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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Protect the promise: 2022 progress report on the Every woman every child global strategy for women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health (2016–2030)
Institution: World Health Organisation, *UNICEF
Published: October 2022

The 2022 Global Strategy progress report provides an assessment of the situation of women’s, children’s and adolescent’s health in this third year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Section 1 presents abundant evidence showing that inequities persist despite great progress in reducing maternal and child mortality in the two decades leading up to the pandemic. A child’s life trajectory and rights to health, education, opportunities and safety are still largely determined by where that child is born. Data showing stagnation or drops in coverage of lifesaving interventions similarly serve as a reminder of the need to be more vigilant about bridging gaps and placing women, children and adolescents at the centre of development efforts. It also showcases key drivers of women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health and well-being. It emphasizes that women’s empowerment and adolescent participation are pivotal to achieving the 2030 Agenda yet notes that there is a long way to go in reducing gender inequality and increasing young people’s meaningful opportunities to actively engage in community and civic life. Also stressed is the importance of addressing the complex factors underpinning today’s unacceptable levels of malnutrition and developing effective strategies to reach women, children and adolescents affected by conflict, forced migration, poverty and climate change impacts. Section 2 takes stock of the direct and indirect effects of COVID-19 on women, children and adolescents. Although children and adolescents are less likely to experience severe health consequences from SARS-COV-2 infection compared with adults, multiple years of education, health, nutrition and social service disruptions have impacted and will continue to impact their lives.

Association of SARS-CoV-2 infection with early breastfeeding

AUTHOR(S)
Henry H. Bernstein; Eric J. Slora; Tara Mathias-Prabhu (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Academic Pediatrics
The association of maternal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) status before delivery with breastfeeding is unknown. This study compares breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity, and duration between SARS-CoV-2-positive (+) and SARS-CoV-2-negative (-) mothers during the first 2 months of their newborns’ lives. A single center, retrospective cohort study of pediatric contacts during the first 2 months in a diverse mother-infant population (n = 285) compared breastfeeding outcomes by maternal SARS-CoV-2 status during a pandemic surge. Infants of SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers were also tested before discharge. Comparison of maternal demographics (age, race, ethnicity), maternal/infant characteristics (parity, insurance, delivery mode, infant sex, hospital length of stay), and pediatric contacts by maternal SARS-CoV-2 status included Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon tests and Poisson regression for count outcomes. Logistic regression compared breastfeeding outcomes between the 2 groups, adjusting for potential confounders and effect modifiers.
Changes in dietary practices of mother and child during the COVID-19 lockdown: results from a household survey in Bihar, India

AUTHOR(S)
Zakir Husain; Saswata Ghosh; Mousumi Dutta

Published: October 2022   Journal: Food Policy
The outbreak of COVID-19, and the national-level lockdown to contain it, were expected to disrupt supply chains, lead to livelihood loss, and reduce household income. Studies anticipated a decline in food security in India, leading to a near famine-like situation. This study examines the change in Dietary Score (number of food groups consumed out of a possible eight) and proportion of respondents complying with Minimum Dietary Diversity norms (consuming at least four food groups) among women aged 15–49 years and their youngest child (aged between 7 and 36 months) during the lockdown. The present study also analyses whether ownership of ration cards and contacts with the party in power locally helped the household to tide over the crisis. The data was collected through a two-phase primary survey undertaken in January-March 2020 (pre-lockdown period) and October-November 2020 (post-lockdown period). It was undertaken in six districts of Bihar, a state with a history of poor maternal and child health outcomes and dysfunctional delivery of health services.
COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy and willingness among pregnant women in Italy

AUTHOR(S)
Grazia Miraglia del Giudice; Lucio Folcarelli; Annalisa Napoli (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

Pregnant women, especially those with comorbidities, compared to those non-pregnant, have higher risk of developing a severe form of COVID-19. However, COVID-19 vaccine uptake is very low among them. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to randomly selected women 18 years of age that were currently pregnant or had just given birth between September 2021 and May 2022 in the geographic area of Naples. Vaccine hesitancy was assessed using the vaccine hesitancy scale (VHS).

Maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes among pregnant women receiving COVID-19 vaccination: the preg-co-vax study

AUTHOR(S)
Annamaria Mascolo; Gabriella Di Mauro; Federica Fraenza (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

Although the European Medicines Agency (EMA) encourage coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in pregnant women, the scientific evidence supporting the use of COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy is still limited. This study aimed to investigate adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy. It retrieved Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) related to the use of COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy from the EudraVigilance database for the year 2021. It analyzed AEFI related to the mother and fetus/newborn. The reporting odds ratio (ROR) was computed to compare the reporting probability of spontaneous abortion between COVID-19 vaccines.

Navigating through motherhood in pregnancy and postpartum periods during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and qualitative meta-synthesis

AUTHOR(S)
Xutong Zheng; Jiayu Zhang; Xinxin Ye (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Nursing Management

The aim of this work is to critically appraise and synthesize the qualitative studies on the experiences, perspectives, and consequences of pregnant women experiencing motherhood during the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a threat to the health of pregnant women. Such a pandemic disrupted their routine care, as well as normal daily life. However, little is known about their coping strategies to the changes brought by COVID-19. A qualitative systematic review was conducted according to the Enhancing Transparency in Reporting the Synthesis of Qualitative Research (ENTREQ) checklist. A meta-aggregative approach rooted in pragmatism and Husserlian transcendental phenomenology was used to synthesize the findings. Dependability and credibility of both study findings and synthesized findings were appraised by Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) ConQual process.

Protective measures feasibility for infants of low income SARS-CoV-2 positive breastfeeding mothers: a prospective multicenter cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Walusa Assad Gonçalves-Ferri; Kelly Pereira Coca; Fábia Pereira Martins-Celini (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Nursing Management

This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of protective measures for infants of low-income SARS-CoV-2 positive breastfeeding mothers. Breastfeeding mothers with SARS-CoV-2 positive should avoid exposing the infant through protective measures (PM), but it could be challenging in a low-income population.

Pregnancy outcomes in Italy during COVID-19 pandemic: a population-based cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Franca Rusconi; Monia Puglia; Martina Pacifici (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology

This study aimed to compare the estimates of preterm birth (PTB; 22–36 weeks' gestational age, GA) and stillbirth rates during COVID-19 pandemic in Italy with those recorded in the three previous years. A population-based cohort study of live- and stillborn infants was conducted using data from Regional Health Systems and comparing the pandemic period (1 March 2020–31 March 2021, n = 362 129) to an historical period (January 2017–February 2020, n = 1 117 172). The cohort covered 84.3% of the births in Italy.

Breastfeeding practices during Covid-19

AUTHOR(S)
Tahreem Nisar; Syed Ammar Bin Zia; Sarah Ishaq (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Pakistan BioMedical Journal

The covid-19 has disrupted all parts of life especially maternal-child relationship. Many lactating womenwerequarantinedincovid-19whichhasaffectednourishmentoftheirinfant. Breastfeeding has innumerable benets for both mother and infants as it provides them protection. The Maternal-child relationship is drastically affected if an infant is separated from its mother. It greatly affects lactation, which acts as a shield against infectious diseases. It is approved by all the international agencies and government bodies to promote breastfeeding including the neonates of infected mothers. It is suggested to adopt proper hand and respiratory hygiene measures to prevent transmission from mother to infant. Although many studies and literature reviews have conrmed that there are no direct transmission cases related to coronavirus during breastfeeding. However, WHO, UNICEF, and many other organizations suggested to adopt some hygiene-specic guidelines while practicing lactation. These include wearing a mask, washing hands, and disinfecting surfaces. As we are in the middle of this pandemic and new information is being gathered by scientists, it is hoped that they will also support promoting breastfeeding. As its advantages outweigh the risks of COVID-19. The main aim of this review is to promote early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding during COVID-19.

Postpartum depression, social support and maternal self-efficacy between adolescent and adult mothers during the COVID-19 pandemic: a comparative cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Nucharee Sangsawang; Bussara Sangsawang

Published: September 2022   Journal: Journal of Advanced Nursing

This study aims to determine the rate and level of postpartum depression (PPD), as well as to examine and compare PPD, social support and maternal self-efficacy between adolescent and adult mothers at 8 weeks postpartum during the COVID-19 pandemic. Policy measures to reduce the rapid spread of COVID-19 have disrupted many aspects of life and decreased social connections, which negatively impacts psychological well-being of the general population. However, studies focused on the impact of COVID-19 on mental health and maternal self-efficacy in postpartum mothers, particularly adolescent mothers, are limited.

