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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Policy and guideline review of vaccine safety for COVID-19 in pregnant women in Southern Africa, with a particular focus on South Africa

Rujeko Samanthia Chimukuche; Busisiwe Nkosi; Janet Seeley

Published: December 2022   Journal: Vaccines
Pregnant and lactating mothers have historically been excluded from clinical trials. To understand the shift from excluding to including this population in COVID-19 vaccine trials, this study conducted a review of guidance issued by countries in southern Africa over the last three years. It conducted a review of documents and official statements recorded on Ministries of Health websites, and social media platforms, the World Health Organisation website, the COVID-19 Maternal Immunisation tracker and the African Union official webpage. Search terms included COVID-19 vaccination policies, guidelines for pregnant and lactating women, COVID-19 vaccination trials and pregnant women. The research retrieved and reviewed policies, guidelines, and official statements from 12 countries.
Maternal and neonatal safety of COVID‐19 vaccination during peri‐pregnancy period: a prospective study

Minghui Li; Jianzhen Hao; Tingting Jiang (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Medical Virology

To investigate the safety of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine in Chinese pregnant women and their fetuses when inoculated during the peri-pregnancy period. Eligible pregnant women were prospectively collected and divided into a vaccine group (n = 93) and control group (n = 160) according to whether they had been vaccinated against COVID-19 within 3 months before their last menstruation period (LMP) and after pregnancy. Demographic data of couples, complications during pregnancy and delivery of pregnant women, and data of newborns at birth were collected.

Pregnancy trends and associated factors among Kenyan adolescent girls and young women pre- and post-COVID-19 lockdown

Ouma Congo; George Otieno; Imeldah Wakhungu (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Advances in Global Health
Globally, COVID-19 has had a negative impact on health systems and health outcomes, with evidence of differential gender impacts emerging. The COVID-19 timeline of events spanning from closures and restrictions to phased reopenings is well-documented in Kenya. This unique COVID-19 situation offered us the opportunity to study a natural experiment on pregnancy trends and outcomes in a cohort of Kenyan adolescent girls and young women (AGYW), enrolled in the KENya Single-dose HPV-vaccine Efficacy (KEN SHE) Study. The KEN SHE Study enrolled sexually active AGYW aged 15–20 years from central and western Kenya. Pregnancy testing was performed at enrollment and every 3 months. This study determined pregnancy incidence trends pre- and post-COVID-19 lockdown, pregnancy outcomes (delivery, spontaneous, or induced abortion), and postabortion and postpartum contraceptive uptake. Kaplan–Meier survival estimates of incidence rates were used to estimate the cumulative probability of pregnancy during the study period.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 1 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 9 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent pregnancy, COVID-19 response, lockdown, maternal and child health, pregnant women, social distance | Countries: Kenya
Barriers and enablers of breastfeeding in mother–newborn dyads in institutional settings during the COVID-19 pandemic: a qualitative study across seven government hospitals of Delhi, India

Arti Maria; Ritika Mukherjee; Swati Upadhyay (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Nutrition

The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted newborn care and breastfeeding practices across most healthcare facilities. We undertook this study to explore the barriers and enablers for newborn care and breastfeeding practices in hospitals in Delhi, India for recently delivered mother (RDM)–newborn dyads during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (2020) and inductively design a “pathway of impaction” for informing mitigatory initiatives during the current and future pandemics, at least in the initial months. This study used an exploratory descriptive design (qualitative research method) and collected information from seven leading public health facilities in Delhi, India. We conducted separate interviews with the head and senior faculty from the Departments of Pediatrics/Neonatology (n = 12) and Obstetrics (n = 7), resident doctors (n = 14), nurses (labor room/maternity ward; n = 13), and RDMs (n = 45) across three profiles: (a) COVID-19-negative RDM with healthy newborn (n = 18), (b) COVID-19-positive RDM with healthy newborn (n = 19), and (c) COVID-19 positive RDM with sick newborn needing intensive care (n = 8) along with their care-giving family members (n = 39). We analyzed the data using grounded theory as the method and phenomenology as the philosophy of our research.

