search advanced search
UNICEF Innocenti
Office of Research-Innocenti
search menu

Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

RESULTS:   45     SORT BY:


Select one or more filter options and click search below.

UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
Open Access
1 - 15 of 45
Home participation, support and barriers among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

Ozgun Kaya Kara; Hasan Atacan Tonak; Koray Kara (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Public Health

Few studies have focused on the participation of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in daily routine and leisure activities. This study aimed to compare the participation, support and barriers for children with ADHD at home pre-COVID-19 and during the COVID-19 outbreak. The study included 55 children with ADHD aged 6–11 years. Participation frequency, involvement, desire for change, supports and barriers at home were assessed using the Participation and Environment Measure for Children and Youth (PEM-CY).

Promoting physical activity participation and nutrition education through a telehealth intervention for children on the autism spectrum and their caregivers

Leah R. Ketcheson; E. Andrew Pitchford

Published: July 2021   Journal: Contemporary Clinical Trials
There is growing empirical support which suggests children on the autism spectrum, as well as their caregivers experience significant health disparities. The global COVID-19 pandemic has only magnified the need to address health among vulnerable populations. While there has been a growing trend in the delivery of telehealth interventions, the delivery of such methods for children on the autism spectrum, and their caregivers remains relatively under examined. The primary goal of PLANE (Physical Literacy And Nutrition Education) is to promote positive trajectories of health for children on the autism spectrum and their primary caregivers through the delivery of a telehealth physical activity and nutrition education program. The study is a pre-experimental analysis of PLANE across 12 months.
Quality of life and its relationship to maternal experience and resilience during COVID-19 lockdown in children with specific learning disabilities

Erika Benassi; Arianna Bello; Michela Camia (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: European Journal of Special Needs Education
Children with special needs have encountered many challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, no studies have focused on the Quality of life (QoL) of children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD). This study aimed first to examine the physical, emotional and school dimensions of QoL in a group of primary school children with SpLD. The second goal was to investigate the extent to which the experience and resilience of their mothers were related to the children’s QoL. The sample included 35 children with SpLD and 85 typically developing (TD) children, and their mothers. Three standardised questionnaires were filled in by the mothers. The findings showed that, compared to TD children, those with SpLD reported worse physical health, learning processes and school-related emotional health. Relative to the TD group, the mothers of the children with SpLD experienced more negative emotions and concern towards their children’s difficulties, where these closely correlated with the children’s QoL. Maternal resilience appeared crucial to the emotional health of these children.
Feasibility and acceptability of a synchronous online parent-mediated early intervention for children with autism in a low resource setting during COVID-19 pandemic

Koyeli Sengupta; Aakankshi Javeri; Cristabelle Mascarenhas (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: International Journal of Disability, Development and Education
Very few studies exist on tele-health models of parent-mediated interventions delivered in low resource developing countries. The global COVID-19 pandemic catalysed a pilot of an online delivery of an evidence-based parent-mediated intervention (Project ImPACT) for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Mumbai, India. Context and culture-specific adaptations were made in program structure and a mixed-methods approach was adopted to evaluate acceptability, feasibility and preliminary efficacy of this model. Quantitative results (n = 12) showed excellent completion rates, with significant improvement in parent fidelity to intervention and child social-communication skills. Analysis of qualitative data from focus groups with parents on completion revealed that parents found the online mode convenient and acceptable, found the synchronous model of sessions especially beneficial and perceived improvements in their own parenting skills and children’s developmental profiles.
Behavioral affect in children with autism spectrum disorder during school closures due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan: a case-controlled study

Rie Hosokawa; Kentaro Kawabe; Kiwamu Nakachi (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Developmental Neuropsychology
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) could experience more stress due to the changes consequent to school closures because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study investigated differences in behavioral affect between children with ASD and typically developing children (TD). An online survey with mothers was conducted. The data of 84 children with ASD and 361 TD children aged 6 to 18 years were analyzed. Children with ASD were more frustrated due to the changes in their schedule and engaged more in restricted and repetitive behavior. Children with ASD had different types of behavioral affect compared to TD.
Parent-reported social-communication changes in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK

Phoebe O. Morris; Edward Hope; Tom Foulsham (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: International Journal of Developmental Disabilities
The coronavirus pandemic has swept across the United Kingdom (UK). Given the ever-evolving situation, little is known about the repercussions of coronavirus and the subsequent lockdowns for children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Therefore, this study explores the social-communicative impact of the first lockdown (March 2020 – July 2020) in the UK and the return to school period (September 2020 – October 2020), following prolonged disruption to routine, in children diagnosed with ASD. Parents of autistic children completed 2 separate online surveys following the first lockdown in the UK (n = 176) and also when children returned to school following the summer break (n = 54).
A nonrandomized trial of a behavioral parent training intervention for parents with children with challenging behaviors: In-person versus internet-HOT DOCS

