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The 2022 Global Strategy progress report provides an assessment of the situation of women’s, children’s and adolescent’s health in this third year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Section 1 presents abundant evidence showing that inequities persist despite great progress in reducing maternal and child mortality in the two decades leading up to the pandemic. A child’s life trajectory and rights to health, education, opportunities and safety are still largely determined by where that child is born. Data showing stagnation or drops in coverage of lifesaving interventions similarly serve as a reminder of the need to be more vigilant about bridging gaps and placing women, children and adolescents at the centre of development efforts. It also showcases key drivers of women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health and well-being. It emphasizes that women’s empowerment and adolescent participation are pivotal to achieving the 2030 Agenda yet notes that there is a long way to go in reducing gender inequality and increasing young people’s meaningful opportunities to actively engage in community and civic life. Also stressed is the importance of addressing the complex factors underpinning today’s unacceptable levels of malnutrition and developing effective strategies to reach women, children and adolescents affected by conflict, forced migration, poverty and climate change impacts. Section 2 takes stock of the direct and indirect effects of COVID-19 on women, children and adolescents. Although children and adolescents are less likely to experience severe health consequences from SARS-COV-2 infection compared with adults, multiple years of education, health, nutrition and social service disruptions have impacted and will continue to impact their lives.
Henry H. Bernstein; Eric J. Slora; Tara Mathias-Prabhu (et al.)
Zakir Husain; Saswata Ghosh; Mousumi Dutta
Grazia Miraglia del Giudice; Lucio Folcarelli; Annalisa Napoli (et al.)
Pregnant women, especially those with comorbidities, compared to those non-pregnant, have higher risk of developing a severe form of COVID-19. However, COVID-19 vaccine uptake is very low among them. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to randomly selected women 18 years of age that were currently pregnant or had just given birth between September 2021 and May 2022 in the geographic area of Naples. Vaccine hesitancy was assessed using the vaccine hesitancy scale (VHS).
Annamaria Mascolo; Gabriella Di Mauro; Federica Fraenza (et al.)
Although the European Medicines Agency (EMA) encourage coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in pregnant women, the scientific evidence supporting the use of COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy is still limited. This study aimed to investigate adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy. It retrieved Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) related to the use of COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy from the EudraVigilance database for the year 2021. It analyzed AEFI related to the mother and fetus/newborn. The reporting odds ratio (ROR) was computed to compare the reporting probability of spontaneous abortion between COVID-19 vaccines.
Xutong Zheng; Jiayu Zhang; Xinxin Ye (et al.)
The aim of this work is to critically appraise and synthesize the qualitative studies on the experiences, perspectives, and consequences of pregnant women experiencing motherhood during the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a threat to the health of pregnant women. Such a pandemic disrupted their routine care, as well as normal daily life. However, little is known about their coping strategies to the changes brought by COVID-19. A qualitative systematic review was conducted according to the Enhancing Transparency in Reporting the Synthesis of Qualitative Research (ENTREQ) checklist. A meta-aggregative approach rooted in pragmatism and Husserlian transcendental phenomenology was used to synthesize the findings. Dependability and credibility of both study findings and synthesized findings were appraised by Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) ConQual process.
Walusa Assad Gonçalves-Ferri; Kelly Pereira Coca; Fábia Pereira Martins-Celini (et al.)
This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of protective measures for infants of low-income SARS-CoV-2 positive breastfeeding mothers. Breastfeeding mothers with SARS-CoV-2 positive should avoid exposing the infant through protective measures (PM), but it could be challenging in a low-income population.
Franca Rusconi; Monia Puglia; Martina Pacifici (et al.)
This study aimed to compare the estimates of preterm birth (PTB; 22–36 weeks' gestational age, GA) and stillbirth rates during COVID-19 pandemic in Italy with those recorded in the three previous years. A population-based cohort study of live- and stillborn infants was conducted using data from Regional Health Systems and comparing the pandemic period (1 March 2020–31 March 2021, n = 362 129) to an historical period (January 2017–February 2020, n = 1 117 172). The cohort covered 84.3% of the births in Italy.
Tahreem Nisar; Syed Ammar Bin Zia; Sarah Ishaq (et al.)
The covid-19 has disrupted all parts of life especially maternal-child relationship. Many lactating womenwerequarantinedincovid-19whichhasaffectednourishmentoftheirinfant. Breastfeeding has innumerable benets for both mother and infants as it provides them protection. The Maternal-child relationship is drastically affected if an infant is separated from its mother. It greatly affects lactation, which acts as a shield against infectious diseases. It is approved by all the international agencies and government bodies to promote breastfeeding including the neonates of infected mothers. It is suggested to adopt proper hand and respiratory hygiene measures to prevent transmission from mother to infant. Although many studies and literature reviews have conrmed that there are no direct transmission cases related to coronavirus during breastfeeding. However, WHO, UNICEF, and many other organizations suggested to adopt some hygiene-specic guidelines while practicing lactation. These include wearing a mask, washing hands, and disinfecting surfaces. As we are in the middle of this pandemic and new information is being gathered by scientists, it is hoped that they will also support promoting breastfeeding. As its advantages outweigh the risks of COVID-19. The main aim of this review is to promote early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding during COVID-19.
Nucharee Sangsawang; Bussara Sangsawang
This study aims to determine the rate and level of postpartum depression (PPD), as well as to examine and compare PPD, social support and maternal self-efficacy between adolescent and adult mothers at 8 weeks postpartum during the COVID-19 pandemic. Policy measures to reduce the rapid spread of COVID-19 have disrupted many aspects of life and decreased social connections, which negatively impacts psychological well-being of the general population. However, studies focused on the impact of COVID-19 on mental health and maternal self-efficacy in postpartum mothers, particularly adolescent mothers, are limited.
Victoria U. Enwereji-Emeka; Chikaodili N. Ihudiebube-Splendor; Faith C. Diorgu (et al.)
Olga A. Zayts-Spence; Vincent Wai Sum Tse; Zoe Fortune
Mikhayl A. von Rieben; Leanne Boyd; Jade Sheen (et al.)
Findings suggest pandemic control measures have modified maternal health practices, compromising the quality of care provided to new and expectant mothers and interfering with their birthing experiences. For this reason, this study explored the lived experiences of post-partum Victorian mothers during the pandemic as well as the potential influence of control measures over their perceptions regarding the health system. This study used a qualitative approach. Recruitment was conducted between May and June 2021, using both the Australian Breastfeeding Association’s social media pages and snowball recruitment. Interviews were semi-structured using open-ended questions relating to key themes. Seven Victorian post-partum mothers were identified and their transcripts analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.
Alara Altıntaş; Nuri Efe Aydın; Gökhan Yavuz Bayram (et al.)
COVID-19 pandemic has put a tremendous amount of stress on people, which can negatively affect nursing. Previous studies showed that perceived stress and cortisol levels in the postpartum period correlate with the LATCH scores, which is a simple tool to assess the pattern of nursing. Likewise, greater prenatal anxiety was associated with a shorter breastfeeding duration. This study aimed to evaluate whether pregnant women were under extra stress due to the COVID-19 pandemic and if this stress affected their breastfeeding patterns and anthropometric measures of the neonates. Pregnant women giving birth to healthy neonates were included. Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used to assess the anxiety levels of the mothers, and LATCH breastfeeding assessment tool was used to assess the nursing. The results of these scales and anthropometric measures of the neonates were recorded.
Ezgi Ulu; Tuba Ertunç
UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.
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