveillance to promote early recognition and diagnosis of MIS-C in Nigeria and Africa. The favourable outcome and experience from this case will create awareness, expand knowledge, and support clinicians in Nigeria and the African continent in their approach to other potential cases.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 16 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, disease transmission, infectious disease | Countries: Nigeria
166 - 180 of 246

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.