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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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46 - 60 of 61
COVID-19 in children and the role of school settings in COVID-19 transmission
Institution: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
Published: August 2020
The aim of this document is to provide an overview of the epidemiology and disease characteristics of COVID-19 in children (0-18 years) in EU/EEA countries and the United Kingdom (UK), and an assessment of the role of childcare (preschools; ages 0-<5 years) and educational (primary and secondary schools; ages 5-18 years) settings in COVID-19 transmission.
Objectives for COVID-19 testing in school settings
Institution: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
Published: August 2020
The aim of this document is to provide an overview of major aspects of testing, contact tracing, contact identification and contact follow-up in school settings within the EU/EEA countries and the United Kingdom (UK).
Infection control practices in children during COVID-19 pandemic: differences from adults

AUTHOR(S)
Ilker Devrim; Nuri Bayram

Published: August 2020   Journal: The American Journal of Infection Control
Limited studies have been published on practices and management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children. Despite the fact that COVID-19 rarely caused any severe disease in children, the asymptomatic children might be playing an important role for spreading COVID-19 in healthcare facilities. This review aimed at sharing our experience of how to handle patients with COVID-19 in a pediatric referral and tertiary care hospital to prevent the possible transmissions to the healthcare workers (HCWs).
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 48 | Issue: 8 | No. of pages: 933-939 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child care services, child health, disease control, disease transmission, infectious disease, COVID-19
Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Australian educational settings: a prospective cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Kristine Macartney; Helen E. Quinn; Alexis J. Pillsbury (et al.)

Published: August 2020   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
School closures have occurred globally during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, empiric data on transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among children and in educational settings are scarce. In Australia, most schools have remained open during the first epidemic wave, albeit with reduced student physical attendance at the epidemic peak. This study examines SARS-CoV-2 transmission among children and staff in schools and early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings in the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW).
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 4 | Issue: 11 | No. of pages: 807-816 | Language: English | Topics: Health, Education | Tags: child education, child health, school attendance, infectious disease, COVID-19 response | Countries: Australia
Limited secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in child care programs - Rhode Island, June 1-July 31, 2020

AUTHOR(S)
Ruth Link-Gelles; Amanda L. Della Grotta; Caitlin Molina (et al.)

Published: August 2020   Journal: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Report on secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in child care programs in Rhode Island.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 69 | Issue: 34 | No. of pages: 1170-1172 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child care services, pandemic, infectious disease, COVID-19 | Countries: United States
Seasonal influenza activity in young children before the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China

AUTHOR(S)
Z. Xia; L. Yang; N. Li (et al.)

Published: August 2020   Journal: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
The activity of influenza A at the end of 2019 was higher than previous two years in children younger than 6 years old in Wuhan, China. The 2019–2020 winter peak of seasonal influenza preceded the COVID-19 outbreak, with a higher and earlier peak than those of the 2017–2018 and 2018–2019 seasons. This study compares these results with those of two previous studies to further discuss the possible interference between influenza and COVID-19 in young children.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 3 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, infectious disease, multi-country
How should our testing behavior change with time in children in current COVID‐19 pandemic?

AUTHOR(S)
Yin Zhang; Jilei Lin; Hongmei Xu (et al.)

Published: July 2020   Journal: European Journal of Clinical Investigation

More paediatric‐confirmed cases have been reported with the global pandemic of COVID‐19. This study aims to summarize the key points and supply suggestions on screening paediatric COVID‐19 patients more appropriately. We retrospectively included paediatric patients who have accepted SARS‐CoV‐2 RT‐PCR testing in Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University (30 January 2020 to 13 February 2020) and compared them with paediatric‐confirmed COVID‐19 cases. Besides, a review was carried out by analysing all current literature about laboratory‐confirmed paediatric cases with COVID‐19.

Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 6 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, infectious disease, COVID-19, hospitalization | Countries: China
Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: implications for infection prevention precautions
Institution: WHO
Published: July 2020
This document is an update to the scientific brief published on 29 March 2020 entitled “Modes of transmission of virus causing COVID-19: implications for infection prevention and control (IPC) precaution recommendations” and includes new scientific evidence available on transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.
Cite this research | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: disease control, disease transmission, infectious disease, COVID-19 | Publisher: WHO
Emergence of Kawasaki disease related to SARS-CoV-2 infection in an epicentre of the French COVID-19 epidemic: a time-series analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Naim Ouldali Ouldali; Marie Pouletty; Patricia Mariani (et al.)

