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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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UNICEF Innocenti Publication
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1 - 15 of 1045
Effect of COVID-19 infection on psychological aspects of pre-schooler children: a cross-sectional study

Gellan K. Ahmed; Sayed Mostafa; Khaled Elbeh (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Middle East Current Psychiatry
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had a tremendous effect on individual’s lives worldwide. The pandemic’s significant socioecological impact is one of the many burdens children confront in the current crises. As a result, this study was designed to determine the psychological impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on preschoolers, particularly the consequences of COVID-19 infection. This study involved 138 children aged 2–5.11 years old who were classified into two groups based on their COVID-19 infection history, which was documented via a PCR test. All participants were assessed by the Socioeconomic Scale and The Children’s Behavior Checklist (CBCL).
Returning to normal in an abnormal environment: mothers' COVID-19 uncertainties and uncertainty management strategies

Kimberly K. Walker; Gregory D. Zimet

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Family Communication
This study used uncertainty management theory to assess mothers’ COVID-19-related uncertainty sources and management strategies during the Delta variant outbreak as the fall 2021 school year approached. Twenty-five mothers living in Indiana were interviewed between July-August 2021. Data indicated four uncertainty sources: COVID-19 illness risk, children’s psychological health, reintegration, and COVID-19 vaccine/prevention rights. COVID-19 illness risk was the most prominent uncertainty theme, and mothers attempted to adapt to it when they could via strategies of strategic decision making, engaging in protective behaviors, and seeking information to guide decisions about their children’s safety. The start of school presented uncertainties about young children’s COVID-19 risk they deemed out of their control, and thus mothers reframed illness uncertainty as the responsibility of others to protect their children.
A longitudinal study of the mental health of autistic children and adolescents and their parents during COVID-19: Part 2, qualitative findings.

Kathryn Asbury; Umar Toseeb

Published: June 2022   Journal: Autism
Part 1 of this UK-based study, across four timepoints between March and October 2020, autistic children and young people showed higher levels of parent-reported depression and anxiety symptoms than those with other special educational needs and disabilities. This study draws on qualitative data from 478 parents/carers of autistic pupils and those with other special educational needs and disabilities to conduct a longitudinal qualitative content analysis examining stability and change in the mental health of these young people, and their parents/carers, during the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Worry and psychological distress were dominant categories at all timepoints and it was noted that, in line with quantitative findings, worry in autistic pupils stayed stable over time but decreased for those with other special educational needs and disabilities. The third dominant category was wellbeing and there was evidence that removing demands, especially the demand to attend school, was a driver of wellbeing for a significant minority of pupils, particularly autistic pupils, and their parents/carers.
Validity and reliability test of child anxiety instrument (SCARED) on students of Sekolah Dasar Kedungsari 5 Magelang

Stri Nareswari; Budi Pratiti; Sumarni

Published: June 2022   Journal: Community Medicine and Education Journal
Anxiety disorders rank the 9th cause of DALYs, which can have long-term effects. The COVID-19 pandemic can trigger anxiety disorders in children related to changes in learning, habituation of new behaviors, COVID-19 disease itself, and other factors. Detection of anxiety disorders in children needs to be done early so that it can avoid its long-term effects. Screen for Children Anxiety Related Emotion Disorder (SCARED) is a multi-informant instrument that is considered good for screening anxiety disorders in children, so it is necessary to assess its validity and reliability so that it can be used in Indonesia. This study aimed to test the validity and reliability SCARED instrument in Indonesian to measure the tendency of children's Anxiety Disorders. This study was an observational study with a cross-sectional design. Subjects were students of Sekolah Dasar Negeri Kedungsari 5 Magelang (n=220).
Emotional competence, family social support and parental stress in mothers of children with autism during the pandemic

Dinie Ratri Desiningrum

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Educational, Health and Community Psychology

This study was aimed to determine the relationship between emotional competence, family social support and parental stress in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This research was a quantitative research with correlational method. Purposive sampling technique by distributing questionnaires using Google form resulted in a total of 165 participants who are mothers of children with ASD, as members of therapy centers and schools for children with special needs in Semarang, Solo and Yogyakarta. The data were analyzed using structural equation model (SEM) technique on Lisrel program. This research resulted in two models showing that there are fit model with empirical data. The first model shows that each of emotional competence and family social support had a significant effect on parental stress in mothers of children with ASD. The second model shows the influence of emotional competence on the stress of parenting of children with ASD, with family social support as a moderating variable. The implications of this study are empirical evidence on the importance of family social support and emotional competence for mothers in raising children with ASD to prevent excessive parental stress.

