Logo UNICEF Innocenti
Office of Research-Innocenti
menu icon

Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

RESULTS:   69     SORT BY:


Select one or more filter options and click search below.

UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
Open Access
1 - 15 of 69
The couch as a classroom: exploring the school environment of low-income Latine adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Jennifer Renick; Stephanie M. Reich

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal for Multicultural Education

The purpose of this paper is to uncover what the at-home educational environments of low-income Latine adolescents looked like during the COVID-19 pandemic and how these environments influenced students’ participation in their online classes. Additionally, the findings highlight students’ perspectives on their varied engagement in virtual instruction. Data for this study were collected via an online survey that included both open and close-ended questions. Students were able to share about their behaviors and comfort in their online classes, as well as provide photos of the areas from which they joined their online classes. Quantitative and qualitative data analysis methods were used.

Artificial Intelligence framework for threat assessment and containment for COVID-19 and future epidemics while mitigating the socioeconomic impact to women, children, and underprivileged groups

G. Ilangarathna; H. Weligampola; Y. Ranasinghe (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka
With the emergency situation that arises with COVID-19, the intense containment strategies adopted by many countries had little or no consideration towards socio-economic ramifications or the impact on women, children, socioeconomically underprivileged groups. The existence of many adverse impacts raises questions on the approaches taken and demands proper analysis, scrutiny and review of the policies. Therefore, a framework was developed using the artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to detect, model, and predict the behaviour of the COVID-19 pandemic containment strategies, understanding the socio-economic impact of these strategies on identified diverse vulnerable groups, and the development of AI-based solutions, to predict and manage a future spread of COVID or similar infectious disease outbreaks while mitigating the social and economic toil. Based on generated behaviour and movements, AI tools were developed to conduct contact tracing and socio-economic impact mitigation actions in a more informed, socially conscious and responsible manner in the case of the next wave of COVID-19 infections or a different future infectious disease.
Social and economic factors related to healthcare delay among low-income families during COVID-19: results from the ACCESS observational study

Mekhala Hoskote; Rita Hamad; Wendi Gosliner (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved

Delayed medical care is a negative consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic for families with young children. This study used data from the Accessing California Communities' Experiences with Safety net Supports (ACCESS) survey, a cross-sectional study that assessed experiences with safety-net programs among working families with low incomes (n=491). From August 2020 to May 2021, it conducted interviewer-administered surveys of low-income families with young children (ages zero to eight) in California and asked questions about whether participants had delayed medical care for their children or themselves.

Green vs. screen: exploring the outcomes of an in-person and virtual nature-based environmental education intervention for low-income children

Nadav L. Sprague; Ashby L. Sachs; Christine C. Ekenga

Published: October 2022   Journal: Sustainability
The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 forced a rapid transition to virtual learning. During the pandemic, many nature-based environmental education (NBEE) interventions shifted to virtual formats. In this study, we compare the impacts of a virtual NBEE intervention with its in-person NBEE counterpart. Between January and May 2021, a total of 49 low-income children (ages 9 to 13) from St. Louis, MO USA participated in this study. There were 37 children that participated in the virtual NBEE intervention and 12 students in the in-person NBEE intervention. Study participants completed a pre-/post-test survey that included items related to exposure to nature, perceived neighborhood safety, and self-reported quality of life. Children who participated in the in-person intervention reported higher post-intervention levels of nature exposure, perceived neighborhood safety, self-confidence, and self-efficacy than children who participated in the virtual intervention.
The impact and lived experience of Covid-19 restrictions for vulnerable children and families in a low-income Irish community

Margaret Curtin; Maria O’Shea; Claire Hayes

Published: September 2022   Journal: Child Care in Practice
The Covid-19 pandemic has impacted on all aspects of life. The physical health burden predominately impacts adults. However, the psychological burden has impacted significantly on the development and wellbeing of babies and young children. The aim of this research was to explore the impact of Covid-19 restrictions on vulnerable children (aged 0–6) and their families who were registered with a prevention and early intervention programme in an area of socio-economic disadvantage in southern Ireland. A convenience sample of 15 mothers were contacted by the staff from the multidisciplinary Infant Mental Health home visiting team.
Young children's traumatic stress reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic: the long reach of mothers' adverse childhood experiences

