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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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271 - 285 of 319
The role of schools and school-aged children in SARS-CoV-2 transmission

AUTHOR(S)
Stefan Flasche; W. John Edmunds

Published: December 2020   Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Schools form a fundamental part of our society. They are crucial for passing on knowledge and values to younger generations and essential for the mental wellbeing of children and parents alike. Unfortunately, they also present a seemingly excellent environment for the spread of respiratory infections through high-frequency and close contacts in often poorly ventilated environments.  In their assessment of the partial reopening of educational settings in the UK in June and early July, when SARS-CoV-2 prevalence was relatively low, Sharif Ismail and colleagues’ study published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases reassuringly found that despite a median of 928 000 children attending educational settings daily, few SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks were identified. Where secondary cases linked to within-school exposure were found, these were more frequently among teaching and administrative staff.
Distinct antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in children and adults across the COVID-19 clinical spectrum

AUTHOR(S)
Stuart P. Weisberg; Thomas J. Connors; Yun Zhu (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Nature Immunology
Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 are associated with age. Adults develop respiratory symptoms, which can progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in the most severe form, while children are largely spared from respiratory illness but can develop a life-threatening multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). Here, we show distinct antibody responses in children and adults after SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Saliva: an important alternative for screening and monitoring of COVID-19 in children

AUTHOR(S)
Catielma Nascimento Santos; Karla Mayra Rezende; Nilson Ferreira de Oliveira Neto (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Brazilian Oral Research
The increasing number of cases of COVID-19 worldwide poses challenges to healthcare systems not only in effectively identifying individuals positive for SARS-CoV-2, but also in isolating cases to minimise contagion in early diagnosing more severe cases that will need hospitalization. Less-invasive collection methods are indispensable in a pandemic scenario as large-scale tests are necessary to understand the actual evolution of contagion in different populations, thus enabling decision-making based on scientific evidence. Saliva has been shown to be an alternative for diagnosing viral infections as this biological fluid can be easily and quickly collected without using specific devices and causing less discomfort during collection, which is an important factor for use in children. Despite the smaller percentage of severe cases of COVID-19 among children, they seem to play an important role in the contagion as they have the same potential of transmission as that of adults. Knowing the evolution of COVID-19 pandemic in children is extremely important, mainly regarding the changing in rules of social distancing, such as re-opening schools and recreational activities spaces.
Coronaviruses in children: a review of potential mechanisms of childhood protection

AUTHOR(S)
Firas A. Rabi; Mazhar S. Al Zoubi; Montaha Mohammed Al‐Iede (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Acta Paediatrica
The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID‐19) has spread worldwide and the number of cases continues to rise exponentially. Epidemiologic reports indicate that severity of illness increases with age. However, the reasons behind the relative protection of children and infants are unclear. Whether the rationale is host‐related or virus‐dependent is important to determine since the latter could change with viral mutations. This survey reviewed factors that could affect the susceptibility of children to the novel coronavirus.
Baseline characteristics, management, and outcomes of 55,270 children and adolescents diagnosed with COVID-19 and 1,952,693 with influenza in France, Germany, Spain, South Korea and the United States: an international network cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Talita Duarte-Salles; David Vizcaya; Andrea Pistillo (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Physical Therapy
This study comprehensively characterizes a large international cohort of pediatric COVID-19 patients, and almost 2 million with previous seasonal influenza across 5 countries. Although uncommon, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) were more frequent in children and adolescents diagnosed with COVID-19 than in those with seasonal influenza. Dyspnea, bronchiolitis, anosmia and gastrointestinal symptoms were more frequent in COVID-19, and could help to differentiate pediatric COVID-19 from influenza. A plethora of medications were used during the management of COVID-19 in children and adolescents, with great heterogeneity in the use of antiviral therapies as well as of adjunctive therapies.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 100 | Issue: 11 | No. of pages: 35 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, infectious disease, respiratory diseases
Coronavirus Disease‐19 deaths among children and adolescents in an area of Northeast, Brazil: why so many?

