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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 1510
Associations between parenting stress, parent feeding practices, and perceptions of child eating behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Lupita Maria González; Amy Lammert; Suzanne Phelan (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Appetite
The aim of this study was to explore associations between parenting stress, feeding practices, and perceptions of children's eating behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Parents (n = 284) of children ages 4–6 years completed a cross-sectional online survey during the onset of pandemic-related stay-at-home mandates in the U.S. Parents reported current levels of parenting stress, feeding practices, and child eating behaviors. Parents also reported whether parenting stress had increased, stayed the same, or decreased since prior to the onset of pandemic-related stay-at-home mandates.
Daily life patterns, psychophysical conditions, and immunity of adolescents in the COVID-19 era: a mixed research with qualitative interviews by a quasi-experimental retrospective study

AUTHOR(S)
Ji-Eun Yu; Denny Eun; Yong-Seok Jee

Published: August 2022   Journal: Healthcare
This study investigated the daily lifestyle changes, prevalence of psychological depression, physical health status, and immunity of adolescents in Korea resulting from increased isolation and social restriction due to the COVID-19 pandemic. All subjects included 17-year-old male adolescents. A total of 117 subjects were assigned to one of four groups according to the degree of depression based on item #6 in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) questionnaire as follows: no-depression group (NDG, n = 71; 61.0%), low-depression group (LDG, n = 23; 19.0%), moderate-depression group (MDG, n = 15; 13.0%), and high-depression group (HDG, n = 8; 7.0%). This study analyzed the data using quantitative and qualitative methods to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic affects adolescents’ daily lives, psychophysiological conditions, and immune function.
Socio-economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on new mothers and associations with psychosocial wellbeing: Findings from the UK COVID-19 New Mum online observational study (May 2020-June 2021)

AUTHOR(S)
Emeline Rougeaux; Sarah Dib; Adriana Vázquez-Vázquez (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: PLOS Global Public Health
Studies have reported unequal socio-economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictions in the UK, despite support packages. It is unclear how women with young children, a vulnerable group economically and psychosocially, havebeen impacted by income and employment pandemic changes, and how this is associated with psychosocial wellbeing. Using the UK COVID-19 New Mum online survey of women with children <12 months (28th May 2020-26th June 2021; N = 3430), which asked about pandemic impact on their i.ability to pay for rent, food, and essentials expenses separately, ii. employment (and/or partner’s), and iii.past week mood, feelings and activities, we explored associations of i. & maternal age, household structure and income, i. & ii., and i. & iii. using logistic (odd ratios), multivariate (relative risk ratios/RRR), and linear (coefficients) regression respectively, and associated p-values.
School wellbeing and psychological characteristics of online learning in families of children with and without hearing loss during the Covid‐19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Bianca Maria Serena Inguscio; Maria Nicastri; Ilaria Giallini (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Psychology in the Schools
This study investigated the psychological characteristics of online learning on Italian students with and without hearing loss (HL) and on their parents, who were forced into isolation during the Covid-19 pandemic. An online survey collected information on socio-demographic data and opinions concerning online learning from 61 children (mean age 11; 25 males, 36 females), including 43 with HL and also from their parents; additionally, school wellbeing and anxiety were assessed.
How the COVID-19 pandemic changed adolescents' use of technologies, sense of community, and loneliness: a retrospective perception analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Andrea Guazzini; Andrea Pesce; Fabiana Gino (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Behavioral Sciences
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought important changes to how we engage in relationships of any kind. To combat the spread of the virus, schools resorted to remote-learning, and teenagers had to rely on various technologies to meet many of the needs that they used to satisfy offline (e.g., social, informational, and recreational/leisure purposes). This article was written to investigate the changes that the students at an Italian high school went through in terms of use of technologies, loneliness, and sense of community, through a survey focusing on their retrospective perceptions. The study was carried out on 917 students. In general, we have found that the COVID-19 pandemic has greatly increased the perception of loneliness in teenagers (especially in female respondents), as well as their use of technologies for social, informational, and leisure purposes. However, maybe thanks to the opportunities provided by ICTs and remote learning, the sense of community in Italian teenagers was only marginally impacted.
Basic psychological need satisfaction and depression in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: the mediating roles of feelings of safety and rumination