Melissa J. Hagan; Danielle R. Roubinov; Alana Cordeiro (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted parental and child mental health; however, it is critical to examine this impact in the context of parental histories of adversity. this study hypothesized that maternal adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and pandemic-related negative life events would predict child traumatic stress symptoms (TSS) and tested potential mediating pathways through maternal pandemic-related TSS and/or poorer maternal sensitivity during the pandemic. Data were collected from a longitudinal sample of low-income, racially/ethnically diverse mothers and their children. Between May and November 2020, mothers (n = 111) of young children (M age = 7.42 years, SD = 0.45) completed questionnaires to assess their own and their child's pandemic-related TSS, exposure to pandemic-related negative events, and parent-child relationship quality. Maternal ACEs, maternal depression, parent-child relationship quality, and child internalizing symptoms had been assessed approximately 1–3 years prior.

Latina mothers navigating COVID-19: within- and between-family stress processes over time

Chase J. Boyer; Elisa Ugarte; Andrea C. Buhler-Wassmann (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Family Relations

This study aimed to understand how periodic shifts in financial cutbacks and fears of contracting COVID-19 contributed to children's externalizing behaviors due to increases in maternal stress among low-income Latina mothers during the first 10 months of the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic caused widespread health, economic, and psychological consequences for families and children. The Latino community is particularly vulnerable to the economic and health risks of this pandemic as a consequence of systemic oppression. The family stress model suggests that these family stressors will have psychological repercussions to parents, and downstream behavioral consequences to children.

Adding fuel to the fire? Examining exposure to potentially stressful or traumatic events before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in low-income, Black families

Austen B. McGuire; Yo Jackson; Jennifer McDonald

Published: August 2022   Journal: Psychological Trauma
The COVID-19 pandemic has upended the lives of many individuals. While emerging evidence has begun to document health (e.g., infection) and financial (e.g., job loss) consequences, less is known about the day-to-day experiences of some of the country’s most vulnerable populations. The current study sought to address this gap in understanding by examining exposure to potentially stressful or traumatic experiences (PSTEs) and their relation to mental health among predominately low-income, African American/Black individuals.
Minority and low-SES families' experiences during the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis: a qualitative study

Judith L. Perrigo; Anya Samek; Michael Hurlburt

Published: August 2022   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review

This paper aimed to explore minority and low-SES families’ general experiences with the stay-at-home mandate initiated by the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. Semi-structured qualitative interviews (n = 31) were conducted in May 2020 – six to nine weeks after the stay-at-home mandate was initiated in Chicago Heights, Illinois. Participants were randomly selected from the parent Chicago Heights Early Childhood Center (CHECC) study (N = 2,185). Thematic content analysis of transcribed semi-structured interviews were employed.

Family satisfaction and self-efficacy among low-income adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: a comparative analysis of parents' educational attainment

Jaewon Lee; Jennifer Allen; Hyejung Lim (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

Given that the period from middle to high school is important to develop and cultivate self-efficacy, reduced support in low-income families might negatively influence the development of self-efficacy among low-income students since COVID-19. This study aims to investigate the association between family satisfaction and self-efficacy among low-income students since COVID-19 and the moderating effect of parents' educational attainment on the relationship. 255 low-income students in South-Korea were selected for the final sample. The PROCESS macro 3.4 for Statistical Product and Service Solutions was used to analyze the data.

Socio-economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on new mothers and associations with psychosocial wellbeing: Findings from the UK COVID-19 New Mum online observational study (May 2020-June 2021)

Emeline Rougeaux; Sarah Dib; Adriana Vázquez-Vázquez (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: PLOS Global Public Health
Studies have reported unequal socio-economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictions in the UK, despite support packages. It is unclear how women with young children, a vulnerable group economically and psychosocially, havebeen impacted by income and employment pandemic changes, and how this is associated with psychosocial wellbeing. Using the UK COVID-19 New Mum online survey of women with children <12 months (28th May 2020-26th June 2021; N = 3430), which asked about pandemic impact on their i.ability to pay for rent, food, and essentials expenses separately, ii. employment (and/or partner’s), and iii.past week mood, feelings and activities, we explored associations of i. & maternal age, household structure and income, i. & ii., and i. & iii. using logistic (odd ratios), multivariate (relative risk ratios/RRR), and linear (coefficients) regression respectively, and associated p-values.
Effects of socioeconomic status, parental stress, and family support on children's physical and emotional health during the COVID-19 pandemic

