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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Survey of New Jersey K-12 professionals on work-based learning during COVID-19: a preliminary study and future implications

Maryanne L. Campbell; Derek G. Shendell

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of School Health

The New Jersey Safe Schools Program (NJSS) offers an online professional development certification course, titled “Designing and Implementing Student Training Plans,” for NJ high school (HS) teachers developing secondary school student work-based learning (WBL) programs. WBL provides students opportunities to engage in career-related field tasks, aligned to curricular instruction. In January-July 2021, during 7 cohorts of trainings, questions in the training's assignment gauged teacher and student concerns regarding worksite placements during the COVID-19 pandemic, learning delivery format preferences, and alternative activities for WBL credit.

Learning behavior towards modular instruction, sex, and academic performance in English of Grade 7 public high school students

Christiany Joy S. Lazaro; Chona G. Mascuñana

Published: November 2022   Journal: Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies

Learning behavior is accounted to be pivotal to academic success. During the pandemic, concerns about students’ learning behavior toward Printed Modular Distance Learning (PMDL) modality were put to consideration. Thus, using descriptive-correlational analysis, this study examined the extent of learning behavior (LB) in English PMDL of 242 Grade 7 students in a district in Northern Negros. The level of English academic performance was identified and correlated with the extent of LB. For data collection, an English test and a contextualized LB Scale were given. Using percentage, weighted mean, Mann-Whitney U test, and Spearman rank correlation, the results yielded a high extent of LB toward English PMDL and an average level of academic performance as a whole and by sex. The difference in the extent of Attention-Persistence behavior was insignificant in terms of sex while females’ extent of Competence-Motivation, Attitude toward Learning, and Strategy/Flexibility were significantly higher than males. The level of English academic performance was also insignificant according to sex. Lastly, no correlation was found between learners’ extent of LB in PMDL and the level of English academic performance. Although learners still fell short in achieving higher academic performance in consideration of stronger interplaying factors, the findings still shed light on the learners’ status during pandemic where positive behaviors were displayed. The findings may serve as basis to revisit the PMDL implementation, and craft contextualized English 7 materials and enhancement programs to fill the language gaps of learners during the school year.

Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 37-58 | Language: English | Topics: Education | Tags: child education, COVID-19 response, learning, lockdown, social distance | Countries: Philippines
Learning losses during COVID-19: global estimates of an invisible and unequal crisis

João Pedro Azevedo; Maryam Akmal; Marie-Helene Cloutier (et al.)

Institution: The World Bank
Published: October 2022
This paper presents updated simulation results of the potential effects of COVID-19-related school closures on learning outcomes globally. The simulation, which updates and extends prior work by Azevedo, Hasan et al. (2021) and Azevedo (2020), examines potential learning losses as the pandemic moves into the third year. Beyond reflecting the longer duration of the crisis, the paper extends prior work by using country-specific observed school closure information, accounts for the partial reopening of some education systems, updates the baseline Learning Poverty estimates to reflect its best estimate to date just before the pandemic (circa 2019), and uses updated June 2021 macroeconomic projections to reflect the economic magnitude of the crisis. The analysis finds that the overall learning levels are likely to fall substantially around the world. Under an “intermediate” scenario, school closures could potentially increase the share of children in Learning Poverty in low- and middle-income countries by 13 percentage points, to 70 percent. Globally, learning adjusted years of schooling could fall by 1.1 years, and the share of youth below minimum proficiency on the Programme for International Student Assessment could rise by 12.3 percentage points. Furthermore, school shutdowns could generate lifetime earning losses of $21 trillion. These results imply that decisive action is needed to recover and accelerate learning.
Learning disruption or learning loss: using evidence from unplanned closures to inform returning to school after COVID-19

