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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 1455
Development of the parental attitude scale-protecting children during COVID-19 and the relationship between parental attitudes and fear of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Gülçin Özalp Gerçeker; Emine Zahide Özdemir; Bilge Özdemir (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing

During the COVID-19 pandemic, parents and children have experienced stress and fear, and the attitudes of parents toward COVID-19 need to be explored. This study aimed to develop the Parental Attitude Scale-Protecting Children during COVID-19 (PAS-CV19S) and assess its psychometric properties. This study also aimed to determine the relationship between parental attitudes about COVID-19 and fear of COVID-19.

Lockdown babies: Birth and new parenting experiences during the 2020 Covid-19 lockdown in South Africa, a cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Elise Farley; Amanda Edwards; Emma Numanoglu (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Women and Birth

Perceived birth experiences of parents can have a lasting impact on children. This study explored the birth and new parenting experiences of South African parents in 2020 during the Covid-19 lockdown. It was a cross-sectional online survey with consenting parents of babies born in South Africa during 2020. Factors associated with negative birth emotions and probable depression were estimated using logistic regression.

The impact of visiting restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric patients

AUTHOR(S)
Deborah L. McBride

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Visitor restriction policies have been implemented on many hospital units as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic. These policies are integral to the strategies that hospitals are using to limit exposure risks during the pandemic. However, visitor restriction policies disproportionally affect hospitalized children. The trauma caused by lack of family at the bedside of adult patients during the Covid-19 pandemic has been studied but there is a lack of primary research on the impact of the Covid-19 visiting policy restrictions on pediatric patients. Long term studies are needed to understand the effect of this separation on children and their caregivers.
Factors associated with changes in movement behaviors in toddlers and preschoolers during the COVID-19 pandemic: A national cross-sectional study in Mexico

AUTHOR(S)
Alejandra Jáuregui; Gabriela Argumedo; Catalina Medina (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Preventive Medicine Reports
Little is known about physical activity, screen time and sleep among Mexican toddlers and preschoolers. The COVID-19 pandemic led to the closure of childcare education centers and restrictions to spend time outdoors. This study aimed to investigate the correlates of changes in movement behaviors from before to during the early stages of the COVID-19 lockdown in a national sample of toddlers and preschoolers in Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted using an open online survey completed by caretakers of children aged 1–5 years from April to July 2020. The questionnaire enquired about the time spent in each movement behavior during a regular week before and during lockdown, and family and household characteristics. Factors associated with changes in movement behaviors were explored using adjusted linear regression models.
School's out: parenting stress and screen time use in school-age children during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Diane Seguin; Elizabeth Kuenzel; J Bruce Morton (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders Reports

During the COVID-19 pandemic, millions of children abruptly moved to online schooling, which required high levels of parental involvement. Family routines were disrupted, potentially increasing parental stress, and may be reflected in greater media screen time use in children. To determine whether (1) parenting styles and (2) parenting stress were associated with children's screen time use during the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic period.

The impact of Covid-19 on children's active travel to school in Vietnam

AUTHOR(S)
Minh Hieu Nguyen; Dorina Pojani; Thanh Chuong Nguyen (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Transport Geography
This is among the first studies to provide empirical evidence on active school travel rates and determinants before and after the first Covid-19 lockdown in spring 2020. This study has collected and analyzed primary survey data on the school travel patterns of 472 school-age children in Hanoi, Vietnam. The findings show that the Covid-19 pandemic has been quite detrimental: once schools reopened, the prevalence of active school travel decreased from 53% to less than 31%. Where parents, especially mothers, did not face barriers to motorized travel, they assumed the role of chauffeur. Parents who were more concerned about community infections were more motivated to shift children to motorized modes. Walking was more affected than cycling because it was seen as more likely to lead to physical contact and virus transmission. Active school travel dropped more steeply in urban districts (as opposed to poorer, non-urban districts) and in those areas where home-school distances were the largest. It appears that the most common perceptions around barriers to active school travel have been exacerbated during the pandemic as parents and children adapt to “the new normal”.
Contrasts and ambivalences in French parents’ experiences regarding changes in eating and cooking behaviours during the COVID-19 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Kaat Philippe; Sylvie Issanchou; Sandrine Monnery-Patris