Symptoms of stress amongst children and adolescents during the COVID-19 outbreak in Shiraz, Iran: a cross-sectional study

Negar Yazdani; Shahnaz Pourarian; Hossein Moravej (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Because of the high daily mortality and quarantine procedures, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can cause several psychological problems, especially in younger people. Since most studies have mainly focused on physical problems of COVID-19 and they have neglected children in their analysis, this study aimed to evaluate the frequency and severity of stress symptoms and associated factors amongst children and adolescents aged 4 - 18 years during the COVID-19 outbreak.
COVID-19 induced environments, health-related quality of life outcomes and problematic behaviors: evidence from children with syndromic autism spectrum disorders.

Corneliu Bolbocean; Kayla B. Rhidenour; Maria McCormack (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Between July 2020 and January 2021, 230 principal caregivers completed a questionnaire to measure proxy-assessed health-related quality of life outcomes (HRQoL), behavioral outcomes in children with syndromic autism spectrum disorders and COVID-19 induced changes to lifestyle and environments. HRQoL and behavioral outcomes reported earlier during the pandemic were generally worse compared to those reported later. COVID-19 induced reduction to a caregiver’s mental health appointments, and hours spent watching TV were associated with decreases in HRQoL and increased the likelihood of problematic behaviors. Increasing time outdoors and time away from digital devices were positively associated with HRQoL and behaviors and might protect children from COVID-19 induced restrictions.
Parents' satisfaction of tele-rehabilitation for children with neurodevelopmental disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Pamela Frigerio; Liliana Del Monte; Aurora Sotgiu

Published: June 2022   Journal: BMC Primary Care volume

The use of tele-rehabilitation in children was limited before the COVID-19 pandemic, due to culture, technology access, regulatory and reimbursement barriers. The study was conducted according to the CHERRIES (Checklist for reporting results of internet E-surveys) guidelines in order to provide quantitative and qualitative data about experience of patients with disabilities and their caregivers during Phase 1 of the COVID-19 pandemic, and their level of satisfaction. An online survey was developed using Google Forms and sent via email. The outcome measures were rated using a 5-point Likert Scale. Two additional open-ended questions were used to collect qualitative data.

Socio-ecological resilience relates to lower internalizing symptoms among adolescents during the strictest period of COVID-19 lockdown in Perú

Victoria Guazzelli Williamson; Estelle L. Berger; Marjolein E.A. Barendse (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology
The COVID-19 pandemic has touched the lives of adolescents around the world. This short-term longitudinal, observational study followed 1,334 adolescents (11–17 yo) to investigate whether social-ecological resilience relates to intra- and inter-personal resources and/or the caregiver relationship relates to changes in internalizing symptoms during five stressful weeks of COVID-19 lockdown in Perú. This work contextualizes social-ecological resilience in relation to culturally-relevant personal and caregiver resources that youth can use to adapt to stressful situations.
Parents' perceived stress and children's adjustment during the COVID‐19 lockdown in Italy: the mediating role of family resilience

Francesca Giordano; Athena Daniilidou; Alessandra Cipolla (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Family Relations

This study aimed to explore the role of family resilience in the relationship between parents' psychological stress and their perceptions of children's emotional and behavioral symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy. The COVID-19 lockdown threatened the well-being of parents, with a potentially cascading effect on children's adjustment. However, the negative impact of parents' stress on children's well-being may be attenuated in resilient families. During the Italian lockdown, an online survey was administered to 649 parents of at least one child aged between 5 and 17 years. Respondents completed the survey themselves and their child(ren). The Perceived Stress Scale, the Walsh Family Resilience Questionnaire, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire were administered to parents.