COVID-19 exposure during pregnancy and low birth weight in community development blocks, Purba Bardhaman: a retrospective cohort study

Arindam De; Puspendu Biswas; Soumalya Ray (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care

COVID-19 exposure during pregnancy is hypothesized to affect the birth weight of the children. Community based findings on such hypothesis are scarce in West Bengal. This study was conducted with the objective to determine the relationship between low birth weight (LBW) and maternal exposure to COVID-19. In this retrospective cohort study, mothers of children, who were born between February 2020 and October 2021 and who were registered in the subcenters of Purba Barddhaman district, West Bengal, were selected as study population. Mothers who were diagnosed as COVID-19 positive during the antenatal period were considered as ‘Pregnancy with COVID’ and others were considered as ‘Pregnancy without COVID’. The minimum required sample size using Fleiss formula were 119 and 476, respectively, whose were selected through multi-stage random sampling. A schedule was used to collect data through review of relevant records of antenatal registers of sub-centers of selected individuals. The association was checked through multivariate logistic regression model where P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

An overview of the factors that influence breastfeeding mothers in carrying out the COVID-19 vaccine on working area at Gladak Pakem Public health center Jember Regency

Siti Sulfatus Saniyah; Dini Kurniawati; Iis Rahmawati

Published: November 2022   Journal: Media Keperawatan Indonesia

Breastfeeding mothers are included in a vulnerable group that is important to get the COVID-19 vaccine, but some factors influence it carrying out the COVID-19 vaccine. This study aimed to identify the factors that influence breastfeeding mothers in administering the COVID-19 vaccine in the working area of the Gladak Pakem Health Center. The design of this study used a cross-sectional study conducted on 106 breastfeeding mothers with a total sampling technique. Data collection uses 4 questionnaires, namely the respondent's characteristics questionnaire, knowledge about COVID-19 and the COVID-19 vaccine, cues for action, and perceptions of obstacles in carrying out the COVID-19 vaccine. Data collection was carried out door-to-door starting on 23-29 March 2022.

Impact of COVID-19 on perinatal mental health among pregnant mothers infected with COVID-19, during the first wave of the epidemic in Jordan

Jehan Hamadneh; Shereen Hamadneh; Mohammed ALBashtawy

Published: November 2022   Journal: Heliyon
Data concerning the impact of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection on the mental health of pregnant women are still limited. The study explored baseline information regarding the impact of COVID-19 on mental health in the perinatal period, among mothers infected with COVID-19, during the first wave of the epidemic in Jordan. The current study aimed to examine the anxiety levels of pregnant women infected with coronavirus over the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the period from March to December 2021, using an online survey that addressed key issues related to the role of COVID-19 infection in developing anxiety among pregnant women using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The study population was pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection, and who agreed to participate in the study (n = 530).
Impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy and maternal-neonatal outcomes: a narrative review

Sweta Sahu; Guddi Laishram; Asmita Rannaware (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Medical Journeys
The pandemic coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused an unprecedented worldwide health emergency. The pandemic increased the susceptibility of pregnant women to maternal and fetal complications. Elderly and patients with comorbidities were also at high risk during the pandemic times. Further evidence supports that COVID-19 is not only a respiratory infection but possibly affects other organ systems, including the placenta. The key objective of this review is to explore the literature on COVID-19-affected pregnancies and study the pandemic's impacts on maternal, perinatal, and neonatal outcomes. Google Scholar and PubMed (Medline) were used for relevant literature searches. The clinical manifestations in pregnant women, fetus outcome, vertical transmission, and early and late pregnancy impacts are combined in database studies. Women should receive special attention for COVID even though most of the COVID-19-positive pregnant women had no symptoms or had minor ones. It was found that most pregnant women with COVID-19 had mild and few symptoms and that the effect on the fetus was insignificant. However, in some women, miscarriage and fetal growth retardation were seen as a consequence of the infection.
The impact of Coronavirus disease 2019 on maternal and fetal wellbeing in New Mexico