AUTHOR(S)
Aline de Siqueira Alves Lopes; Sarah Cristina Fontes Vieira; Roseane Lima Santos Porto (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Tropical Medicine & International Health

This study aims to describe COVID‐19 deaths among children and adolescents in Sergipe, Brazil. It is an ecological study of all COVID‐19 reported cases and deaths occurring in children and adolescents <19 years of age in Sergipe reported by the health surveillance and mortality information systems of Sergipe’s Health Secretary and hospital records.

Immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 in three children of parents with symptomatic COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Shidan Tosif; Melanie R. Neeland; Nigel W. Crawford (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Nature Communications
Compared to adults, children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have predominantly mild or asymptomatic infections, but the underlying immunological differences remain unclear. This study describes clinical features, virology, longitudinal cellular, and cytokine immune profile, SARS-CoV-2-specific serology and salivary antibody responses in a family of two parents with PCR-confirmed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and their three children, who tested repeatedly SARS-CoV-2 PCR negative. Cellular immune profiles and cytokine responses of all children are similar to their parents at all timepoints. All family members have salivary anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies detected, predominantly IgA, that coincide with symptom resolution in 3 of 4 symptomatic members. Plasma from both parents and one child have IgG antibody against the S1 protein and virus-neutralizing activity detected. Using a systems serology approach, this study shows higher levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody features of these family members compared to healthy controls. These data indicate that children can mount an immune response to SARS-CoV-2 without virological confirmation of infection, raising the possibility that immunity in children can prevent the establishment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. 
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 11 | No. of pages: 8 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child immunization, COVID-19, immunization, infectious disease
Who should be prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination?

AUTHOR(S)
Fiona M. Russell; Brian Greenwood

Published: November 2020   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
The development of COVID-19 vaccines is occurring at a rapid pace, with the potential for a vaccine to be available within 6 months. So who should be prioritized for vaccination when in the first instance, there will be insufficient supply to meet demand? There is no doubt that health-care workers in all settings should be vaccinated first, but who comes next will be a complex decision based on local epidemiology, societal values, and the ability of the vaccines to prevent both severe disease and to reduce transmission thereby eliciting herd protection. The decision on who to vaccinate should be equitable, highly contextualized, and based on the property of each vaccine. In some settings, the elderly may be prioritized, in others, it may be the population most likely to get infected and responsible for community spread. To support decision-making on who to be prioritized for vaccination requires urgent additional research on the epidemiology of COVID-19; preexisting immunity and who is responsible for transmission in a variety of settings; the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in children and pregnant women; and determining whether COVID-19 vaccines prevent asymptomatic infection and transmission.
Parents’ and guardians’ views on the acceptability of a future COVID-19 vaccine: a multi-methods study in England

AUTHOR(S)
Sadie Bell; Richard Clarke; Sandra Mounier-Jack (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Vaccine

The availability of a COVID-19 vaccine has been heralded as key to controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 vaccination programme success will rely on public willingness to be vaccinated. This study uses a multi-methods approach - involving an online cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interviews - to investigate parents’ and guardians’ views on the acceptability of a future COVID-19 vaccine.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 38 | Issue: 49 | No. of pages: 7789-7798 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, infectious disease, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: United Kingdom
A study of breastfeeding practices, SARS-CoV-2 and its antibodies in the breast milk of mothers confirmed with COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Sicong Peng; Huaping Zhu; Lixia Yang (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific
The possibility of 2019 novel coronavirus disease transmission to neonates through breast milk remains unverified. This paper presents the interim results of a longitudinal study being carried out in Hubei province. As of 1 April 2020, 24 mothers confirmed with COVID-19, 19 mothers suspected with COVID-19 but Polymerase chain reaction negative, and 21 mothers without COVID-19 and their neonates have been recruited. Telephone follow-up was conducted to collect information on breastfeeding practices. Forty-four breast milk samples were collected from 16 of the 24 mothers with confirmed COVID-19 for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) ribonucleic acid (RNA) and antibodies (IgM and IgG) testing.
Possible vertical transmission and antibodies against SARS‐CoV‐2 among infants born to mothers with COVID‐19: a living systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
George M. Bwire; Belinda J. Njiro; Dorkasi L. Mwakawanga (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Journal of Medical Virology
Current evidence suggests that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19), caused by severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2), is predominantly transmitted from human‐to‐human. However, evidence on vertical transmission and natural passive immunity among the newborns exposed to COVID‐19 is scanty and varies. This poses a challenge on preventive interventions for the newborns. A systematic review was conducted to first, determine the likelihood of vertical transmission among COVID‐19 exposed infants and second, determine whether antibodies against SARS‐CoV‐2 were generated among COVID‐19 vertically exposed but negative infants. This review registered in PROSPERO searched evidence from PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar, among others.
Public health antibody screening indicates a six-fold higher SARS-CoV-2 exposure rate than reported cases in children