Sinéad Harmey; Gemma Moss

Published: September 2021   Journal: Educational Review
Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, the immediate and longer-term effects of school closures and ongoing interruptions on children’s learning have been a source of considerable apprehension to many. In an attempt to anticipate and mitigate the effect of school closures, researchers and policymakers have turned to the learning loss literature, research that estimates the effect of summer holidays on academic achievement. However, school closures due to COVID-19 have taken place under very different conditions, making the utility of such a literature debatable. Instead, this study is based on a rapid evidence assessment of research on learning disruption – extended and unplanned periods of school closure following unprecedented events, such as SARs or weather-related events.
The impact of COVID-19 related educational disruption on children and adolescents: An interim data summary and commentary on ten considerations for neuropsychological practice

Mary K. (Molly) Colvin; Jennifer Reesman; Tannahill Glen (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: The Clinical Neuropsychologist

The coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in educational disruption of historic breadth and duration. The authors describe early studies and interim standardized assessment reports to highlight effects of educational disruption and present critical questions for neuropsychologists. A summary of pre-pandemic and interim literature was compiled, including analyses of national and local assessment data and preliminary studies on academic gains related to remote learning, educational and school services disruption, chronic absenteeism, and child and adolescent mental and physical health during 2020–2021. Ten major themes were identified in the early reports on impacts of educational disruption.

Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from remote learning during COVID19

The COVID-19 pandemic led to school closures around the world, affecting almost 1.6 billion students. The effects of even short disruptions in a child’s schooling on their learning and well-being have been shown to be acute and long lasting. The capacities of education systems to respond to the crisis by delivering remote learning and support to children and families have been diverse yet uneven.

This report reviews the emerging evidence on remote learning throughout the global school closures during the COVID-19 pandemic to help guide decision-makers to build more effective, sustainable, and resilient education systems for current and future crises.

It’s Not Too Late to Act on Early Learning: Understanding and recovering from the impact of pre-primary education closures during COVID-19

Dita Nugroho; Youngkwang Jeon; Akito Kamei; Florencia Lopez Boo

This paper presents a new estimate that pre-primary school closures in 2020 may cost today’s young children US$1.6 trillion in lost earnings over their lifetimes. Children in middle-income countries will be most greatly affected. However, most low- and middle- income countries are leaving pre-primary education out of their responses to COVID-19. This paper also draws lessons from evaluations of accelerated, bridging and remedial programmes on how introducing or expanding these transition programmes in the early years can mitigate the long-term impact on learning from pre-primary school closures.

Ready to Start School, Learn and Work: Evidence from three education programmes for out-of-school children and adolescents in Bangladesh

Marco Valenza; Cirenia Chávez; Annika Rigole; Taniya Laizu Sumy; Mohammad Mohsin; Iqbal Hossain

Children in the Sylhet division, in the Northeast of Bangladesh, face complex challenges in accessing quality education, at all school levels. The region ranks among the poorest performers in learning attainment across education levels. UNICEF Bangladesh and its partners have leveraged resources from the Let Us Learn (LUL) initiative to deliver three alternative learning pathways for out-of-school children and adolescents in remote areas of Sylhet. The three pathways cover key transition points in a child’s education: Getting ready to start school (Pre-Primary Education programme), learning foundational skills (A​bility-B​ased Accelerated Learning programme) and entering the job market (Alternative Learning Pathway programme). This report presents evidence on the achievements of the three programmes, highlighting key policy recommendations. The findings draw on analysis of programme monitoring data, qualitative case studies, focus group discussions and interviews. This paper is one of a series of research reports presenting emerging evidence on programmes supported by the LUL initiative, which aims to expand quality learning opportunities for disadvantaged children in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Liberia, Madagascar and Nepal.