Women's childbirth expectations and perceived effects of COVID-19 protocols on delivery

AUTHOR(S)
Victoria U. Enwereji-Emeka; Chikaodili N. Ihudiebube-Splendor; Faith C. Diorgu (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Kontakt
The study assessed women's childbirth expectations and perceived effects of COVID-19 protocols on delivery in selected healthcare facilities in Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. The study adopted a cross-sectional descriptive survey research design. 304 women were purposively recruited from March through December 2020 from selected healthcare facilities in Umuahia. A validated researcher-developed questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistics of frequencies, means, and standard deviations.
Feel like going crazy: mental health discourses in an online support group for mothers during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Olga A. Zayts-Spence; Vincent Wai Sum Tse; Zoe Fortune

Published: September 2022   Journal: Discourse & Society
COVID-19 has become a mental health pandemic. The impact on vulnerable demographic groups has been particularly severe. This paper focuses on women in employment in Hong Kong who have had to balance remote work and online schooling for over 2 years. Using semi-ethnography and theme-oriented discourse analysis, this studye examines 200 threads that concern members’ mental health on a popular Facebook support group for mothers.
Care in the time of COVID: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the impact of COVID-19 control measures on post-partum mothers' experiences of pregnancy, birth and the health system

AUTHOR(S)
Mikhayl A. von Rieben; Leanne Boyd; Jade Sheen (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology

Findings suggest pandemic control measures have modified maternal health practices, compromising the quality of care provided to new and expectant mothers and interfering with their birthing experiences. For this reason, this study explored the lived experiences of post-partum Victorian mothers during the pandemic as well as the potential influence of control measures over their perceptions regarding the health system. This study used a qualitative approach. Recruitment was conducted between May and June 2021, using both the Australian Breastfeeding Association’s social media pages and snowball recruitment. Interviews were semi-structured using open-ended questions relating to key themes. Seven Victorian post-partum mothers were identified and their transcripts analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.

Maternal stress and neonatal nutrition during the COVID-19 era

AUTHOR(S)
Alara Altıntaş; Nuri Efe Aydın; Gökhan Yavuz Bayram (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology

COVID-19 pandemic has put a tremendous amount of stress on people, which can negatively affect nursing. Previous studies showed that perceived stress and cortisol levels in the postpartum period correlate with the LATCH scores, which is a simple tool to assess the pattern of nursing. Likewise, greater prenatal anxiety was associated with a shorter breastfeeding duration. This study aimed to evaluate whether pregnant women were under extra stress due to the COVID-19 pandemic and if this stress affected their breastfeeding patterns and anthropometric measures of the neonates. Pregnant women giving birth to healthy neonates were included. Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used to assess the anxiety levels of the mothers, and LATCH breastfeeding assessment tool was used to assess the nursing. The results of these scales and anthropometric measures of the neonates were recorded.


Being pregnant in Covid-19: fear of giving birth, fear of Covid-19, and marital adjustment

AUTHOR(S)
Ezgi Ulu; Tuba Ertunç

Published: September 2022   Journal: Cyprus Turkish Journal of Psychiatry & Psychology
This research aims to examine the relationship between fear of childbirth, fear of Covid-19, and marital adjustment. In line with this general-purpose, differences in fear of childbirth, fear of Covid-19, and marital adjustment levels were also examined according to demographic variables. The research was carried out with 382 pregnant women who were followed up in the obstetrics clinic of a private hospital in Ankara. Demographic Information Form, Wijma Birth Expectation-Experience Scale (W-DEQ) Version A, Fear of Covid-19 Scale, and Revised Dynasty Scale were used as data collection tools. Independent Sample T-test and One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to compare the scores obtained from fear of childbirth, fear of Covid-19, and spousal adjustment according to demographic variables. The relationship of the variables with each other was tested with Pearson Correlation analysis, and the predictive effect of fear of Covid-19 and spousal adjustment on fear of childbirth was examined by regression analysis.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.