Sara Scrimin; Libera Ylenia Mastromatteo; Ani Hovnanyan (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Child and Family Studies
The current study conducts an exploratory study on children’s emotional and physical health in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The direct and interactive effects of parental stress, family socioeconomic status (SES), and family support on child adjustment were investigated. A total of 116 children of varied socioeconomic and their parents were interviewed. Parents with low household income perceived greater distress related to uncertainty and health worries compared to those with higher household income. However, it was among high-SES families that parental distress was associated with child difficulties. At a multivariate level, children’s health was associated with SES, family support, and parental COVID-19 stress. Among families with low household income, when parents perceived low/average COVID-19 stress, family support worked as a protective factor for children’s adjustment. Understanding how COVID-19 relates with children’s emotional and physical health within families with low and high household income may help to inform recommendations for best practices, for example through family support interventions.
Parenting in the pandemic: exploring the experiences of families with children on Universal Credit before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

Marsha Wood; Fran Bennett

Published: June 2022   Journal: Families, Relationships and Societies
The expansion of the UK’s support for families with children from the late 1990s was put into reverse over the decade from 2010. Even prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, therefore, parents may have felt that they had less support from the government and increased private responsibility in bringing up the next generation. Drawing on qualitative interviews with parents in England and Scotland claiming Universal Credit, this article analyses parenting experiences for low-income families during the COVID-19 pandemic, in particular concerning the costs of looking after children, caring for children, and family relationships/mental health.
Perspectives of socioeconomically disadvantaged parents on their children's coping during COVID‐19: implications for practice

Ami N. Seivwright; Zoe Callis; Paul R. Flatau

Published: June 2022   Journal: Children & Society
Disruptions caused by COVID-19 have the potential to create long-term negative impacts on children's well-being and development, especially among socioeconomically disadvantaged children. However, we know little about how socioeconomically disadvantaged families are coping with the pandemic, nor the types of support needed. This study presents qualitative analysis of responses to an open-ended question asking parents how children are coping with the restrictions associated with COVID-19, to identify areas in which these cohorts can be supported. Four main themes were identified: health concerns, schooling difficulties, social isolation and adjustment to restrictions. Health concerns included exacerbation of pre-existing health conditions, fear about the virus, difficulty getting children to understand the pandemic and increased sedentary behaviour. Schooling difficulties referred to the challenges of home schooling, which were behavioural (e.g. difficulty concentrating) and logistical (e.g. technology). Social isolation, expressed as missing friends, family and/or institutions was common. Finally, parents expressed that children experienced both positive adjustments to restrictions, such as spending more time with family, and negative adjustments such as increased screen time.
Healthfulness of online grocery shopping behaviors: analyzing receipt data from low-income households with children
Published: June 2022   Journal: Current Developments in Nutrition

Online grocery services hold potential to reduce physical barriers to equitable healthy food procurement, particularly among low-income families who often live far from groceries stores. During COVID-19, the USDA authorized the use of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits online in some retailers across the US. We aimed to evaluate the nutritional quality of online grocery purchases among SNAP-eligible families. Itemized receipt data was analyzed from a larger mixed methods study of online grocery shopping behaviors of SNAP-eligible families in Maryland. Of the 310 participants who completed the survey, 39 submitted grocery receipts. Of those, 19 participants submitted receipts with complete data for nutritional analysis on total amount spent, number of items purchased and units, weight (oz), and % of expenditure on fruits, vegetables, and sugar sweetened beverages (SSB). Nutritional analysis compared purchases of propensity score matched samples of SNAP (n = 14) versus SNAP-eligible non-participant families (n = 5) using a zero-inflated Poisson regression, controlling for sociodemographic factors.

1 - 15 of 69

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Subscribe to updates on new research about COVID-19 & children



facebook twitter linkedin google+ reddit print email
Article Article

Check our quarterly thematic digests on children and COVID-19

Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
Campaign Campaign

COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.