COVID-19 school closures and educational achievement gaps in Canada: lessons from Ontario summer learning research

Janice Aurini; Scott Davies

Published: May 2021   Journal: The Canadian Review of Sociology
The 2020 COVID-19 pandemic closed most Canadian public schools for six consecutive months between March and September. This paper explores possible impacts of that closure on student achievement. Longstanding research suggests that lengthy periods of time out of school generally create losses of literacy and numeracy skills and widen student achievement gaps. New American studies have attributed sizeable learning losses to the COVID-19 closures. In lieu of comparable Canadian data, this paper extrapolates from summer learning research to estimate likely shortfalls in literacy and numeracy skills.
Pandemic-related disruptions to schooling and impacts on learning proficiency indicators: a focus on the early grades March 2021

Martin Gustafsson

Institution: UNESCO
Published: March 2021

This report focuses on the impacts of the pandemic on learning proficiency, specifically as measured by Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Indicator 4.1.1. Over the last couple of decades, there has been a growing awareness of how crucial learning proficiency, especially that of younger children, is for human development.  The evidence  is  clear  that  improvements  in  proficiency  underpin  future  economic development,  and  the  building  of  more  cohesive  and  equal societies.  The indicators  on  learning proficiency are among the most discussed indicators within the SDG framework.

A simulation of COVID-19 school closure Impact on student learning in Bangladesh

Tashmina Rahman; Uttam Sharma

Institution: The World Bank
Published: January 2021
This Note presents results from a series of simulations that aim to capture the impacts that school closures in Bangladesh might have on the learning levels, enrollment and future earnings of children and students using a methodological tool developed by the Education Global Practice of the World Bank .
Education COVID-19 case study: Mongolia – Remediation of learning after school reopening
Institution: *UNICEF
Published: January 2021

In Mongolia, following school closures and term break from February to September 2020 affecting more than 600,000 children, the Government put learning at the heart of reopening, dedicating the first month of the new school term to the assessment of learning and remedial lessons and activities. UNICEF supported the Ministry of Education and Science in the development and distribution of teacher guidance for remedial classes covering all core subjects from pre-primary to upper secondary.

Covid-19 and behavioural changes in students' learning patterns and efficiency

Jiang Yucheng; Jiao Bohan; Wang Nanzhi (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Frontiers in Educational Research
This research is aimed to investigate this change in Chinese high school students’ studying behavior and their learning efficiency. Previous researches have revealed that the COVID-19 outbreak already brought mental and emotional stress to college students and young teenagers, which might cause their learning behaviors to change. However, as there were no researches that are based on a population of high school students, we aimed to fill this gap in previous research and examine the changes in high school students’ studying efficiencies.
Can a learning companion be used to continue teaching programming to children even during the COVID-19 pandemic?

José M. Ocaña; Elizabeth K. Morales-Urrutia; Diana Pérez Marín (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: IEEE Access
This paper's proposal is that students aged between 10 and 12 can benefit from interacting with a friendly learning companion using p-code such as Alcody. The hypothesis is that students (aged between 10 and 12) with a knowledge of Scratch will be able to significantly improve their scores by using a learning companion to teach them how to program even during the COVID-19 pandemic. To check the hypothesis, an experiment was carried out during the 2019/2020 academic year with 137 students in Ecuador. A significant improvement in the scores of the students was recorded together with high satisfaction.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 23 | Language: English | Topics: Education | Tags: child education, COVID-19 response, learning, primary education | Countries: Ecuador
COVID-19: Effects of school closures on foundational skills and promising practices for monitoring and mitigating learning loss

Maria Carolina Alban Conto; Spogmai Akseer; Thomas Dreesen; Akito Kamei; Suguru Mizunoya; Annika Rigole

While remote learning measures are essential for mitigating the short-term and long-term consequences of COVID-19 school closures, little is known about their impact on and effectiveness for learning.

This working paper contributes to filling this gap by: 1. Exploring how disrupted schooling may affect foundational learning skills, using data from MICS6 (Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys - round 6) in 2017–2019; 2. Examining how countries are delivering and monitoring remote learning based on data from the UNESCO-UNICEF-World Bank’s National Education Responses to COVID-19 School Closures survey; and 3. Presenting promising key practices for the effective delivery and monitoring of remote learning.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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