Published: July 2020   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Kawasaki disease is an acute febrile systemic childhood vasculitis, which is suspected to be triggered by respiratory viral infections. This study aims to examine whether the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is associated with an increase in the incidence of Kawasaki disease.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 4 | Issue: 9 | No. of pages: 662-668 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, infectious disease, COVID-19 | Countries: France
From SARS to COVID-19: What we have learned about children infected with COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Meng Yao Zhou; Xiao-li Xie; Yong-gang Peng (et al.)

Published: July 2020   Journal: International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Coronaviruses, both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, first appeared in China. They have certain biological, epidemiological and pathological similarities. To date, research has shown that their genes exhibit 79% of identical sequences and the receptor-binding domain structure is also very similar. There has been extensive research performed on SARS; however, the understanding of the pathophysiological impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still limited.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 96 | No. of pages: 4 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: children, comparative study, infectious disease, COVID-19 response, COVID-19
Breastfeeding and COVID-19
Institution: WHO
Published: June 2020
Breastfeeding is the cornerstone of infant and young child survival, nutrition and development and maternal health. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, followed by continued breastfeeding with appropriate complementary foods for up to 2 years and beyond.
This scientific brief examines the evidence to date on the risks of transmission of COVID-19 from an infected mother to her baby through breastfeeding as well as evidence on the risks to child health from not breastfeeding
COVID-19 in Children: An Ample Review

AUTHOR(S)
Ioana M Ciuca

Published: June 2020   Journal: Risk management and healthcare policy
The aim of this review was to describe the current knowledge about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) in children, from epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory perspectives, including knowledge on the disease course, treatment, and prognosis. An extensive literature search was performed to identify papers on COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2 infection) in children, published between January 1, 2020 and April 1, 2020. There were 44 relevant papers on COVID-19 in children. The results showed that COVID-19 occurs in 0.39–12.3% of children. Clinical signs and symptoms are comparable to those in adults, but milder forms and a large percentage of asymptomatic carriers are found among children. Elevated inflammatory markers are associated with complications and linked to various co-infections. Chest computed tomography (CT) scans in children revealed structural changes similar to those found in adults, with consolidations surrounded by halos being somewhat specific for children with COVID-19. The recommended treatment includes providing symptomatic therapy, with no specific drug recommendations for children. The prognosis is much better for children compared to adults. This review highlights that COVID-19 in children is similar to the disease in the adult population, but with particularities regarding clinical manifestations, laboratory test results, chest imaging, and treatment. The prognosis is much better for children compared to adults, but with the progression of the pandemic; the cases in children might change in the future.
A review of COVID-19 in children

AUTHOR(S)
Parisa Khoshnevisasl; Mansour Sadeghzadeh; Sara Sadeghzadeh

Published: May 2020   Journal: Journal of Comprehensive Pediatrics

This study gathers useful information about the virology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment with special consideration of pediatric patients. This review article helps medical caregivers to receive a quick and effective approach to deal with this disease in their practice.



Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 11 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 7 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, disease control, disease transmission, infectious disease, COVID-19, epidemiology
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19): What do we know about children? A systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Nisha Metha; Oliver Mytton; Edward Mullins (et al.)

Published: May 2020   Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases
This systematic review aims to understand the infection rate, clinical presentation, clinical outcomes and transmission dynamics for SARS-CoV-2, in order to inform clinical and public health measures. Children appear to be less affected by COVID-19 than adults by observed rate of cases in large epidemiological studies. Limited data on attack rate indicate that children are just as susceptible to infection. Data on clinical outcomes are scarce but include several reports of asymptomatic infection and a milder course of disease in young children, though radiological abnormalities are noted. Severe cases are not reported in detail and there are little data relating to transmission.
Resistance of children to Covid-19. How?

AUTHOR(S)
Alain Fischer

Published: May 2020   Journal: Nature Mucosal Immunology
Both resistance to infection and resistance to disease appear to be much stronger in children than in adults. The apparent resistance to infection might actually reflect a more rapid clearance of the virus so that the chance to detect cases is diminished. Future studies on seropositivity prevalence should help to distinguish between these possibilities. Of note the increased male to female ratio as observed in adult Covid-19 patients (6 to 4) is also observed in children. Finally, children below the age of 1 year are over-represented in pediatric Covid-19 cohorts with a higher risk of fatality compared with children above the age of 1.
46 - 60 of 61

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.