Heather Agazzi; Holland Hayford; Nicholas Thomas (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Behavioral parent training (BPT) programs are the first-line interventions for childhood disruptive behaviors. In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, adapting these programs to telehealth modalities is necessary to ensure continued services to children and families. This study evaluates the use of telehealth versus in-person modality to deliver the Helping Our Toddlers, Developing Our Children’s Skills (HOT DOCS) BPT. The study design was quasi-experimental with two nonequivalent groups: in-person HOT DOCS (n = 152) and internet-HOT DOCS (n = 46). Participants were caregivers of children ages 2–5 exhibiting disruptive behaviors. Pre- and post-intervention outcome measures were collected for child disruptive behavior and parenting stress and post-test only for consumer satisfaction.
Psychological impact of COVID-19 outbreak on families of children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing peers: an online survey

Annalisa Levante; Serena Petrocchi; Federica Bianco (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Brain Sciences
When COVID-19 was declared as a pandemic, many countries imposed severe lockdowns that changed families’ routines and negatively impacted on parents’ and children’s mental health. Several studies on families with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) revealed that lockdown increased the difficulties faced by individuals with ASD, as well as parental distress. No studies have analyzed the interplay between parental distress, children’s emotional responses, and adaptive behaviors in children with ASD considering the period of the mandatory lockdown.
Impact of School Closures due to COVID-19 on Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Japan

Naomi Kawaoka; Kei Ohashi; Satomi Fukuhara (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
In March 2020, many schools were closed to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in Japan, and it is predicted that many children, especially those with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), will be affected emotionally and behaviorally. This study examined the impact of school closures due to COVID-19 on school-aged children with NDDs using the Child Behavior Checklist. Totally, data on 121 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and/or intellectual disorder were analyzed and it was found that externalizing and aggressive behavior increased in all NDDs, regardless of the type of diagnosis. A clear prospect is important for children with NDDs children to lead a stable life, and more generous supports for children with NDDs and their families are needed.
Experiences of mothers caring for a child with an intellectual disability during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Netherlands

P. Embregts; L. Heerkens; N. Frielink (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research
During the first COVID-19 lockdown period, various restrictions led to diminished access to both educational and professional support systems for children with an intellectual disability and their families. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and needs of parents caring for a child with an intellectual disability during the first lockdown period in the Netherlands.
COVID-19 and behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder: disparities by income and food security status

Anita A. Panjwania; Regan L. Bailey; Bridgette L.

Published: June 2021   Journal: Research in Developmental Disabilities

Research on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is lacking. This study investigates the relationship between COVID-19 and behaviors of children with ASD living in the United States.

Inclusive education for students with disabilities in the global COVID-19 outbreak emergency: some facts and thoughts from China

Lishuai Jia; Marina Santi

Published: May 2021   Journal: Disability & Society
The outbreak of COVID-19 has globally affected many countries and territories. Among COVID-19 influences, the education sector is really becoming an area of public concern. According to UNESCO report, due to COVID-19 more than 1 billion students were affected by school closures in 106 countries. Among that large number of students, students with disabilities need to be given specific attention as they tend to have fewer educational opportunities outside school because of various barriers. Take China as an example, the current study considers there are four challenges that inclusive education for students with disabilities are facing during the pandemic: education policy design lacks a disability perspective; technology offered is not accessible; mainstream schools overlook the responsibility for educating students with disabilities, and parents of students with disabilities are unprepared for distance and home-schooling. The experiences of some related stakeholders being affected by COVID-19 are shared in the article.
Those in the shadow of the pandemic: impacts of the COVID-19 outbreak on the mental health of children with neurodevelopmental disorders and their parents

Baris Guller; Ferhat Yaylaci; Damla Eyuboglu

Published: May 2021   Journal: International Journal of Developmental Disabilities
This study aimed to investigate the emotional and behavioral responses of children with neurodevelopmental disorders and their parents during the recent novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and the associated factors. Our study included 299 children and adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders and 299 mothers or fathers. Participant groups were as follows: autism spectrum disorder (n = 131, 43.8%); intellectual disability (n = 103, 34.4%); specific learning disorder (n = 46, 15.4%); and communication disorder (n = 19, 6.4%).
Parental views of families of children with autism spectrum disorder and developmental disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic

Bekir Fatih Meral

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
The COVID-19 pandemic, the infection caused by the novel coronavirus detected in December 2019 by World Health Organization (WHO), has detrimentally impacted human life in a variety of areas. Many concepts including outbreak, pandemic, and quarantine have been an inseparable part of our lives. This kind of dialectic change naturally afects persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and developmental disorders (DD) and their families. The present study using a mixed-method evaluation aims to reveal the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the family functioning of children specifcally with ASD in Turkey. This study promises a holistic understanding of how the lockdown depending on the COVID -19 pandemic afects families and their children with ASD with positive and negative sides
Exploring Turkish parents’ lived experiences on online science lessons of their children with mild intellectual disability amid the COVID-19 pandemic

Derya Yarımkaya; Ufuk Töman

Published: May 2021   Journal: International Journal of Developmental Disabilities

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore Turkish parents’ lived experiences on online science lessons of their children with mild intellectual disability amid COVID-19 pandemic. This study used the phenomenological qualitative research design. Participants in this study were 16 parents, who have children with mild intellectual disability and participated in one-on-one semi-structured phone calls. Interview data were thematically analyzed.

1 - 15 of 45

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Read the latest quarterly digest on children and youth mental health under COVID-19.

Subscribe to updates on new research about COVID-19 & children



facebook twitter linkedin google+ reddit print email
Campaign Campaign

COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.