search advanced search
UNICEF Innocenti
Office of Research-Innocenti
search menu

Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

RESULTS:   238     SORT BY:


Select one or more filter options and click search below.

UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
Open Access
31 - 45 of 238
COVID-19 and cause of pregnancy loss during the pandemic: a systematic review

Seyyedeh Neda Kazemi; Bahareh Hajikhani; Hamidreza Didar (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Plos One

The association between Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and abortion has been debated since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. This systematic review aimed to understand better the potential effects of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on fetal loss in infected mothers presented with abortion following this infection. It included articles published in PubMed/Medline, Web of Science,, and Embase databases in 2019 and 2020 through a comprehensive search via appropriate keywords, including COVID-19 and abortion synonyms. All studies with the abortion data in COVID-19 confirmed pregnant females were collected.

Breastfeeding in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic: a discussion paper

Karen Walker; Janet Green; Julia Petty (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Neonatal Nursing
Breastfeeding offers one of the most fundamental global health benefits for babies. Breastmilk is lifesaving, providing not only nutrition but immunologic benefits and as such is strongly supported by the World Health Organization and leading healthcare associations worldwide. When the COVID-19 pandemic started in 2020, the impact of the restrictions to prevent the spread of the disease created challenges and questions about provision of safe, quality care, including breastfeeding practices, in a new ‘normal’ environment. Mothers were temporarily separated from their babies where infection was present or suspected, parents were prevented from being present on neonatal units and vital breastfeeding support was prevented. This discussion paper provides an overview of essential areas of knowledge related to practice for neonatal nurses and midwives who care for breastfeeding mothers and babies, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and the latest global guidance.
COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy: coverage and safety

Helena Blakeway; Smriti Prasa; Erkan Kalafat (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Concerns have been raised regarding a potential surge of COVID-19 in pregnancy, secondary to rising numbers of COVID-19 in the community, easing of societal restrictions, and vaccine hesitancy. Even though COVID-19 vaccination is now offered to all pregnant women in the UK, there are limited data on its uptake and safety. This was a cohort study of pregnant women who gave birth at St George’s University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK, between March 1st and July 4th 2021. The primary outcome was uptake of COVID-19 vaccination and its determinants. The secondary outcomes were perinatal safety outcomes.

COVID-19 in children and young adults with moderate/severe inborn errors of immunity in a high burden area in pre-vaccine era

A. Deyà-Martínez; A. García-García; E. A. Gonzalez-Navarro (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Clinical Immunology

Information regarding inborn error of immunity (IEI) as a risk factor for severe COVID-19 is scarce. This study aimed to determine if paediatric patients with moderate/severe IEI got COVID-19 at the same level as the general population, and to describe COVID-19 expression. It included patients with moderate/severe IEI aged 0–21 years old: cross-sectional study (June2020) to determine the prevalence of COVID-19; prospective study (January2020-January2021) including IEI patients with COVID-19. Assays used: nasopharyngeal swab SARS-CoV-2 PCR and SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulins.

Junk food-induced obesity- a growing threat to youngsters during the pandemic

Ankul Singh S.; Dhivya Dhanasekaran; Nila Ganamurali (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Obesity Medicine

Obesity has been declared an epidemic that does not discriminate based on age, gender, or ethnicity and thus needs urgent containment and management. Since the third wave of COVID-19 is expected to affect children the most, these children and adolescents should eat Junk foods to be more cautious during Covid situations due to the compromise of Immunity in the individuals and further exacerbating the organ damage. A pan India survey organized by the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) among 13,274 children between the ages 9–14 years reported that 93% of the children ate packed food and 68% consumed packaged sweetened beverages more than once a week, and 53% ate these products at least once in a day. Almost 25% of the School going children take ultra-processed food with high levels of sugar, salt, fat, such as pizza and burgers, from fast food outlets more than once a week. Children and adolescents who consume more junk food or are addicted to such consumption might be even more vulnerable during the third wave, which will significantly affect the younger category.

Safety of components and platforms of COVID-19 vaccines considered for use in pregnancy: a rapid review

Agustín Ciapponi; Ariel Bardach; Agustina Mazzoni (et al.)