AUTHOR(S)
Zhengyi Liu; Lingyan Shen; Xinyue Wu (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Child Psychiatry & Human Development
The study aimed to examine the mechanism underlying the effect of basic psychological needs satisfaction (BPNs) on depression via feelings of safety or rumination in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Self-report questionnaires were distributed to 683 middle school students from Hubei province in China. Structural Equation Modelling was used to analyse the data. The results showed that basic psychological needs satisfaction exerted negative effects on adolescents’ depression in both a direct and an indirect way. In specific, basic psychological needs satisfaction not only directly reduced depression, but also indirectly reduced depression by the mediating role of feelings of safety, but not by rumination. Moreover, autonomy and relatedness, but not competence need satisfaction, indirectly reduced depression by the multiple mediating path from feelings of safety to rumination.
Associations between caregiver stress and child verbal abuse and corporal punishment in Thailand's impoverished Deep South region during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Rohani Jeharsae; Manusmeen Jehnok; Haneefah Jeh-alee (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: International Journal of Mental Health
The objectives of this study are: (1) To describe the levels of parental stress, self-reported child verbal abuse and corporal punishment among caregivers, and; (2) To assess the extent that having moderate or higher levels of parental stress is associated with self-reported child verbal abuse and corporal punishment. We randomly sampled 12 villages and sampled 40 households per village in Thailand’s impoverished Deep South region in June 2020. Study participants included 466 caregivers residing in sampled households. Trained enumerators used the standard ST-5 questionnaire to measure stress level and asked the participants to self-report the study outcomes.
Occupational disruption: the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the behavioral inflexibility and anxiety of autistic children

AUTHOR(S)
Aaron Dallman; Catherine M. Perry; Jessica E. Goldblum (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy

The COVID-19 pandemic caused unprecedented changes to the lives of many. The aim of this paper was to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted behavioral inflexibility (BI) and anxiety among autistic children and how autistic children and their families have adapted to COVID-19-related routine changes. This sequential mixed-method study included two phases. During the first phase, parents of autistic children (N = 48) completed an online survey consisting of the Behavioral Inflexibility Scale (BIS) and the Parent-Rated Anxiety Scale – Autism Spectrum Disorder (PRAS-ASD). During the second phase, a subset of parents (parents of adolescents, N = 11) was invited to participate in a virtual focus-group.

Supporting parenting among Syrian refugees in Lebanon: a randomized controlled trial of the caregiver support intervention

AUTHOR(S)
Kenneth E. Miller; Alexandra Chen; Gabriela V. Koppenol-Gonzalez (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry

Parenting interventions in humanitarian settings have prioritized the acquisition of parenting knowledge and skills, while overlooking the adverse effects of stress and distress on parenting—a key mediator of refugee children's mental health. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Caregiver Support Intervention (CSI), which emphasizes caregiver wellbeing together with training in positive parenting. This research conducted a two-arm randomized controlled trial of the CSI with Syrian refugees in Lebanon, with an intent-to-treat design, from September 2019–December 2020. A total of 480 caregivers from 240 families were randomized to the CSI or a waitlist control group (1:1). Retention from baseline to endline was 93%. Data on parenting and caregiver psychological wellbeing were collected at baseline, endline, and three-month follow-up.

Working and caring for a disabled adopted child during a pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Claudia Sellmaier; JaeRan Kim

Published: July 2022   Journal: Child & Family Social Work
Integrating work and family demands can be challenging for families caring for a child with one or more disabilities. The pandemic and its changes to work, schooling and service delivery potentially added to these challenges. This exploratory mixed methods study sought to understand how the pandemic affected adoptive parents' work–life fit and service use. A total of 200 participants responded to survey questions about parenting an adopted child with a disability prior to, and after, the onset of Covid-19. More than half of the parents (59.2%) reported that it was somewhat to very difficult to integrate both work and family demands. Parents with greater access to workplace flexibility and supportive supervisors had significantly less difficulties combining work and family. Families who reported more problems with accessing mental health services, special education and respite care reported significantly more challenges with work–family fit. Parents reported increased stress due to the pandemic changes, but many also shared positive changes such as more time for family. Online services were experienced as effective for some children and reduced time spent driving to appointments. Recommendations for workplace and social service practice and policy supporting adoptive parents of children with disabilities are discussed.
Ensuring emotional and psychological wellbeing in children through bibliotherapy during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Sophia Adeyeye; Opeyemi Oboh

