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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 1141
A narrative review on prevention and early intervention of challenging behaviors in children with a special emphasis on COVID-19 times

Sarah Musa; Ismail Dergaa

Published: June 2022   Journal: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
COVID-19 and the measures stemming from efforts to control it have affected the psychosocial wellbeing of children and adolescents. The increasing trend of challenging behavior has exerted further pressure on parents and schools. Understanding socioemotional development and interrelating triggers is the key to management. Early interventions prevent the future threat of mental illness and risky acts. Effective strategies are ones that primarily focus on strengthening parent–child interactions. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on the (i) psychosocial and behavioral impacts of COVID-19 on children/ adolescents and (ii) approaches to identify determinants of challenging behaviors as a principal guide to effective interventional strategies for children and their families.
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Korean adolescents' mental health and lifestyle factors

Jongha Lee; Young-Hoon Ko; Suhyuk Chi (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused changes in the daily lives of Korean adolescents and affected their emotional well-being. This study compared lifestyle factors and the mental health status of adolescents before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a secondary analysis using data from a national cross-sectional cohort (Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, KYRBS) collected in 2019 before the COVID-19 outbreak and in 2020 during the pandemic. This study included 57,303 students from the 2019 KYRBS and 54,948 from the 2020 KYRBS. Lifestyle factors such as dietary habits, physical activity levels, time spent studying, duration of Internet use, and mental health status, including perceived stress, experience of depressive mood, and suicidal ideation and attempts, were included in the analyses.
Mental health care use among adolescent sexual minority males before and during COVID-19

N. S. Perry; K. M. Nelson

Published: June 2022   Journal: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Adolescent (cisgender) sexual minority males (ASMM) face multiple mental health disparities. Yet surprisingly little is known about use of mental health care among ASMM. The current study examined mental health care use among ASMM, both lifetime use and during the COVID-19 pandemic. ASMM (N = 154, ages 14–17 years) enrolled in Spring 2020 for a pilot randomized controlled trial of an online sexual health intervention. Participants were assessed at baseline and 3-month follow-up.
Young people's experiences of death anxiety and responses to the Covid-19 pandemic

Ben Hughes; Kerry Jones

Published: June 2022   Journal: OMEGA - Journal of Death and Dying
Capacity for death awareness and death anxiety in young people has been previously documented but the impact of Covid-19 is not currently known. Therefore, the aim of this study of this study was to explore young people’s experiences and responses to the Covid-19 pandemic. Qualitative data was collected from young people via a two-stage process across the United Kingdom: Stage One consisted of an online questionnaire; Stage Two comprised online semi-structured interviews.
Changes in adolescent mental and somatic health complaints throughout the COVID-19 pandemic: a three-wave prospective longitudinal study

Gertrud Sofie Hafstad; Sjur Skjørshammer Sætren; Tore Wentzel-Larsen (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health
Measures taken to limit the spread of the COVID-19 may have had unintended consequences for the mental and somatic health of children and adolescents. A nationwide three-wave survey in a representative sample of 12–16 year olds in Norway, with baseline data collected in January 2019 (n = 9,240; 49% girls) and follow-ups in June 2020 (n = 3,564; 49% girls) and June 2021 (n = 3,540; 47% girls). Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate change and identify predictors thereof in mental and somatic health complaints.
Social support and depressive symptoms among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: the mediating roles of loneliness and meaning in life

Ying Liu; Jinsheng Hu; Jia Liu

Published: June 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health
Identifying which factors influence depressive symptom during the COVID-19 pandemic is highly significant for psychological crisis interventions among adolescents. Social support is likely to be one of the main factors. However, the underlying mechanism is still not well understood in the context of COVID-19. The current study examines whether loneliness and meaning in life mediate the association between social support and depressive symptoms in adolescents. A sample of 1,317 high school students in China were surveyed using the Perceived Social Support Scale, the Chinese Child Loneliness Scale, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II.
Flow eExperience and emotional well-being among Italian adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Marta Bassi; Claudia Carissoli; Sofia Beretta (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: The Journal of Psychology
Research highlighted the negative consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents’ emotional well-being worldwide. In the attempt to identify resources which could facilitate adolescents’ adjustment, this study examined the occurrence of flow experience and related activities, and the association between flow and emotional well-being among Italian teenagers. In Spring 2021, 150 students (40.7% girls) aged 15–19 completed instruments assessing flow and related activities before and during the pandemic, and current positive and negative affect.
Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on resilience among Chinese adolescents and its influential factors: a longitudinal study

Yuqiong Yang; Biru Luo; Li Zhao (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
The current study assessed the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on resilience among Chinese adolescents and explored its influential factors. A total of 2,359 students were recruited from three middle schools through cluster randomization in Chengdu. Data were collected before and after home confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Resilience, family function, and effect of the pandemic were measured using subscales of the Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale, Chinese Family Assessment Instrument, and Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale. Paired samples t test showed resilience decreased significantly after confinement. According to stepwise multiple linear regression, basal resilience, family dysfunction, higher frequencies of hyperarousal symptoms of posttraumatic stress, increased electronic device use, and relationship with care-givers were independent influential factors of resilience. COVID-19 negatively affected adolescents' resilience; therefore, stakeholders need to focus on improving resilience in this population to mitigate mental health impacts of acute stressful events.
Intersectionality in pandemic youth suicide attempt trends

Katherine McCoy

Published: June 2022   Journal: Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in increased distress at a societal level, with youth and young people bearing a disproportionate burden. A series of recent Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports has highlighted emergency department (ED) visit rates for suicide attempts among youth ages 12–25 during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study expands those analyses by adding race and ethnicity to the examination of suspected suicide attempts among youth. This study uses National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP) data for Wisconsin from hospitals that consistently reported ED visits between the study period of January 1, 2019 and September 30, 2021. Suspected suicide attempt visits were identified using the CDC-developed suicide attempt query.