Published: August 2021

Rapid assessment of COVID-19 vaccine safety during pregnancy is urgently needed. This study conducted a rapid systematic review, to evaluate the safety of COVID-19 vaccines selected by the COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access-Maternal Immunization Working Group in August 2020, including their components and their technological platforms used in other vaccines for pregnant persons. It searched literature databases, COVID-19 vaccine pregnancy registries, and explored reference lists from the inception date to February 2021 without language restriction. Pairs of reviewers independently selected studies through COVIDENCE, and performed the data extraction and the risk of bias assessment. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus.

Illness duration and symptom profile in symptomatic UK school-aged children tested for SARS-CoV-2

Erika Molteni; Carole H. Sudre; Liane S. Canas (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
In children, SARS-CoV-2 infection is usually asymptomatic or causes a mild illness of short duration. Persistent illness has been reported; however, its prevalence and characteristics are unclear. This study aimed to determine illness duration and characteristics in symptomatic UK school-aged children tested for SARS-CoV-2 using data from the COVID Symptom Study, one of the largest UK citizen participatory epidemiological studies to date. In this prospective cohort study, data from UK school-aged children (age 5–17 years) were reported by an adult proxy. Participants were voluntary, and used a mobile application (app) launched jointly by Zoe Limited and King's College London. Illness duration and symptom prevalence, duration, and burden were analysed for children testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 for whom illness duration could be determined, and were assessed overall and for younger (age 5–11 years) and older (age 12–17 years) groups. Children with longer than 1 week between symptomatic reports on the app were excluded from analysis. Data from symptomatic children testing negative for SARS-CoV-2, matched 1:1 for age, gender, and week of testing, were also assessed.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 11 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, health services, infectious disease | Countries: United Kingdom
Surveillance in hospitalized children with infectious diseases in Japan: pre- and post-coronavirus disease 2019

Yuya Fukuda; Takeshi Tsugawa; Yoshinobu Nagaoka (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy

The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rapidly spread worldwide, and the various infection control measures have a significant influence on the spread of many infectious diseases. However, there have been no multicenter studies on how the number of hospitalized children with various infectious diseases changed before and after the outbreak of COVID-19 in Japan. This study conducted a multicenter, prospective survey for hospitalized pediatric patients in 18 hospitals in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan, from July 2019 to February 2021. It defined July 2019 to February 2020 as pre-COVID-19, and July 2020 to February 2021 as post-COVID-19. It surveyed various infectious diseases by sex and age.

Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 9 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, health services, hospitalization, infectious disease | Countries: Japan
Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the household setting: a prospective cohort study in children and adults in England

Elizabeth Miller; Pauline A. Waight; Nick J. Andrews (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Infection

This study aims to measure secondary attack rates (SARs) in prospectively followed household contacts of paediatric and adult cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in England. Self-taken nasal swabs from household contacts of PCR confirmed cases of COVID-19 and blood samples on day 35 were tested for evidence of infection with SARS-CoV-2 virus.

Long-term symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents

Thomas Radtke; Agne Ulyte; Milo A. Puhan; Milo A. Puhan (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: JAMA

Children can experience SARS-CoV-2 postviral syndromes, but it is unclear to what extent these individuals are affected by long COVID. Evidence is predominantly limited to select populations without control groups,1-4 which does not allow estimating the overall prevalence and burden in a general pediatric population. This study compared symptoms compatible with long COVID in children and adolescents (hereafter “children”) reported within 6 months after SARS-CoV-2 serologic testing. Ciao Corona is a longitudinal cohort study investigating SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in 55 randomly selected schools in the canton of Zurich in Switzerland,5,6 which has a linguistically and ethnically diverse population of 1.5 million residents in urban and rural settings. Schools were selected randomly from the 12 cantonal districts, with number of schools proportional to population size. In Switzerland, children attended schools in person (with protective measures) in 2020-2021, except during a 6-week nationwide lockdown (March 16 to May 10, 2020).

