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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 50
Characteristics of symptomatic women of reproductive age with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by pregnancy status

AUTHOR(S)
Laura D. Zambrano; Sascha Ellington; Penelope Strid (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Limited information suggests that pregnant women with COVID-19 might be at increased risk for severe illness compared with non-pregnant women. In an analysis of approximately 400,000 women aged 15–44 years with symptomatic COVID-19, intensive care unit admission, invasive ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and death were more likely in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women. Pregnant women should be counseled about the risk for severe COVID-19–associated illness including death; measures to prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2 should be emphasized for pregnant women and their families. These findings can inform clinical practice, risk communication, and medical countermeasure allocation.


Synthesis and systematic review of reported neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infections

AUTHOR(S)
Roberto Raschetti; Alexandre J. Vivanti ; Christelle Vauloup-Fellous (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Nature Communications
A number of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections have been reported in neonates. This survey aims to clarify the transmission route, clinical features and outcomes of these infections. It presents a meta-analysis of 176 published cases of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infections that were defined by at least one positive nasopharyngeal swab and/or the presence of specific IgM. This report shows that 70% and 30% of infections are due to environmental and vertical transmission, respectively.
The promotion of positive mental health for new mothers during Covid-19

AUTHOR(S)
Kate Barlow

Published: October 2020
The Covid-19 pandemic has caused increased hardship for new mothers and their young children. Increased isolation, lack of in-person doctor visits and decreased interaction within the community, has pregnant and postpartum women in need of additional support. Occupational therapists often work with infants and their mothers due to feeding concerns. Difficulty with early feeding adds additional stress on the mother–infant dyad relationship. This case study describes a mother’s traumatic experience giving birth during Covid-19 and the occupational therapy intervention provided to the mother–infant dyad. In order to improve outcomes for the mother and child with feeding concerns, this case study is a call to action for paediatric occupational therapy practitioners to include the promotion of positive mental health of mothers in their practice, particularly during the pandemic.
Maternal perceptions of sleep problems among children and mothers during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic in Israel

AUTHOR(S)
Ghadir Zreik; Kfir Asraf; Iris Haimov (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Journal of Sleep Research
Despite the marked impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic on the life of families and its possible negative implications for sleep, little is known about how sleep among parents and children has been impacted by this current crisis. The present study addresses, for the first time, possible consequences of the COVID‐19 crisis and home confinement on maternal anxiety, maternal insomnia, and maternal reports of sleep problems among children aged 6–72 months in Israel.

Pregnant women with COVID-19 and risk of adverse birth outcomes and maternal-fetal vertical transmission: a population-based cohort study in Wuhan, China

AUTHOR(S)
Rong Yang; Hui Mei; Tongzhang Zheng (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: BMC Medicine volume
This is a retrospective cohort study based on the Maternal and Child Health Information System (MCHIMS) of Wuhan, China. All pregnant women with singleton live birth recorded by the system between January 13 and March 18, 2020, were included. The adverse birth outcomes were preterm birth, low birth weight, neonatal asphyxia, premature rupture of membrane (PROM), and cesarean section delivery. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between maternal COVID-19 diagnosis and adverse birth outcomes.
Well-being of parents and children during the COVID-19 pandemic: a national survey

AUTHOR(S)
Stephen W. Patrick; Laura E. Henkhaus; Joseph S. Zickafoose (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Pediatrics

This national survey examines how the pandemic and mitigation efforts affected the physical and emotional well-being of parents and children in the United States. Since March 2020, 27% of parents reported worsening mental health for themselves, and 14% reported worsening behavioral health for their children. The proportion of families with moderate or severe food insecurity increased from 6% before March 2020 to 8% after, employer-sponsored insurance coverage of children decreased from 63% to 60%, and 24% of parents reported a loss of regular child care. Worsening mental health for parents occurred alongside worsening behavioral health for children in nearly 1 in 10 families, among whom 48% reported loss of regular child care, 16% reported change in insurance status, and 11% reported worsening food security. The study concludes that coronavirus disease pandemic has had a substantial tandem impact on parents and children in the United States. As policy makers consider additional measures to mitigate the health and economic effects of the pandemic, they should consider the unique needs of families with children.

 

Coronavirus-2019 disease (COVID-19) in children

AUTHOR(S)
Fahri Ovali

Published: September 2020   Journal: Medeniyet Medical Journal
COVID-19 disease affects all ages, but severe cases of the disease and mortality are very rarely seen among children. In most cases, they acquire the virus from their parents or from an another infected person. The exact reasons why the disease has a milder course in children is unknown but high numbers of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptors, underdeveloped immune responses, cross-reaction with other viruses, protective effect of fetal hemoglobin and fewer outdoor activities as well as journeys, and nonexposure to air pollution, and smoking. Although many cases are asymptomatic, they can still shed the virus. Materno-fetal vertical transmission has not been shown so far. In symptomatic cases, clinical findings include fever and respiratory symptoms, followed by diarrhea and vomiting. There are signs indicating a possible association between Kawasaki disease and COVID-19. Clinical findings and diagnostic procedures in newborns, and older children are similar
The prevalence of psychiatric symptoms of pregnant and non-pregnant women during the COVID-19 epidemic