Published: July 2022   Journal: International Journal of Librarianship
Sudden lifestyle changes and disruption necessitated by the COVID-19 precautionary measures resulted in children becoming frightened, bored, isolated and anxious which automatically posed a threat to their emotional and psychological wellbeing. These set of children could be helped through therapeutic reading of books. Reading stories provides children with opportunities to gain insight and learn healthier ways to face the uncertainty caused by their inability to do things that they normally do like going to school, visit friends, go to parties, visit parks, visit the library and so on. The study used a prestest - posttest quasi- experimental methodology which lasted for a duration of 10 weeks, the study population were twenty-five (25) within the age bracket of 7-16 years old.
Knowledge and risk assessment of depression among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Marianna Charzyńska-Gula; Aneta Sabat; Barbara Ślusarska (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Education, Health and Sport

Depression, perceived in terms of a health problem, is a disorder that spreads dynamically in the youth population. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the problem. The aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge and the risk of depression in the environment of a selected group of young people in the initial period of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study group consisted of 100 people - school students aged 15-20 years. An original questionnaire and the Kutcher Depression Scale for Youth were used. Results: The level of knowledge of adolescents about the risk factors for depression and symptoms that may indicate depression is average. Young people acquire knowledge from the Internet (41%) and TV programs (16%). Symptoms of depression were more frequent in: older participants of the study, those who assessed their financial situation as low, and students who had experience of depression in their family.

Effectiveness of the PlayStrong Neuro-Filial Parenting Program: a program evaluation of an online pilot during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Georgie Wisen-Vincent; Rebecca Bokoch

Published: July 2022   Journal: International Journal of Play Therapy
This study piloted an online play-based parenting program informed by filial therapy, child–parent relationship therapy, and interpersonal neurobiology during COVID-19. The purpose of this program evaluation was to explore its potential effectiveness in improving child behaviors, mindful parenting, parent–child relationship quality, and protective factors. This study used a mixed method design to gather quantitative data from standardized measures and qualitative data from surveys. Parents of children 4–10 years old (N = 11) participated in 6 weekly 1.5-hr sessions which included teaching a new skill, asking questions, offering support, and sharing video or descriptions about using play-based parenting skills at home.
Overload of caregivers of children with mental disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Valdir Severino Junior; Thaysa Molina; Carla Belei-Martins (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: International Journal of Human Sciences Research

The coronavirus pandemic brought significant changes in people’s lives and, for caregivers of those with mental disorders, there was an increase in the burden. This study aimed to analyze the burden on caregivers of children with mental disorders. A cross-sectional, descriptive study with caregivers of children aged four to 12 years in psychiatric outpatient follow-up, who answered questions and the Zarit Burden Interview.

Caregiver perspective on the impact of COVID-19 on the psychosocial and behavioral health of children with ASD in the United States: a questionnaire-based survey

AUTHOR(S)
Dominique Schwartz; Prageet K. Sachdev; Laura Hewitson (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: COVID
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) were particularly vulnerable to disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study we conducted an anonymous caregiver survey to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the psychosocial and behavioral health of children with ASD. Data from 700 responses identified several significant factors predicting greater difficulties for the child including pre-existing behavioral challenges (OR = 5.179; 95% CI: 2.696, 9.951), disrupted sleep (OR = 2.618; 95% CI 1.341, 5.112), and a diagnosis of depression (OR = 3.425; 95% CI: 1.1621, 4.116). Greater difficulties for caregivers in managing their child’s behaviors were associated with sleep disturbances (OR = 1.926; 95% CI: 1.170, 3.170), self-injurious behavior (OR = 3.587; 95% CI: 1.767, 7.281), and managing the child’s school activities (OR = 3.107; 95% CI: 1.732, 5.257) and free time (OR = 3.758; 95% CI: 2.217, 6.369). However, being under the care of a neuropsychiatrist was associated with less difficulty in managing the child’s behaviors (OR = 2.516; 95% CI: −1.046, −5.382). Finally, the presence of comorbidities (OR = 2.599; 95% CI: 1.053, 4.067) and a greater difficulty in managing the child’s school activities (OR = 2.531; 95% CI: 1.655, 3.868) and free time (OR = 1.651; 95% CI: 1.101, 2.478) were associated with an increased likelihood of caregiver desire for their child to return to in-person school in the fall. The COVID-19 pandemic had a wide-ranging impact on the behaviors of children with ASD and challenges for their caregivers.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.