COVID-19 vaccination in Chinese children: a cross-sectional study on the cognition, psychological anxiety state and the willingness toward vaccination

Jin Yanga; Ting Zhanga; Weiran Qi (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
It is important to understand the cognition, willingness, and psychological anxiety state of Chinese guardians toward COVID-19 vaccination for their children to predict the future vaccination rate and to help the design of policies that aim to expand the population with immunity against COVID-19. This study collected data with a professional vaccination registration platform for children named “Xiao Dou Miao” in February 2021. The psychological anxiety state of the guardians was self-evaluated using the psychological anxiety scale. Factors that might influence the willingness of guardians to vaccinate their children were identified using logistic regression analysis. This study included 12,872 questionnaires with 70.9% of guardians showing willingness to vaccinate their children.
Evaluation of predictors of severe-moderate COVID-19 infections at children: a review of 292 children

Aybüke A. Kara; Elif Böncüoğlu; Elif Kıymet

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Medical Virology
Although the underlying disease is associated with a severe course in adults and laboratory abnormalities have been widely reported, there are not sufficient data on the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children with pre-existing comorbid conditions and on laboratory findings. This study aimed to describe the independent risk factors for estimating the severity of the COVID-19 in children. All children between 1 month and 18 years old who were hospitalized during the period of March 11–December 31, 2020, resulting from COVID-19 were included in the study. Patients were categorized into mild (group 1) and moderate + severe/critically (group 2) severity based on the criteria. Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and laboratory variables between the two groups were compared. A total of 292 children confirmed to have COVID-19 infection were included in the study.
SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell responses are lower in children and increase with age and time after infection

Carolyn A. Cohen; Athena P. Y. Li; Asmaa Hachim (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Nature Communications
SARS-CoV-2 infection of children leads to a mild illness and the immunological differences with adults are unclear. Here, we report SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell responses in infected adults and children and find that the acute and memory CD4+ T cell responses to structural SARS-CoV-2 proteins increase with age, whereas CD8+ T cell responses increase with time post-infection. Infected children have lower CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 structural and ORF1ab proteins when compared with infected adults, comparable T cell polyfunctionality and reduced CD4+ T cell effector memory. Compared with adults, children have lower levels of antibodies to β-coronaviruses, indicating differing baseline immunity. Total T follicular helper responses are increased, whilst monocyte numbers are reduced, indicating rapid adaptive co-ordination of the T and B cell responses and differing levels of inflammation. Therefore, reduced prior β-coronavirus immunity and reduced T cell activation in children might drive milder COVID-19 pathogenesis.
Knowledge, attitude and practice toward Corona virus infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care at public hospitals in three Wollega zones, Ethiopia

Merga Besho; Reta Tsegaye; Mekdes Tigistu Yilma (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: International Journal of General Medicine
Pregnancy is an immune-suppressed state which makes pregnant women generally more susceptible to COVID-19 infection and severe illness. Extensive precautions have been recommended to avoid exposure to the virus. Knowledge and attitude toward the disease play an integral role in readiness to accept public health measures. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice towards COVID-19 among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in three Wollega zones, Ethiopia. Institution-based cross-sectional study was employed among 415 pregnant women attending antenatal care at public hospitals in three Wollega zones, Ethiopia from July to August 2020.
COVID-19 in Ghana: challenges and countermeasures for maternal health service delivery in public health facilities

Faith Agbozo; Albrecht Jahn

Published: July 2021   Journal: Reproductive Health
This study provides a situational update on COVID-19 in Ghana, the seventh African country reporting the most cases. Some modifications occurring within the health system to curtail the outbreak and its potential impact on the delivery of antenatal care services are also highlighted. With the discovery of the Delta variant in Ghana, the current attention is to prevent a third wave of infection, and also control and manage existing cases. Efforts to procure vaccines, vaccinate special populations and sensitize the public on the implications of vaccine hesitancy are ongoing.
31 - 45 of 238

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Read the latest quarterly digest on children and youth mental health under COVID-19.

Subscribe to updates on new research about COVID-19 & children



facebook twitter linkedin google+ reddit print email
Campaign Campaign

COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.