Published: September 2021   Journal: Food Quality and Preference
Using open-ended questions, this study explored parents’ experiences regarding changes in their family’s food-related behaviours during the first COVID-19 lockdown in France (March-May 2020). Parents (N=498, 72% mothers) of children aged 3-12 years described which food-related changes they (1) perceived as positive during the lockdown, (2) perceived as negative, and (3) would like to maintain after the lockdown. A thematic analysis revealed that parents appreciated the choice of more local, fresh foods, the time to prepare food (home-made dishes, new recipes) and cooking and eating together with the family. In contrast, some parents highlighted a burden imposed by the increased food preparation at home. They also described a higher intake of unhealthy, palatable food (or the temptation to do so), and weight concerns. Parents would like to maintain their choice of local, fresh foods, and to continue spending more time together around food but doubt the feasibility after the lockdown. The results revealed many inter- and intra-individual contrasts in parents’ answers. An ambivalent attitude toward food pleasure was demonstrated: the sensory/commensal pleasure of eating versus the concerns about an increased intake of pleasurable food. Additionally, gender differences were observed: mothers perceived the preparation of additional meals, for example, more often as a burden than fathers. This study revealed intimate perceptions of the impact of the lockdown on eating habits in families. They give insight into possible facilitators and barriers (e.g., time) for the adoption of recommended eating and cooking behaviours in families, beyond the pandemic.
COVID-19 and the acceleration of behavioral parent training telehealth: current status and future directions

AUTHOR(S)
Alexandra D. W. Sullivan; Rex Forehand; Juliana Acosta (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Cognitive and Behavioral Practice
The SARS CO-V-2 (COVID-19) pandemic and associated social distancing guidelines have accelerated the telehealth transition in mental health. For those providing Behavioral Parent Training (BPT), this transition has called for moving sessions that are traditionally clinic-based, active, and directive to engaging, supporting, and treating families of children with behavior disorders remotely in their homes. Whereas many difficulties accompany this transition, the lessons learned during the current public health crisis have the potential to transform BPT service delivery on a large scale in ways that address many of its long-standing limitations. This study describes both challenges and opportunities and consider the possibilities inherent in a large scale BPT service delivery model capable of increasing the reach and impact of evidence-based treatment for all families.
Barriers and benefits of caregivers' involvement in children's education during COVID-19 school closures

AUTHOR(S)
Xiao Zhang

Published: September 2021   Journal: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction
School closures during the COVID-19 pandemic have forced many children around the world to spend unprecedented amounts of time at home, and the responsibility for educating children, especially young ones, has largely fallen to parents and caregivers. Using a sample of 764 households with preschool children in Wuhan, China, where the pandemic originated, this study examined the impact of the pandemic on primary caregivers' involvement in their children's education at home, and the barriers and benefits of such involvement for preschool children's learning and well-being.
Chronic pain in schoolchildren and its association with psychological wellbeing before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Lisa-Marie Rau; Susanne Grothus; Ariane Sommer (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

The current longitudinal observational study aimed to explore how chronic pain among schoolchildren changed before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and how changes in chronic pain were related to changes in psychological wellbeing and COVID-19-related experiences. Data were collected from N = 777 German schoolchildren (aged 9–17 years) at two assessments before and one assessment during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. Participants self-reported chronic pain experience, anxiety, depression, and quality of life across all assessments; and COVID-19-related experiences at the last assessment. Trajectories of anxiety, depression, and quality of life as well as COVID-19-related experiences were analyzed separately for groups of stable chronic pain trajectories compared to chronic pain trajectories that changed during the pandemic.