AUTHOR(S)
Yongjie Zhou; Hui Shi; Zhengkui Liu (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Translational Psychiatry
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading worldwide, with a staggering number of cases and deaths. However, available data on the psychological impacts of COVID-19 on pregnant women are limited. The purposes of this study were to assess the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms among pregnant women, and to compare them with non-pregnant women. From February 28 to March 12, 2020, a cross-sectional study of pregnant and nonpregnant women was performed in China. The online questionnaire was used to collect information of participants.
Early indirect impact of COVID-19 pandemic on utilization and outcomes of reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health services in Kenya

AUTHOR(S)
Duncan Shikuku; Irene Nyaoke; Sylvia Gichuru (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: MedRxiv
The COVID-19 global pandemic is expected to result in 8.3-38.6% additional maternal deaths in many low-income countries. The objective of this paper was to determine the initial impact of COVID-19 pandemic on reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health (RMNCAH) services in Kenya.
Building resilient societies after COVID-19: the case for investing in maternal, neonatal, and child health

AUTHOR(S)
Chandni Maria Jacob; Despina D. Briana; Gian Carlo Di Renzo (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: The Lancet Public Health
This study indicates clearly that a focus on maternal, neonatal, and child health (MNCH) will promote later resilience. This knowledge offers an unprecedented opportunity to disrupt entrenched strategies and to reinvest in MNCH in the post-COVID-19 so-called new normal. Furthermore, analysis of the short-term, medium-term, and longer-term consequences of previous socioeconomic shocks provides important insights into those domains of MNCH, such as neurocognitive development and nutrition, for which investment will generate the greatest benefit. Such considerations apply to high-income countries (HICs) and low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, implementing appropriate policies in the post-COVID-19 recovery period will be challenging and requires political commitment and public engagement.
Cover
Protect the progress: rise, refocus, recover
Institution: *UNICEF, World Health Organisation
Published: September 2020 UNICEF Publication
Since the Every Woman Every Child movement was launched 10 years ago, there has been remarkable progress in improving the health of the world’s women, children, and adolescents, including reducing maternal and child mortality and improving child nutrition and education. However, conflict, climate instability, and the COVID-19 pandemic are putting all children and adolescents at risk . In particular, the COVID-19 crisis is exacerbating inequities, with reported disruptions in essential health interventions disproportionately impacting the most vulnerable women and children.
This report notes that the COVID-19 pandemic has made clear how fundamental good data are across sectors; that greater investments are needed to build resilient systems to provide high-quality and integrated services consistently; and COVID-19 recovery efforts  require multilateral action and continued investment in development.
The interplay between mothers’ and children behavioral and psychological factors during COVID-19: an Italian study

AUTHOR(S)
Elisa Di Giorgio; Daniela Di Riso; Giovanna Mioni (et al.)

Published: August 2020   Journal: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Italy has been the first nation outside of Asia to face the COVID-19 outbreak. To limit viral transmission of infection, by March 10th, 2020, the Italian Government has ordered a national lockdown, which established home confinement, home (smart) working, and temporary closure of non-essential businesses and schools. The present study investigated how these restrictive measures impacted mothers and their pre-school children’s behavioral habits (i.e., sleep timing and quality, subjective time experience) and psychological well-being (i.e., emotion regulation, self-regulation capacity). An online survey was administered to 245 mothers with pre-school children (from 2 to 5 years).
A surveillance system for the maternal and child health (MCH) population during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Veronica B. Ajewole; Ahone E. Ngujede; Emmanuella Oduguwa (et al.)

Published: August 2020   Journal: International Journal of MCH and AIDS
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and its ensuing mitigation measures have negatively affected the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) population. There is currently no surveillance system established to enhance our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 transmission to guide policy decision making to protect the MCH population in this pandemic. Based on reports of community and household spread of this novel infection, this study presents an approach to a robust family-centered surveillance system for the MCH population. The surveillance system encapsulates data at the individual and community levels to inform stakeholders, policy makers, health officials and the general public about SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics within the MCH population.
Breastfeeding in India is disrupted as mothers and babies are separated in the pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Neha Bhatt

Published: August 2020   Journal: BMJ : British Medical Journal
Worldwide, breastfeeding rates have dropped by 40-50% in some hospitals during the pandemic. Before the pandemic only 41% of babies in India breastfed within an hour of being born, a number that has slid lower during the pandemic. The reasons are numerous, but chief among them is the widespread separation of mother and baby at birth because of confusion over guidelines and deep fear.
Neonates in the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Eleanor J. Molloy; Anna Lavizzari; Claus Klingenberg (et al.)

Published: August 2020   Journal: Pediatric Research

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has predominantly affected adults of higher age groups, and the effect of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on infants and neonates appears to be small. While we are gathering emerging evidence on the exact SARS-CoV-2 disease process, intrauterine or perinatal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 remains ambiguous, and vertical transmission has yet to be proven although viral RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction has been found in placental membranes and breast milk. In contrast, breast milk of mothers who contracted COVID-19 can provide antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. There are rare case reports of infected infants, the majority of whom were asymptomatic, and symptomatic late-onset viral sepsis has so far only been reported in a 3-week-old infant and a 26-week preterm infant.

 

 

31 - 45 of 50

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.