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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 764
Parent–student relational turbulence, support processes, and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic

Timothy R. Worley; Madison Mucci-Ferris

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Social and Personal Relationships
In Spring 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic introduced unexpected transitions for college students and their families. Informed by Relational Turbulence Theory, we examined associations among relational turbulence processes in students’ relationships with parents, social support seeking and reception, and mental health. Seven hundred forty-seven college students living at home with a parent completed an online survey during June 2020. Students’ self uncertainty, interference from parents, and relational turbulence were negatively associated with their support seeking and perceptions of support from parents, whereas facilitation from parents predicted increased support seeking and perceptions of support. In turn, support seeking and perceived support were negatively associated with students’ anxiety, depression, and stress. Finally, support processes mediated the association of turbulence with depression.
COVID-19 pandemic-related transition to telehealth in child and adolescent mental health

Leslie K. Moorman

Published: September 2021   Journal: Family Relations

This article explores one mental health company's urgent response to the global COVID-19 pandemic, and the multifaceted implications of quickly transitioning to telehealth services. The purpose of this article is to share information with interdisciplinary professionals about the planning, implementation, and results of transitioning to telehealth services during a pandemic. It compiled practice-related data regarding company attendance rates and customer and employee satisfaction with telehealth. Data include feedback from more than 40 clinicians and 60 families.

Parental involvement in homework of children with learning disabilities during distance learning: relations with fear of COVID-19 and resilience

Thanos Touloupis

Published: September 2021   Journal: Psychology in the Schools
The present study investigated parental involvement in the homework of children with learning disabilities, during distance learning due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Also, the role of parents' fear of COVID-19 and resilience in their involvement in homework was examined. The study involved 271 parents (140 mothers and 131 fathers) of children with learning disabilities, who studied in the fifth and sixth grade from4 schools of Thessaloniki (Greece). Parents completed a set of self-reported questionnaires, which included a scale on parental involvement in homework, a scale on fear of COVID-19, and a scale on resilience.
Rethinking autism spectrum disorder assessment for children during COVID-19 and beyond

Lonnie Zwaigenbaum; Somer Bishop; Wendy L. Stone (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Autism Research
The COVID-19 pandemic has posed unique challenges for families and caregivers, as well as for autism-focused clinicians, who are faced with providing a thorough and accurate evaluation of children's specific needs and diagnoses in the absence of in-person assessment tools. The shift to telehealth assessments has challenged clinicians to reconsider approaches and assumptions that underlie the diagnostic assessment process, and to adopt new ways of individualizing standard assessments according to family and child needs. Mandates for physical distancing have uncovered deficiencies in diagnostic practices for suspected autism and have illuminated biases that have posed obstacles preventing children and families from receiving the services that they truly need. This Commentary outlines several considerations for improving diagnostic practices as we move forward from the current pandemic and continue to strive to build an adaptable, sustainable, equitable, and family-centered system of care.
Italian adolescents’ adjustment before and during the coronavirus disease 2019: A comparison between mothers’ and adolescents’ perception

Alessandra Babore; Mara Morelli; Carmen Trumello

Published: September 2021   Journal: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
The current cross-sectional study aimed to analyse adolescents’ adjustment during and before the lockdown caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, by evaluating levels of emotional problems and hyperactivity as referred by adolescents themselves. A further purpose was to compare adolescents’ and mothers’ perception about adolescents’ adjustment. Participants comprised 206 adolescents (50.5% females; mean age = 12.2; SD = 3.3) and their mothers (mean age = 43.9; SD = 5.9).
Mental health and well-being impacts of COVID-19 on rural paramedics, police, community nurses and child protection workers

Russell Roberts; Alfred Wong; Stacey Jenkins (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Australian Journal of Rural Health

This study aims to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health and well-being of rural paramedics, police, community nursing and child protection staff. An online survey was distributed to investigate the sources of stress and support across individual, task and organisational domains. The survey was completed by 1542 paramedics, police, community nurses and child protection workers from all states and territories of Australia. This study describes the data for the 632 rural participants. The main measures of well-being were the Public Health Questionnaire (PHQ9), the Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD7), the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), workplace engagement, intention to quit and COVID-19–related stress.

The impact of COVID-19 on the mental health and wellbeing of caregivers of autistic children and youth: A scoping review

Vivian Lee; Carly Albaum; Paula Tablon Modica (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Autism Research
Caregivers and families of autistic people have experienced stress and increase in demands due to the COVID-19 pandemic that may have long-term negative consequences for both their own and their children's mental health. A scoping review was conducted to identify pandemic related demands experienced by caregivers and families of autistic children and youth. The review also consolidated information on coping strategies and parenting-related guidelines that have emerged to help parents meet these demands. Search strategies were approved by a research librarian and were conducted in peer-reviewed and gray literature databases between May 2020 and February 2021. Additional resources were solicited through author networks and social media. All articles were published between December 2019 and February 2021. Article summaries were charted, and a thematic analysis was conducted with confirmation of findings with our knowledge users. Twenty-three published articles and 14 pieces of gray literature were included in the review.
Bullying, cyberbullying, anxiety, and depression in a sample of youth during the Coronavirus pandemic

Elizabeth Englander

Published: September 2021   Journal: Pediatics Reports
While it is well know that the pandemic and its social isolation, loss of school experiences, increased screen use, and financial stress have likely had a psychological impact upon children and teens, little research has been done directly with youth to assess social and emotional factors during the pandemic and in its immediate aftermath. In this study, a sample of 240 youth reported on their experiences with bullying, fighting, sexting, cyberbullying, anxiety, and depression during the period from March 2020 to April 2021.
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on mental well-being of Norwegian adolescents during the first wave—socioeconomic position and gender differences