Acute alcohol intoxication in Dutch adolescents before, during, and after the first COVID-19 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Louise Pigeaud; Loes de Veld; Joris van Hoof (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health
The association between acute alcohol intoxication among adolescents and the COVID-19 lockdown has been studied previously in Trieste, Italy. They recommended that emergency services should be prepared for a potential peak of alcohol intoxication–related emergencies among adolescents as a result of the COVID-19 lockdown. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence of acute alcohol intoxication among adolescents in the Netherlands.
SNAP participation among low-income US households stays stagnant while food insecurity escalates in the months following the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Punam Ohri-Vachaspati; Francesco Acciai; Robin S. DeWeese

Published: September 2021   Journal: Preventive Medicine Reports
The COVID-19 pandemic led to increased food-insecurity rates, particularly among low-income households. Participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) was expected to rise in response. This study surveyed 931 US residents from households with annual incomes below $50,000 to collect information on food security and food assistance program participation in the year prior to the pandemic and in the first four months of the pandemic, along with household and individual-level demographics. Food insecurity increased from 31% prior to the pandemic to 39% in the first four months of the pandemic, while SNAP participation stagnated. Even more alarmingly, among low-income households that were also food-insecure, 47% participated in SNAP prior to the pandemic but only 39% did so in the first four months following the pandemic’s onset. In particular, Black households, households with children, and those in the lowest income category experienced the largest declines in SNAP participation. Food assistance programs designed to alleviate hunger should facilitate participation among the most vulnerable, especially when these groups are faced with multiple challenges, like during the COVID-19 pandemic.
COVID-19 employment status, dyadic family relationships, and child psychological well-being

AUTHOR(S)
Ming-Te Wang; Daphne A. Henry; Juan Del Toro (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

COVID-19 has led to soaring unemployment rates and the widespread adoption of working-from-home (WFH) arrangements that have disrupted family relationships and adolescent psychological well-being. This longitudinal study investigated how parental employment status (i.e., job loss and WFH) influenced adolescents' daily affect indirectly through family functioning (i.e., parent-adolescent conflict and parental warmth) and whether these links varied by family's socioeconomic status. Daily-diary approaches were used to collect dyadic parent-adolescent data from a nationwide American sample (6,524 daily assessments from 447 parent-adolescent dyads; 45% black, 36% white, 10% Latinx, 7% Asian American, 2% Native American) over the course of 15 consecutive days at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.

How has COVID-19-related income loss and household stress affected adolescent mental health in Kenya?

AUTHOR(S)
Jessie Pinchoff; Elizabeth Layard Friesen; Beth Kangwana (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

Adolescent mental health has been under-researched, particularly in Africa. COVID-19-related household economic stress and school closures will likely have adverse effects. We investigate the relationship among adolescent mental health, adult income loss, and household dynamics during the pandemic in Kenya. A cross-sectional mobile phone-based survey was conducted with one adult and adolescent (age 10–19 years) pair from a sample of households identified through previous cohort studies in three urban Kenyan counties (Nairobi, Kilifi, Kisumu). Survey questions covered education, physical and mental health, and COVID-19-related impacts on job loss, food insecurity, and healthcare seeking. Logistic regression models were fit to explore relationships among adult income loss, household dynamics, food insecurity, and adult and adolescent depressive symptoms (defined as PHQ-2 score ≤2).

Providing contact with nature for young generation - a case study of preschools in the City of Poznań, Poland

AUTHOR(S)
Iwona Zwierzchowska; Piotr Lupa

Published: September 2021   Journal: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening
Contact with nature is valuable for the health, wellbeing and development of children. Meanwhile, the urban environment and the contemporary urban lifestyle limit the opportunity for contact with nature. Given that children aged three to six years spend a significant amount of time in preschool, this study aimed to: 1) investigate children’s opportunities to contact with nature during their time in preschool, including the availability of these schools’ own outdoor spaces and neighbouring green spaces for visiting; 2) recognise preschools’ practices in using available green spaces to enable children to have contact with nature; 3) identify the impact on the outdoor activities provided by preschools of factors such as the COVID-19 pandemic and preschool managers’ awareness of the importance of children’s contact with nature.
16 - 30 of 1455

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.