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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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76 - 90 of 99
Impact of COVID-19 mitigation measures on the incidence of preterm birth: a national quasi-experimental study

AUTHOR(S)
Jasper V. Been; Lizbeth Burgos Ochoa; Loes C. M. Bertens (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: The Lancet Public Health
Preterm birth is the leading cause of child mortality globally, with many survivors experiencing long-term adverse consequences. Preliminary evidence suggests that numbers of preterm births greatly reduced following implementation of policy measures aimed at mitigating the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examines the impact of the COVID-19 mitigation measures implemented in the Netherlands on the incidence of preterm birth through a national quasi-experimental difference-in-regression-discontinuity approach.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 5 | Issue: 11 | No. of pages: 604-611 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child mortality, maternal and child health, pregnancy | Countries: Netherlands
Possible vertical transmission and antibodies against SARS‐CoV‐2 among infants born to mothers with COVID‐19: a living systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
George M. Bwire; Belinda J. Njiro; Dorkasi L. Mwakawanga (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Journal of Medical Virology
Current evidence suggests that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19), caused by severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2), is predominantly transmitted from human‐to‐human. However, evidence on vertical transmission and natural passive immunity among the newborns exposed to COVID‐19 is scanty and varies. This poses a challenge on preventive interventions for the newborns. A systematic review was conducted to first, determine the likelihood of vertical transmission among COVID‐19 exposed infants and second, determine whether antibodies against SARS‐CoV‐2 were generated among COVID‐19 vertically exposed but negative infants. This review registered in PROSPERO searched evidence from PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar, among others.
COVID-19 in pregnancy: the foetal perspective: a systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Rajani Dube; Subhranshu Sekhar Kar

Published: October 2020   Journal: BMJ Paediatrics Open
We aimed to conduct a systematic review of the available literature to determine the effects of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in pregnant women from the foetal perspective by estimation of mother to child transmission, perinatal outcome and possible teratogenicity.
The direct and indirect impact of SARS-CoV-2 infections on neonates: a series of 26 cases in Bangladesh

AUTHOR(S)
Senjuti Saha; A. N. Ahmed; Probir Kumar Sarkar (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal

The impact of SARS-CoV-2 on neonates remains largely unknown in low- and middle-income countries. We provide an epidemiologic and clinical report of SARS-CoV-2 infections in neonates hospitalized in Bangladesh.Outborn neonates admitted to Dhaka Shishu Hospital, a tertiary-care referral hospital, between 29 March and 1 July were screened for SARS-CoV-2. Their clinical data have been reviewed, including chest radiograph and laboratory reports, and SARS-CoV-2 genome sequencing has been conducted. Patients were followed-up for 27–75 days. A subset of caregivers was also tested.

Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 398-405 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, early childhood, maternal and child health | Countries: Bangladesh
Characteristics of symptomatic women of reproductive age with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by pregnancy status

AUTHOR(S)
Laura D. Zambrano; Sascha Ellington; Penelope Strid (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Limited information suggests that pregnant women with COVID-19 might be at increased risk for severe illness compared with non-pregnant women. In an analysis of approximately 400,000 women aged 15–44 years with symptomatic COVID-19, intensive care unit admission, invasive ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and death were more likely in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women. Pregnant women should be counseled about the risk for severe COVID-19–associated illness including death; measures to prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2 should be emphasized for pregnant women and their families. These findings can inform clinical practice, risk communication, and medical countermeasure allocation.


Synthesis and systematic review of reported neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infections

AUTHOR(S)
Roberto Raschetti; Alexandre J. Vivanti ; Christelle Vauloup-Fellous (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Nature Communications
A number of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections have been reported in neonates. This survey aims to clarify the transmission route, clinical features and outcomes of these infections. It presents a meta-analysis of 176 published cases of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infections that were defined by at least one positive nasopharyngeal swab and/or the presence of specific IgM. This report shows that 70% and 30% of infections are due to environmental and vertical transmission, respectively.
The promotion of positive mental health for new mothers during Covid-19

AUTHOR(S)
Kate Barlow

Published: October 2020
The Covid-19 pandemic has caused increased hardship for new mothers and their young children. Increased isolation, lack of in-person doctor visits and decreased interaction within the community, has pregnant and postpartum women in need of additional support. Occupational therapists often work with infants and their mothers due to feeding concerns. Difficulty with early feeding adds additional stress on the mother–infant dyad relationship. This case study describes a mother’s traumatic experience giving birth during Covid-19 and the occupational therapy intervention provided to the mother–infant dyad. In order to improve outcomes for the mother and child with feeding concerns, this case study is a call to action for paediatric occupational therapy practitioners to include the promotion of positive mental health of mothers in their practice, particularly during the pandemic.
Maternal perceptions of sleep problems among children and mothers during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic in Israel

AUTHOR(S)
Ghadir Zreik; Kfir Asraf; Iris Haimov (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Journal of Sleep Research
Despite the marked impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic on the life of families and its possible negative implications for sleep, little is known about how sleep among parents and children has been impacted by this current crisis. The present study addresses, for the first time, possible consequences of the COVID‐19 crisis and home confinement on maternal anxiety, maternal insomnia, and maternal reports of sleep problems among children aged 6–72 months in Israel.