Tiffany Emery; Kati Baillie; Orrin Myers (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Diagnostics
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been shown to affect the vasculature, including placental changes. Insults to the placenta, especially in the first and second trimester, can affect placental functionality with a resultant impact on fetal growth and wellbeing. Thus, we explored the relationship between antenatally acquired maternal COVID-19 infection and neonatal birth characteristics. A retrospective chart review was completed using the University of New Mexico electronic medical record system. ICD-10 codes were used to identify individuals that had a positive pregnancy test and positive COVID-19 screening test between 1 March 2020 to 24 March 2021. Chi-square and nonparametric Wilcox on analyses were used, with p < 0.05 considered significant. A total of 487 dyad charts was analyzed, with 76 (16%) individuals identified as being COVID-19-positive (CovPos) during pregnancy. CovPos mothers were significantly more likely to deliver via a cesarean section compared to CovNeg mothers (33% vs. 20%, p < 0.01).
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 12 | Issue: 11 | No. of pages: 12 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19 response, lockdown, maternal and child health, pregnancy, pregnant women, social distance | Countries: United States
The Pandemial babies: effects of maternal stress on temperament of babies gestated and born during the pandemic

Hernán López-Morales; Rosario Gelpi Trudo; Macarena Verónica del-Valle (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Current Psychology
The COVID-19 pandemic may configure an adverse prenatal context for early development. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of pandemic-related negative experiences, prenatal anxiety and depression on the temperament of six-month-old babies. The sample consisted of 105 mother–child dyads. A longitudinal evaluation was carried out using pre- and postnatal online surveys. Mothers completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory – II, the Pandemic Impact Questionnaire and the Infant Behavior Questionnaire Revised. Serial mediation models were tested, in which the pandemic-related negative experiences constituted the independent variable, the prenatal anxiety and depression were the mediators, and the children’s temperament dimensions were the dependent variables.
The correlation between social support and adversity quotient in young mothers with 0-1 year old babies during the Covid-19 pandemic

Ameliya Alfirdosi; Nur Eva; Fonny Dameaty Hutagalung (et al.)

Published: November 2022
Infant mortality is one of the world’s most serious health problems. Under normal conditions, infant mortality in Indonesia is still a serious concern and is increasingly becoming a major challenge, especially in the current pandemic situation. The government has designated COVID-19 as a national nonnatural disaster and stated that there was an increase in infant mortality during the pandemic. One of the factors in the high number of infant mortality is early marriage. The initial interview indicated that some mothers experience problems and anxiety in caring for babies aged 0-1 years during the COVID-19 pandemic which is expected to affect the mental health of mothers. The study aimed to find out the adversity quotient and social support in young mothers with children aged 0-1 years during the covid-19 pandemic, and to find out the relationship between adversity quotient and social support. The methods used in this research are descriptive analysis and correlational analysis. The sample number in the study was 124 respondents. The measurement instruments in this study were 50 items on the adversity quotient scale and 12 items on social support scales that had a reliability of .969 and .915, respectively.
Severity of COVID‐19 infection in pregnancy and adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes: a retrospective study in a tertiary center

Paul Naseef; Ayman Abou Elnour; Ahmed Ramy

Published: November 2022   Journal: Reproductive, Female and Child Health

This study aimed to estimate the association between the severity of maternal SARS-CoV2 disease and adversity of maternal and neonatal outcomes. A retrospective single-site descriptive study was conducted, where the records of pregnant women, universally screened for COVID-19 infection, with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV2 disease during the period from March 2020 to March 2021 were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: an asymptomatic/mild disease group and a moderate/severe disease group. Maternal outcomes, including the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH)/pre-eclampsia, cesarean section (CS) rates, maternal intensive care unit (ICU) admission rates, and neonatal outcomes, including preterm birth, low birth weight, and neonatal ICU (NICU) admission rates, were compared in both study groups.

