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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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2206 - 2220 of 2750
COVID-related fear maintains controlling parenting behaviors during the pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Karl Wissemann; Brittany Mathes; Alexandria Meyer (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
The direct threat posed by the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), uncertainty surrounding best safety practices, and secondary consequences of the virus have led to widespread stress and declining mental health across communities and individuals. These stresses may impact parenting behaviors, potentially leading to negative consequences for children. Controlling parenting behaviors increase in the face of perceived environmental threat and are associated with adverse mental health outcomes for children; however, determinants of parenting behaviors have not been investigated during the COVID-19 pandemic. The current study prospectively evaluated parenting behaviors during the pandemic (N=87).
The gendered consequences of a weak infrastructure of care: school reopening plans and parents’ employment during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Caitlyn Collins; Leah Ruppanner; Liana Christin Landivar (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Gender & Society
The COVID-19 pandemic has upended in-person public education across the United States, a critical infrastructure of care that parents—especially mothers—depend on to work. To understand the nature and magnitude of school closures across states, this study collected detailed primary data—the Elementary School Operating Status database (ESOS)—to measure the percentage of school districts offering in-person, remote, and hybrid instruction models for elementary schools by state in September 2020. These data have been linked to the Current Population Survey to evaluate the association between school reopening and parents’ labor force participation rates, comparing 2020 labor force participation rates to those observed prepandemic in 2019.
COVID-19 and student well-being: stress and mental health during return-to-school

AUTHOR(S)
Kelly Dean Schwartz; Deinera Exner-Cortens; Carly A. McMorris (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Canadian Journal of School Psychology
Students have been multiply impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic: threats to their own and their family’s health, the closure of schools, and pivoting to online learning in March 2020, a long summer of physical distancing, and then the challenge of returning to school in fall 2020. As damaging as the physical health effects of a global pandemic are, much has been speculated about the “second wave” of mental health crises, particularly for school-aged children and adolescents. Yet, few studies have asked students about their experiences during the pandemic. The present study engaged with over two thousand (N = 2,310; 1,288 female; Mage = 14.5) 12- to 18-year-old Alberta students during their first few weeks of return-to-school in fall 2020.
Unpaid work and care during COVID-19: subjective experiences of same-sex couples and single mothers in Australia

AUTHOR(S)
Lyn Craig; Brendan Churchill

Published: March 2021   Journal: Gender & Society
This paper draws on data from Work and Care During COVID-19, an online survey of Australians during pandemic lockdown in May 2020 (n = 2,722). It focuses on how sub-samples of lesbian, gay, and bisexual mothers and fathers in couples (n = 280) and single mothers (n = 480) subjectively experienced unpaid work and care during lockdown compared with heterosexual mothers and fathers in couples, and with partnered mothers, respectively. During the pandemic, non-heterosexual fathers’ subjective reports were less negative than those of their heterosexual counterparts, but differences between heterosexual and lesbian/bisexual mothers were more mixed. Unlike their partnered counterparts, more single mothers reported feeling satisfied than before with their balance of paid and unpaid work and how they spent their time overall during the pandemic, perhaps because they avoided partnership conflicts and particularly benefited from relaxed commuting and child care deadlines.
Gender, parenting, and the rise of remote work during the pandemic: implications for domestic inequality in the United States

AUTHOR(S)
Allison Dunatchik; Kathleen Gerson; Jennifer Glass (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Gender & Society
This study examines how the shift to remote work altered responsibilities for domestic labor among partnered couples and single parents. The study draws on data from a nationally representative survey of 2,200 US adults, including 478 partnered parents and 151 single parents, in April 2020. The closing of schools and child care centers significantly increased demands on working parents in the United States, and in many circumstances reinforced an unequal domestic division of labor.
Adding salt to wounds”: parentification among children living with parents with mental illness during the COVID-19 pandemic and the role of social workers

AUTHOR(S)
Ebenezer Cudjoe; Debora Daisy Kwabia; Marcus Yu Lung Chiu (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Developmental Child Welfare
Children living with a parent with mental illness experience challenges as some may take on the roles of their parents. Physical distancing restrictions introduced because of the COVID-19 pandemic means that many children will spend more time at home which could heighten the impact of parental mental illness. For many of these children, engaging in activities with peers provides them a sort of normal life outside their family environment. However, face-to-face interactions with others outside the family may be limited under existing public health protocols. Moreover, services for children in families where there is parental mental illness may also be limited considering limitations placed on people’s movements to reduce the rate of COVID-19 infections.
Implications of the school-household network structure on SARS-CoV-2 transmission under school reopening strategies in England

AUTHOR(S)
James D. Munday; Katharine Sherratt; Sophie Meakin (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Nature Communications
In early 2020 many countries closed schools to mitigate the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Since then, governments have sought to relax the closures, engendering a need to understand associated risks. Using address records, this study construct a network of schools in England connected through pupils who share households. It evaluates the risk of transmission between schools under different reopening scenarios. It shows that whilst reopening select year-groups causes low risk of large-scale transmission, reopening secondary schools could result in outbreaks affecting up to 2.5 million households if unmitigated, highlighting the importance of careful monitoring and within-school infection control to avoid further school closures or other restrictions.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on child health and the provision of Care in Paediatric Emergency Departments: a qualitative study of frontline emergency care staff

