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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 764
Postpartum women’s psychological experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic: a modified recurrent cross-sectional thematic analysis

Leanne Jackson; Leonardo De Pascalis; Joanne A. Harrold (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

COVID-19 has placed additional stressors on mothers during an already vulnerable lifecourse transition. Initial social distancing restrictions (Timepoint 1; T1) and initial changes to those social distancing restrictions (Timepoint 2; T2) have disrupted postpartum access to practical and emotional support. This qualitative study explores the postpartum psychological experiences of UK women during different phases of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated ‘lockdowns’. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 women, approximately 30 days after initial social distancing guidelines were imposed in the UK (22 April 2020). A separate 12 women were interviewed approximately 30 days after the initial easing of social distancing restrictions (10 June 2020). Data were transcribed verbatim, uploaded into NVivo for management and analysis, which followed a recurrent cross-sectional approach to thematic analysis.

The COVID-19 pandemic: a longitudinal study on the emotional-behavioral sequelae for children and adolescents with neuropsychiatric disorders and their families

Alessia Raffagnato; Sara Iannattone; Benedetta Tascini (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
This study aimed to investigate the immediate and short-term impact of the pandemic on the psychological well-being of Italian children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders and their families. Overall, 56 patients aged 6–18 (M = 13.4 years, SD = 2.77) and their parents were evaluated during the COVID-19 lockdown (T0) and after 4 months (T1). An ad hoc data sheet, Youth Self-Report 11–18 (YSR), Child Behavior Checklist 6–18 (CBCL), and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) were administered. Patients, mainly suffering from internalizing disorders, overall demonstrated a good adaptation to the pandemic context. Moreover, patients with behavioral disorders showed a greater psychological discomfort at both T0 and T1 compared to patients with internalizing disorders.
Severe social anxiety among adolescents during COVID-19 lockdown

Mohamad H. Itani; Ekram Eltannir; Hayat Tinawi (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Patient Experience
This research aims to study the prevalence of severe social anxiety (SSA) among a group of adolescents during the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A total of 178 adolescents attending the private clinics of the authors were screened online for the presence of SSA, by using the self-reporting format of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for children and adolescents (LSAS-CA). SSA defined as LSAS-CA scores of 80 or more was checked for statistical association with the adolescents’ sociodemographic data and knowledge about the COVID-19 infection. The 18% of our participants had SSA, no correlation was found between having SSA and ä acknowledging or fearing the COVID-19 morbidity. Factors associated with SSA included texting, using social media, and playing video games during the lockdown. Mitigating factors include high family socioeconomic status, history of socialization with friends, and the use of WhatsApp as a source of information about COVID-19 infection.
Brief report: A cross-sectional study of anxiety levels and concerns of Chinese families of children with special educational needs and disabilities post-first-wave of COVID-19

Xueyun Su; Ru Ying Cai; Mirko Uljarević (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry
The COVID-19 pandemic has a multifaceted impact on mental health due to ill health, restrictions and lockdowns, and loss of employment and institutional support. COVID-19 may disproportionally impact families with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) due to the already higher prevalence of mental health conditions in children with SEND and their parents. Therefore, it is essential to determine the short-term impact of the pandemic on the mental health of families with SEND in order to identify their ongoing health support needs. The current study aims to examine the anxiety level and concerns of children with SEND and their parents living in China. The sample consisted of 271 parents of children with SEND aged between 6 and 17 years (Mage = 8.37; SDage = 2.76). Parents completed an online survey between 10 April to 8 June 2020. Both child and parental anxiety levels and various concerns increased after the initial wave of COVID-19 when compared with retrospective pre-COVID-19 levels. Parental anxiety and concern levels were significantly higher for those living in rural areas compared to urban areas. In addition, parental and child anxiety and concern levels were significantly correlated with each other. Parental anxiety at the lowest level made a unique and significant statistical contribution to children's anxiety levels. The implications of the study findings are discussed.
Depression in pregnant women with and without COVID-19