AUTHOR(S)
Markus Hippich; Lisa Holthaus; Robin Assfalg (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Clinical Advances
This paper describes a highly specific and sensitive approach to measuring antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 for population-scale immune surveillance. Antibody positivity was defined as a dual-positive response against both the receptor-binding domain and nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Antibodies were measured by immunoprecipitation assays in capillary blood from 15,771 children aged 1 to 18 years living in Bavaria, Germany, and participating in a public health type 1 diabetes screening program, in 1,916 dried blood spots from neonates in a Bavarian screening study, and in 75 SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals. Virus positive incidence was obtained from the Bavarian health authority data.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 15, 4 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease transmission, infectious disease | Countries: Germany
The clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 positive neonates

AUTHOR(S)
Giuseppe De Bernardo; Maurizio Giordano; Giada Zollo (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Journal of Perinatology
The COVID-19 pneumonia was firstly reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease had a rapid spread all over the word becoming an international public health emergency. Limited data were available on COVID-19 positive neonates. We reviewed relevant literature to understand the clinical course of disease and transmission routes in affected neonates. The aim of the study was evaluating the clinical course and prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 positive neonates. Based on current literature, the hypothesis of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2, though conceivable, remains unproven. A research conducted on PubMed database from December 2019 to April 27, 2020 revealed that were reported 25 neonates affected by SARS-CoV-2. Main symptoms were fever, cough, or shortness of breath but often these neonates did not show other symptoms during length stay in hospital. No deaths occurred.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 40 | No. of pages: 1462-1469 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child care, child health, COVID-19, disease transmission, infectious disease
Synthesis and systematic review of reported neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infections

AUTHOR(S)
Roberto Raschetti; Alexandre J. Vivanti ; Christelle Vauloup-Fellous (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Nature Communications
A number of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections have been reported in neonates. This survey aims to clarify the transmission route, clinical features and outcomes of these infections. It presents a meta-analysis of 176 published cases of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infections that were defined by at least one positive nasopharyngeal swab and/or the presence of specific IgM. This report shows that 70% and 30% of infections are due to environmental and vertical transmission, respectively.
Systematic analysis of infectious disease outcomes by age shows lowest severity in school-age children

AUTHOR(S)
Judith R. Glynn; Paul A. H. Moss

Published: October 2020   Journal: Scientific Data

The COVID-19 pandemic has ignited interest in age-specific manifestations of infection but surprisingly little is known about relative severity of infectious disease between the extremes of age. In a systematic analysis, this study identifies 142 datasets with information on severity of disease by age for 32 different infectious diseases, 19 viral and 13 bacterial. For almost all infections, school-age children have the least severe disease, and severity starts to rise long before old age. Indeed, for many infections even young adults have more severe disease than children, and dengue was the only infection that was most severe in school-age children. Together with data on vaccine response in children and young adults, the findings suggest peak immune function is reached around 5–14 years of age. Relative immune senescence may begin much earlier than assumed, before accelerating in older age groups. This has major implications for understanding resilience to infection, optimal vaccine scheduling, and appropriate health protection policies across the life course.

271 - 285 of 319

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.