Pregnant women with COVID-19 and risk of adverse birth outcomes and maternal-fetal vertical transmission: a population-based cohort study in Wuhan, China

AUTHOR(S)
Rong Yang; Hui Mei; Tongzhang Zheng (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: BMC Medicine volume
This is a retrospective cohort study based on the Maternal and Child Health Information System (MCHIMS) of Wuhan, China. All pregnant women with singleton live birth recorded by the system between January 13 and March 18, 2020, were included. The adverse birth outcomes were preterm birth, low birth weight, neonatal asphyxia, premature rupture of membrane (PROM), and cesarean section delivery. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between maternal COVID-19 diagnosis and adverse birth outcomes.
Well-being of parents and children during the COVID-19 pandemic: a national survey

AUTHOR(S)
Stephen W. Patrick; Laura E. Henkhaus; Joseph S. Zickafoose (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Pediatrics

This national survey examines how the pandemic and mitigation efforts affected the physical and emotional well-being of parents and children in the United States. Since March 2020, 27% of parents reported worsening mental health for themselves, and 14% reported worsening behavioral health for their children. The proportion of families with moderate or severe food insecurity increased from 6% before March 2020 to 8% after, employer-sponsored insurance coverage of children decreased from 63% to 60%, and 24% of parents reported a loss of regular child care. Worsening mental health for parents occurred alongside worsening behavioral health for children in nearly 1 in 10 families, among whom 48% reported loss of regular child care, 16% reported change in insurance status, and 11% reported worsening food security. The study concludes that coronavirus disease pandemic has had a substantial tandem impact on parents and children in the United States. As policy makers consider additional measures to mitigate the health and economic effects of the pandemic, they should consider the unique needs of families with children.

 

Coronavirus-2019 disease (COVID-19) in children

AUTHOR(S)
Fahri Ovali

Published: September 2020   Journal: Medeniyet Medical Journal
COVID-19 disease affects all ages, but severe cases of the disease and mortality are very rarely seen among children. In most cases, they acquire the virus from their parents or from an another infected person. The exact reasons why the disease has a milder course in children is unknown but high numbers of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptors, underdeveloped immune responses, cross-reaction with other viruses, protective effect of fetal hemoglobin and fewer outdoor activities as well as journeys, and nonexposure to air pollution, and smoking. Although many cases are asymptomatic, they can still shed the virus. Materno-fetal vertical transmission has not been shown so far. In symptomatic cases, clinical findings include fever and respiratory symptoms, followed by diarrhea and vomiting. There are signs indicating a possible association between Kawasaki disease and COVID-19. Clinical findings and diagnostic procedures in newborns, and older children are similar
The prevalence of psychiatric symptoms of pregnant and non-pregnant women during the COVID-19 epidemic

AUTHOR(S)
Yongjie Zhou; Hui Shi; Zhengkui Liu (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Translational Psychiatry
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading worldwide, with a staggering number of cases and deaths. However, available data on the psychological impacts of COVID-19 on pregnant women are limited. The purposes of this study were to assess the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms among pregnant women, and to compare them with non-pregnant women. From February 28 to March 12, 2020, a cross-sectional study of pregnant and nonpregnant women was performed in China. The online questionnaire was used to collect information of participants.
Early indirect impact of COVID-19 pandemic on utilization and outcomes of reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health services in Kenya

AUTHOR(S)
Duncan Shikuku; Irene Nyaoke; Sylvia Gichuru (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: MedRxiv
The COVID-19 global pandemic is expected to result in 8.3-38.6% additional maternal deaths in many low-income countries. The objective of this paper was to determine the initial impact of COVID-19 pandemic on reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health (RMNCAH) services in Kenya.
Building resilient societies after COVID-19: the case for investing in maternal, neonatal, and child health

AUTHOR(S)
Chandni Maria Jacob; Despina D. Briana; Gian Carlo Di Renzo (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: The Lancet Public Health
This study indicates clearly that a focus on maternal, neonatal, and child health (MNCH) will promote later resilience. This knowledge offers an unprecedented opportunity to disrupt entrenched strategies and to reinvest in MNCH in the post-COVID-19 so-called new normal. Furthermore, analysis of the short-term, medium-term, and longer-term consequences of previous socioeconomic shocks provides important insights into those domains of MNCH, such as neurocognitive development and nutrition, for which investment will generate the greatest benefit. Such considerations apply to high-income countries (HICs) and low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, implementing appropriate policies in the post-COVID-19 recovery period will be challenging and requires political commitment and public engagement.
Cover
Protect the progress: rise, refocus, recover
Institution: *UNICEF, World Health Organisation
Published: September 2020 UNICEF Publication
Since the Every Woman Every Child movement was launched 10 years ago, there has been remarkable progress in improving the health of the world’s women, children, and adolescents, including reducing maternal and child mortality and improving child nutrition and education. However, conflict, climate instability, and the COVID-19 pandemic are putting all children and adolescents at risk . In particular, the COVID-19 crisis is exacerbating inequities, with reported disruptions in essential health interventions disproportionately impacting the most vulnerable women and children.
This report notes that the COVID-19 pandemic has made clear how fundamental good data are across sectors; that greater investments are needed to build resilient systems to provide high-quality and integrated services consistently; and COVID-19 recovery efforts  require multilateral action and continued investment in development.
76 - 90 of 99

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.