Alissa Papadopoulos; Emily S. Nichols; Yalda Mohsenzadeh (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: BJPsych Open
Evidence suggests that pregnant women who test positive for COVID-19 may develop more severe illness than non-pregnant women and may be at greater risk for psychological distress. The relationship between COVID-19 status (positive, negative, never tested) and symptoms of depression was examined in a survey study (May to September 2020) of pregnant women (n = 869). Pregnant women who reported testing positive for COVID-19 were significantly more likely to report depressive symptoms compared with women who tested negative (P = 0.027) and women who were never tested (P = 0.005). Findings indicate that pregnant women who test positive for COVID-19 should be screened and monitored for depressive symptoms.
Mediation of mothers’ anxiety and parenting in children’s behavior problems during COVID-19

Keren Hanetz-Gamliel; Sigal Levy; Daphna G. Dollberg

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Child and Family Studies
The outbreak of COVID-19 is affecting the lives of millions of families around the world. The current study was carried out in Israel, following the pandemic’s initial outbreak and during the resulting enforced quarantine, confining parents and children to their homes. A sample of 141 Israeli mothers with at least one child between the ages of 3 and 12 (M = 6.92, SD = 2.55) participated as volunteers. About half the sample (50.7%) consisted of girls. Most mothers were cohabiting with a spouse (93%). Mothers completed online questionnaires about their perceptions about the health and economic threats of COVID-19, availability of social support, their anxiety symptoms, hostile/coercive and supportive/engaged parenting behavior, and their children’s behavior problems.
Latent profile of internet and internet game usage among South Korean adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Dongil Kim; Junwon Lee; JeeEun Karin Nam

Published: September 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

Globally, more people are spending time on the Internet and gaming since the outbreak of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Consequently, concerns about developing behavioral addiction of adolescents have been raised. Such risk could be greater for adolescents in South Korea where the majority of adolescents have access to the Internet and own a smartphone. In fact, statistics indicate that Korean youths are spending significantly more time on the Internet and gaming during the COVID-19 pandemic. Previous studies on the patterns of time spent on the Internet and Internet gaming show inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to investigate the latent profiles of the Internet and Internet game usage among adolescents in South Korea. Data from a national survey on elementary and middle school students across South Korea were used. The sample consists of 3,149 respondents, and 2,984 responses were analyzed after removing missing responses. Latent profile analysis was performed to investigate the number of latent profiles for the Internet and Internet game usage time. To validate the profiles, differences in problematic gaming behavior, sex, and neuroticism were examined.

Adolescent emotion scale for online lessons: a study from Turkey

M. Betul Yilmaz; Feza Orhan; S. Gonca Zeren

Published: September 2021   Journal: Education and Information Technologies
People’s day-to-day routines have changed drastically since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. One of the changes to take place has been the transition to online learning due to the changing conditions in learning environments. One of the factors that guide students through learning environments is their emotions. The few existing scales that measure the emotions of adolescents in learning environments have been developed with consideration of face-to-face learning environments and their items do not adequately express the state of online environments. For this reason, this study aimed to develop a scale which reveals the emotions of adolescents that may affect their academic success with regard to this transition of learning environments as they attend online lessons.
Lessons from lockdown: parent perspectives on home-learning mathematics during COVID-19 lockdown

Lisa Darragh; Nike Franke

Published: September 2021   Journal: International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education
During the COVID-19 pandemic, many parents suddenly had to assume responsibility for their children’s learning at home. Research conducted before the pandemic showed that mathematics homework is often unsuccessful or stressful for both parents and children and that tension exists between home and school in the learning of mathematics. Understanding parents’ experience of home-learning mathematics during lockdown has implications for positive learning relationships between home and school in the future. During the lockdown, we sent an online survey to New Zealand parents and received 634 responses. We found that parents were generally very engaged in the home learning of mathematics. They reported a range of opinions about the quality of mathematics work and teacher support, and there was a correlation between general stress levels and negative opinions. To further support their child’s mathematics learning, many parents turned to online mathematics programs, about which they were very positive.
COVID-19 conversations: A qualitative study of majority Hispanic/Latinx youth experiences during early stages of the pandemic

L. Cortés-García; J. Hernández Ortiz; N. Asim (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Child & Youth Care Forum

Growing evidence informs about the detrimental impact that COVID-19 has had on youths’ mental health and well-being. As of yet, no study has directly examined the experiences and perspectives of children and young adolescents from racial and ethnic minority groups in the U.S., despite being exposed to more adversity, which may affect coping with the many challenges posed by the pandemic. This study aimed to give voice to a mostly Hispanic/Latinx group of youth regarding the impact of COVID-19 stay-at-home measures and to identify their emotional responses and coping strategies amid the pandemic in the U.S. when restrictions were at their hardest.

Associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with child mental well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic

Amanda S. Gilbert; Laurel Schmidt; Alan Beck (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: BMC Public Health

The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in public health and policy measures to reduce in-person contact and the transmission of the virus. These measures impacted daily life and mental well-being (MWB). The aims of this study were to explore the MWB impacts of COVID-19 on children and assess the associations among perceived changes in physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB), with perceived MWB changes, using a mixed-methods approach. A convergent parallel mixed-methods design consisting of an online survey with a convenience sample and interviews was conducted from May through July 2020 with parents/caregivers of kindergarten through 5th graders in the St. Louis region. Survey domains assessed included child MWB, PA, and SB. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed using a code book developed to elicit themes. Survey data was analyzed with chi-squared tests and logistic regressions. The dependent variable was perceived change in child MWB due to the impact of COVID-19. Independent variables included perceived changes in PA, SB, and child concerns about COVID-19.

The psychological impact of COVID-19 quarantine on children, and the role of parental support and physical environment design

Mais M. Aljunaidy; Mohamad Nadim Adi

Published: September 2021   Journal: Discover Psychology
Coronavirus disease 2019 is a contagious infection that caused a global lockdown and affected children who needed to stay home. There is a lack of knowledge about the role of parental stress and physical environment design on children’s mental wellbeing in quarantine. This study hypothesis that COVID-19 quarantine affected child mental health, and that paternal stress or support, and child physical environment including household space, colors, sunlight exposure, and natural views, impacted child mental wellbeing in the quarantine. To assess the effect of quarantine on a child’s mental health, an online survey was administered globally through scientific organizations and social media. Those over 18 years old, and guardians of children were asked to participate in the survey. The survey was filled by 114 guardians from 31 countries. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data.
‘We have been in lockdown since he was born’: a mixed methods exploration of the experiences of families caring for children with intellectual disability during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK

Jeanne Wolstencroft; Laura Hull; Lauren Warner (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: BMJ Open

This study aimed to explore the experiences of parents caring for children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) during the UK national lockdown in spring 2020, resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were identified using opportunity sampling from the IMAGINE-ID national (UK) cohort and completed an online survey followed by a semistructured interview. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Interviews were conducted over the telephone in July 2020 as the first UK lockdown was ending. 23 mothers of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities aged 5–15 years were recruited.

Effect of knowledge acquisition on gravida’s anxiety during COVID-19

Ying Huang; Weiwei Bian; Yingting Han

Published: September 2021   Journal: Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare

Pregnant women in China are among those most affected by COVID-19. This article assesses Chinese pregnant women’s COVID-19 and pregnancy knowledge levels, including the modality through which such knowledge was acquired, the degree of difficulty in acquiring the knowledge, the means of confirming the accuracy of the knowledge, and difficulties in seeking help from people who possess relevant medical knowledge. The Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test was used to assess trends in binomial proportions. Multivariable binary logistic regression was performed to identify the association between knowledge acquisition and anxiety among pregnant women.

Being in the shadow of the unknown — Swedish women’s lived experiences of pregnancy during the COVID-19 pandemic, a phenomenological study

Karolina Linden; Nimmi Domgren; Mehreen Zaigham (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Women and Birth

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound effect on the emotional well-being of expecting mothers. Sweden’s unique strategy for managing COVID-19 involved no national lockdown. Emphasis was instead placed on limiting crowding and asking citizens to practice social distancing measures.This study aimed to gain a deeper understanding of how women not infected by SARS-CoV-2 experienced pregnancy during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden. This was a qualitative study with a reflective lifeworld approach. Fourteen women that had not contracted COVID-19 and who were pregnant during the first and second wave of the pandemic were interviewed. Data were analysed with a phenomenological reflective lifeworld approach.

31 - 45 of 764

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.