Child survival crisis due to maternal undernourishment during the COVID era

Ashu Tyagi; Abhishek Joshi

Published: November 2022   Journal: Medical Journeys
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused a global crisis, creating the most challenging times faced by any country. The pandemic created a situation that shocked the whole world. It led to a condition of fear, and the ones to take the major hit were the vulnerable groups: children, pregnant women, and the elderly, as well as those belonging to low socio-economic groups who lost their source of daily income. It increased the pressure on already burdened healthcare and information systems and led to a situation where the well-being of even children and pregnant women could not be maintained. COVID-19 increased the risk of undernutrition in children. Though children are observed to be less affected by the virus, they are the hidden victims of the pandemic in terms of falling prey to undernutrition. Child undernutrition can also be linked to maternal malnutrition, starting from the preconception period through the postpartum period. The situation arose due to the rapid steps of mitigation taken to tackle the pandemic, leading to decreased food security, healthcare, and education. Maternal undernutrition leads to complications for the mother during childbirth and has long-term effects on both. It can lead to low birth weight (LBW) babies, postpartum complications, chronic child undernourishment, and even increased maternal and child mortality and morbidity. Because of the pandemic's disruption of immunization facilities, it appears that even preventable childhood diseases will worsen in the coming years. In these post-COVID-19 times, it has become necessary to take measures to improve the overall health status of the population, with special regard to these vulnerable groups. Proper maternal and child health should be targeted at community levels by introducing interventions that prioritize antenatal and postnatal care, nutritional education, immunization of both mother and child, and proper health and sanitation practices. The purpose of this narrative review is to create awareness about the child survival crisis that may occur in the coming years due to undernutrition and the failure of immunization.
Prenatal behavior of pregnant women under the impact of the COVID 19 pandemic on Central West regionof Sao Paulo (SP)
Published: November 2022   Journal: International Journal of Health Science

Prenatal care reduces many of the negative effects of pregnancy, such as prematurity, low birth weight and detection of abnormalities with the mother and child, serving as a learning moment for the woman and her family. However, the Covid-19 scenario brought an adaptation in this monitoring, bringing a more suitable prenatal care for the moment with fewer face-to-face visits. This work was a cross-sectional retrospective study with a quantitative approach, with the purpose of evaluating the behavior of pregnant women in the face of the impact of the COVID19 pandemic on adherence to prenatal consultations, in the period 2019-2020 through a search carried out in the secondary database available on the Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System (DATASUS). The databases included in this study were obtained from the DATASUS electronic portal, TABNET table of all monthly prenatal consultations in the 2019-2020 period of the Regional Health Care Networks (RRAS 10). It is important to highlight the work of health professionals who are directly involved in facing this pandemic as they had to deal with the risk group, their fears and insecurities in the context of COVID19. It is concluded that there was no significant impact on the number of prenatal consultations in the central west region of são paulo (SP) during the pandemic period, and it may have been favored by the high HDI (0.05) of the region as well as the efficiency of the strategies adopted by the Health units facing the challenge.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 2 | Issue: 73 | No. of pages: 9 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19 response, lockdown, maternal and child health, pregnancy, pregnant women, prenatal care, social distance | Countries: Brazil
Characterization of newborn born to mothers infected and not infected by SARS-COV-2 during the pregnancy period

Alessandra Madalena Garcia Santos; Aline Dahmer Da Silva; Claudia Silveira Viera

Published: November 2022
This study aimed to characterize the mothers affected by SARS-CoV-2 during the gestational period, as well as to present and compare the birth variables of Newborns (NB) of mothers who were infected by SARS-CoV-2 during the gestational period in relation to babies whose mothers were not infected by the virus during the gestational period. Quantitative, retrospective research, carried out in the databases of health information systems: SIVEP – Influenza (Information System for Epidemiological Surveillance of Influenza), Notifies Covid-19 and Information System for Live Births (SINASC). The sample consisted of all live births and their mothers in the municipality of Cascavel/PR, from July 2020 to December 2021, compared to those newborns of mothers who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy in that period. Descriptive analysis of data using mean, standard deviation and proportion.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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