Exploring children's knowledge of COVID-19 and stress levels associated with the pandemic in Nigeria: a mixed-method study

Osamagbe Aiyudubie Asemota; Sharanya Napier-Raman; Hajime Takeuchi (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: BMJ Paediatrics Open

Children have been relatively spared from the direct effects of COVID-19 globally, but there are significant concerns about indirect effects on the most vulnerable children’s well-being. Nigeria is the largest African nation, but little is known about children’s experience of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our aims were to determine children’s knowledge of COVID-19 and their mental health responses to the pandemic. Children aged 6–17 years living in Calabar, Nigeria, were surveyed using a combination of online data collection assisted by parents and on-site data collection at schools. Parents filled out sociodemographic details, while children answered questions about COVID-19 knowledge and preventive measures. An adapted version of the ‘Perceived Stress Scale for Children’ was used to assess stress with additional free text space for expression of views and experiences of COVID-19.

Utilization and acceptability of formal and informal support for adolescents following self-harm before and during the first COVID-19 lockdown: results from a large-scale English schools survey

Galit Geulayov; Rohan Borschmann; Karen L. Mansfield (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

Little is known about the perceived acceptability and usefulness of supports that adolescents have accessed following self-harm, especially since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to examine the utilization and acceptability of formal, informal, and online support accessed by adolescents following self-harm before and during the pandemic. Cross-sectional survey (OxWell) of 10,560 secondary school students aged 12–18 years in the south of England. Information on self-harm, support(s) accessed after self-harm, and satisfaction with support received were obtained via a structured, self-report questionnaire. No tests for significance were conducted.

Resilience patterns of Swiss adolescents before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a latent transition analysis

Clarissa Janousch; Frederick Anyan; Roxanna Morote (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth
This study investigated resilience patterns and predictors of these patterns (i.e. gender and migration background) among Swiss early adolescents in times of COVID-19. A total of 317 pupils participated at two time points. Two separate latent class analyses and a latent transition analysis using mental health issues and protective factors as indicators were conducted.
Family well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic: the risks of financial insecurity and coping

Marybel R. Gonzalez; Sandra A. Brown; William E. Pelham 3. (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Research on Adolescence
During the COVID-19 pandemic, families have experienced unprecedented financial and social disruptions. This research studied the impact of preexisting psychosocial factors and pandemic-related financial and social disruptions in relation to family well-being among N = 4091 adolescents and parents during early summer 2020, participating in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive DevelopmentSM Study. Poorer family well-being was linked to prepandemic psychosocial and financial adversity and was associated with pandemic-related material hardship and social disruptions to routines. Parental alcohol use increased risk for worsening of family relationships, while a greater endorsement of coping strategies was mainly associated with overall better family well-being. Financial and mental health support may be critical for family well-being during and after a widespread crisis, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on psychopathological symptoms in mothers and their school-age children before, during and after the COVID-19 pandemic peak

Silvia Cimino; Paola Di Vito; Luca Cerniglia

Published: June 2022   Journal: Current Psychology
The COVID-19 pandemic had an impact on children’s and caregivers’ mental health. This study investigated psychopathological symptoms in a group of non-at-risk and a group of at-risk mothers and their school-age children from the pre-pandemic period to the lockdown period and to the post-lockdown period. It used the SCL-90/R to assess mothers’ psychological symptoms, the CBCL 1½–5, and the CBCL 6–18 for the perceived children’s emotional-behavioral functioning. Analysis of variance was conducted to assess significant differences in the groups over the three assessment points. Linear regressions were run to investigate the effect of maternal psychological symptoms on their children’s functioning.
Gloomy and out of control? Consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on momentary optimism in daily live of adolescents

Larissa L. Wieczorek; Eva Bleckmann; Naemi D. Brandt (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Current Psychology
In the global COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents are regarded as especially burdened due to school closures and leisure activities being banned, often reducing peer contacts to zero. Experiencing restrictions while being uninvolved in decision-making processes left them with little control over their daily lives. Meanwhile, research highlights that optimism can act as a buffer against the impact of daily hassles and is considered an important resource for mental health. To understand the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for adolescents' lives, this study examined how momentary perceived control and perceived personal and societal consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic relate to momentary optimism. Using experience-sampling data from N = 242 (Mage = 15.89; 86% female) adolescents assessed during the second pandemic wave in Germany, multilevel modeling revealed positive associations between adolescents’ momentary perceived control and their momentary optimism at both the within- and between-person level.
31 - 45 of 1141

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.