Arnhild Myhr; Linn Renée Naper; Indira Samarawickrema (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health
The lockdowns associated with the COVID-19 pandemic has been called a crisis in mental health, and adolescents may have been among the most affected. Comparing the first period of societal lockdown in spring 2020 to periods going back to 2014 using a rich cross-sectional dataset based on repeated surveys, we explore the potential changes in self-reported mental well-being across sociodemographic groups among Norway's adolescents. Norway closed schools and implemented strict restrictions in March 2020; an electronic questionnaire survey was distributed to lower secondary school students in Trøndelag county (N = 2,443) in May 2020. Results were compared with similar surveys conducted annually in the same county dating back to 2014. Logistic regression models were applied to investigate potential changes in depressive symptoms, loneliness, and quality of life and life satisfaction, and to detect possible differences in the impact of lockdown between the genders and socioeconomic groups.
Parental distress and perception of children’s executive functioning after the first COVID-19 lockdown in Italy

Concetta Polizzi; Sofia Burgio; Gioacchino Lavanco (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Clinical Medicine
The spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), and the consequential first italian lockdown to minimize viral transmission, have resulted in many significant changes in the every-day lives of families, with an increased risk of parental burnout. This study explores the impact of the first COVID-19 lockdown in Italy on parental distress and parental perceptions of children’s executive functions (EFs). Participants were 308 Italian parents with children between 4 and 17 years of age; they were recruited through online advertisements on websites and social media, and they were given an online survey. The measures were: the balance between risks and resources (BR2) and the executive functioning self-report (EF).
What factors are most closely associated with mood disorders in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic? A cross-sectional study based on 1,771 adolescents in Shandong Province, China

Ziyuan Ren; Yaodong Xin; Zhonglin Wang (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

COVID-19 has been proven to harm adolescents' mental health, and several psychological influence factors have been proposed. However, the importance of these factors in the development of mood disorders in adolescents during the pandemic still eludes researchers, and practical strategies for mental health education are limited. This study constructed a sample of 1,771 adolescents from three junior high middle schools, three senior high middle schools, and three independent universities in Shandong province, China. The sample stratification was set as 5:4:3 for adolescent aged from 12 – 15, 15 – 18, 18 – 19.

Prevalence of internet addiction disorder and its correlates among clinically stable adolescents with psychiatric disorders in China during the COVID-19 outbreak

Zong-Lei Li; Rui Liu; Fan He (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

Since the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic emerged, Internet usage has increased among adolescents. Due to this trend, the prevalence of Internet addiction disorder (IAD) may have increased within this group. This study examined the prevalence of IAD and its correlates among clinically stable adolescents with psychiatric disorders in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. A multi-center, cross-sectional study was carried out between April 29 and June 9, 2020 in three major tertiary mental health centers in China. IAD and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), respectively.

The impact of COVID-19 on cognitive development and executive functioning in adolescents: a first exploratory investigation

Alessandro Frolli; Maria Carla Ricci; Francesca Di Carmine

Published: September 2021   Journal: Brain Sciences
The rapid expansion and severity of the COVID-19 contagion has had negative physical and psychological health implications for millions of people around the world, but even more so among children and adolescents. Given the severity of the situation and the small number of studies on the direct influence of viral infection on the cognitive development within adolescents, the present study aims at understanding the consequences of contracting the virus and being hospitalized in relation to cognitive functioning, in particular, for executive functioning, among adolescents.
Teacher expectations and parental stress during emergency distance learning and their relationship to students’ perception

Ariana Garrote; Edith Niederbacher; Jan Hofmann (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
School closures in spring 2020 caused by the COVID-19 pandemic were an unprecedented and drastic event for students, parents, and teachers. The unplanned adaptation of classroom instruction to emergency distance learning was necessary to ensure continued education. In this new learning environment, teachers formed expectations for student academic achievement gains, which in turn affected the opportunities for students to learn. Parents faced new challenges in supporting their children’s learning. According to parenting stress models, such drastic events can be a stress factor for parents, which in turn affects their children’s adjustment. This study analyzed the extent to which parents and teachers affected the perceptions of students in compulsory school toward distance learning through processes at home (individual level) and at the class level with data from multiple informants. On an individual level, the relationship between parents’ perceived threat of COVID-19 and their stress due to distance learning and students’ perceived threat of COVID-19 and their perception of distance learning were examined. Students’ learning behavior was accounted for as a variable related to their perception of distance learning. At the class level, the explanatory character of teacher expectations and class-aggregated achievement gains were examined. Data on students in grades 4 to 8, parents, and teachers in Switzerland were collected with standardized online questionnaires after the period of school closures.
The protective role of parent resilience on mental health and the parent–child relationship during COVID-19

Beth S. Russell; Alexandria J. Tomkunas; Morica Hutchison (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Child Psychiatry & Human Development
The COVID-19 pandemic is linked to particularly potent psychological effects for children and their caregivers while families adjust to new daily routines for work, education, and self-care. Longitudinal associations are presented from a national sample of 271 parents (mean age = 35.29 years, 48.5% female) on resilience, mental health and stress indicators, and parenting outcomes. Multigroup path model results indicate significant associations between resilience and parent stress or parent perceived child stress initiates a sequence of significant linkages to parent depression, followed by caregiver burden and parent–child relationship quality. This final set of linkages between depression and both parenting outcomes were significantly stronger for men, who also reported higher rates of perceived child stress. Results suggest that fathers’ depression symptoms and associated spill-over to perceived child stress is producing stronger effects on their parenting experiences than effects reported by mothers.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.