AUTHOR(S)
Ciara Conlon; Thérèse McDonnell; Michael Barrett (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: BMC Health Services Research
The COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent public health guidance to reduce the spread of the disease have wide-reaching implications for children’s health and wellbeing. Furthermore, paediatric emergency departments (EDs) have rapidly adapted provision of care in response to the pandemic. This qualitative study utilized insight from multidisciplinary frontline staff to understand 1) the changes in paediatric emergency healthcare utilization during COVID-19 2) the experiences of working within the restructured health system.
Psychosocial health of school-aged children during the initial COVID-19 safer-at-home school mandates in Florida: a cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Sarah L. McKune; Daniel Acosta; Nick Diaz (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: BMC Public Health
Given the emerging literature regarding the impacts of lockdown measures on mental health, this study aims to describe the psychosocial health of school-aged children and adolescents during the COVID-19 Saferat-Home School mandates. A cross-sectional study was conducted in April 2020 (n = 280) among K-12 students at a research school in North Central Florida. Bivariate analysis and logistic and multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine socio-demographic and knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) predictors of indicators of anxiety-related, depressive, and obsessive-compulsive disorder(OCD)-related symptoms. Outcomes (anxiety, OCD, and depressive related symptoms) were measured by indices generated based on reported symptoms associated with each psychosocial outcome.
COVID-19 exposure and family impact scales: factor structure and initial psychometrics

AUTHOR(S)
Anne E. Kazak; Melissa Alderfer; Paul T. Enlow

Published: March 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
In response to the rapidly unfolding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in spring 2020, a caregiver-report measure was developed aiming to understand the extent to which children and families were exposed to events related to COVID-19 and their perceptions of its impact. This article reports on the factor structure and psychometric properties of this measure.
Families with children with neurodevelopmental disorders during COVID-19: a scoping review

AUTHOR(S)
Shefaly Shorey; Lydia Siew Tiang Lau; Jia Xuan Tan (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Prolonged home isolation may lead to long-term negative consequences for both children and caregivers’ psychological wellbeing, especially in families with children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Therefore, a scoping review was conducted to identify challenges faced by caregivers of children with neurodevelopmental disorders during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to consolidate parenting interventions and guidelines.
Using mHealth Apps in health education of schoolchildren with chronic disease during COVID-19 pandemic era

AUTHOR(S)
Abdulaziz Mansoor Al Raimi; Chan Mei Chong; Li Yoong Tang (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Emerging Technologies During the Era of COVID-19 Pandemic
COVID-19 significantly affects all our normal life daily especially health care services, so it’s important to find and implement innovative approaches to help individuals at a high risk to resume normal life daily. The usage of digital technologies and social networking has grown rapidly over the last decades, and these technologies are increasingly being incorporated into health education. In this study, we discussed the importance of using the mHealth technology for schoolchildren with chronic disease during the COVID-19 era, and we have used Social Learning Theory and Technology Acceptance Model from the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) as the theoretical framework for the present study. The previous study concluded the mobile device being studied is a reliable way of helping schoolchildren increase awareness their disease, but further research efforts should assess the impact of application usage on disease outcomes over a more extended follow-up period as compared to traditional care.
A cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of the role of schools in the SARS-CoV-2 second wave in Italy

AUTHOR(S)
Sara Gandini; Maurizio Rainisio; Maria Luisa Iannuzzo (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Europe
During COVID-19 pandemic, school closure has been mandated in analogy to its effect against influenza, but it is unclear whether schools are early COVID-19 amplifiers. A cross-sectional and prospective cohort study was performed in Italy during the second COVID-19 wave (from September 30, 2020 until at least February 28, 2021). Databases from the Italian Ministry of Education and the Veneto region systems of SARS-CoV-2 cases notification and of schools’ secondary cases tracing were used to compare SARS-CoV-2 incidence in students/school staff and general population and incidence across age groups. Number of tests, secondary infections by type of index case and ratio cases/ tests per school were estimated using an adjusted multivariable generalized linear regression model. Regional reproduction numbers Rt were estimated from Italian Civil Protection daily incidence data with a method of posterior distribution using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm.
The impact of the lockdown and the re-opening of schools and day cares on the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory infections in children: a nationwide register study in Finland

AUTHOR(S)
Marjut Haapanen; Marjo Renko; Miia Artama (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: EClinicalMedicine
Nationwide restrictions started in Finland in March to prevent the spread of COVID-19, leading to school and day care closures. The aim of this study is to describe the effect of closures and re-openings on the respiratory pathogen epidemiology. Laboratory-confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2; respiratory syncytial virus (RSV); influenza (A & B); parainfluenza-, adeno-, and rhinoviruses; Mycoplasma pneumoniae; and Streptococcus pneumoniae in children were collected from the National Infectious Disease Register over the period of 2017–2020. Weekly incidences (weeks 1 to 35) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated per 100 000 children in 2020 and compared by incidence rate ratios (IRRs) to corresponding periods in 2017−2019.
GN briefing on COVID-19 and malnutrition
Institution: General Nutrition
Published: March 2021

The increase in malnutrition arising due to the coronavirus pandemic is expected to cause nearly 170,000 additional child deaths in the next two years. Please, read that again, and understand that we are in the middle of a crisis within a crisis. This pandemic has created a fatal cycle: malnourished people are at a higher risk of death or hospitalisation from COVID-19, and the lockdown measures necessary to tackle the virus make it more difficult for people to access healthcare facilities and proper food, thus pushing them closer to malnutrition. Since nutrition underpins all of human flourishing, people in these regions are also under great economic, social, environmental and health strains, and may sink deeper into poverty as a result . Both COVID-19 and malnutrition have intense, long-term impacts, and challenge our ability to reach the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). They are emergencies in the short and long term. To avoid this food crisis spiralling out of control, actions to prevent malnutrition must be adopted as an essential part of any COVID-19 response.

2206 - 2220 of 2750

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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The first digest covers children and youth mental health under COVID-19.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.