Mind the distance: experiences of non-face-to-face child and youth mental health services during COVID-19 social distancing restrictions in Western Australia

Matthew McQueen; Penelope Strauss; Ashleigh Lin (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Australian Psychologist

Following the outbreak of COVID-19, social distancing restrictions limited access to face-to-face mental health services in Western Australia (WA), necessitating a rapid transition to non-face-to-face alternatives, including telehealth. The current study investigated barriers and facilitators to telehealth access and engagement, and preferences for child and youth mental health service delivery during and beyond COVID-19. Three participant groups were recruited via social media and partner organisations, and completed a tailored online survey: i) young people (14–25 years) who had ever accessed or attempted to access mental health support or services (n = 84), ii) parents of young people with a child aged 0–25 years who had ever accessed or attempted to access mental health support or services with or on behalf of their child (n = 68), and iii) professionals working in the child or youth mental health sector (n = 167).

What matters for adolescent suicidality: Depressive symptoms or fixed mindsets? Examination of cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fixed mindsets and suicidal ideation.

Shimin Zhu; Paul W. C. Wong

Published: June 2022   Journal: Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior

Fixed mindsets or beliefs about the non-malleability of self-attributes are linked to a wide range of negative psychological outcomes. Its association with suicidal ideation (SI) among young people has not been explored. This study aimed to examine the association of fixed mindsets of depression, anxiety, and stress and SI; and its mediating role underlying the association between depression and SI. A sample of 1393 adolescents (Mage = 13.04, SD = 0.85, 640 boys) from 11 middle schools voluntarily participated in a two-wave longitudinal study before and during the COVID-19 pandemic with a 9-month interval.

Adolescents' mental health and maladaptive behaviors before the Covid-19 pandemic and 1-year after: analysis of trajectories over time and associated factors

Laura Pedrini; Serena Meloni; Mariangela Lanfredi (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health

Adolescents have been deeply exposed to negative consequences of social distancing imposed by Covid-19. There is a lack of longitudinal studies regarding the impact on adolescents of this unfavorable condition, and their results are controversial. The aim of the present prospective study is to assess psychopathological symptoms in adolescent students over time and to evaluate what type of impact the Covid-19 pandemic had on adolescents. Moreover, the association between mental health indexes, potential risk and resilience factors is explored. Psychopathological symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression, stress, emotional dysregulation, maladaptive behaviours), and potential risk and resilience factors (i.e., childhood trauma, emotional regulation skills, family function, personality traits) were assessed among a sample of 153 students (72% female; mean age 16.1 ± 0.49), living in a medium-size city in the north of Italy, at two time points: before the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic (November 2019–January 2020) and 1 year later (April–May 2021).

The emotional lockdown: how social distancing and mask wearing influence mood and emotion recognition in adolescents and adults

Louisa Kulke; Theresia Langer; Christian Valuch

Published: June 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
During the COVID-19 pandemic, government-mandated protection measures such as contact restrictions and mask wearing significantly affected social interactions. The current preregistered studies hypothesized that such measures could influence self-reported mood in adults and in adolescents between 12 and 13 years of age, who are in a critical phase of social development. This study found that mood was positively related to face-to-face but not to virtual interactions in adults and that virtual interactions were associated with negative mood in adolescents. This suggests that contact restrictions leading to a decrease in face-to-face compared to virtual interactions may be related to negative mood. To understand if prolonged exposure to people wearing masks during the pandemic might be related to increased sensitivity for subtle visual cues to others’ emotions from the eye region of the face, this study also presented both age groups with the same standardized emotion recognition test.
Rate of adolescent inpatient admission for psychosis during the COVID-19 pandemic: a retrospective chart review.

Barbara Deren; Katherine Matheson; Paula Cloutier (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Early Intervention in Psychiatry

Given the concerns for mental health (MH) impacts on children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the relative paucity of research in this field, this retrospective study compares the rate of paediatric inpatient MH admissions for psychosis for a period of 11 months before and during the pandemic. This study used administrative data to compare the rate and clinical characteristics of patients (<18 years) admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit for a psychotic illness before (March 17, 2019 to February 17, 2020) and during (March 17, 2020 to February 17, 2021) the COVID-19 pandemic.

1 - 15 of 1045

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Read the latest quarterly digest on children and disabilities.

The second digest discussed children and violence during the pandemic.

The first digest covers children and youth mental health under COVID-19.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.