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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 210
Sleep in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities during COVID-19: an integrative review

Rebecca Kronk; Inah Kim; David Nolfi

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Sleep issues occur at higher rates in children with neurodevelopmental disorders than in the typical population. Little is known about the impact of COVID-19 on sleep issues in this population. This integrative review aimed to characterize studies during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020–2022) addressing the prevalence and management of sleep issues in children and youth with neurodevelopmental disorders. Comprehensive database searches were used to identify articles, and 31 studies were considered suitable for this review.
The associations between accelerometer-measured physical activity levels and mental health in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic

Wen Yang; Ming Hui Li; Jane Jie Yu (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
This study aims to examine the associations between physical activity (PA) levels and mental health in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (IDs) during the COVID-19 pandemic, 117 participants aged between 6 and 17 years with IDs from 10 Hong Kong special schools were included. There were positive dose–response associations between PA (i.e., light PA, moderate PA, and vigorous PA) and mental health, and participants with higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and self-concept (SC) had better social quality of life (QoL) than those with lower levels of MVPA and SC. Moreover, personal and environmental factors such as age, body mass index, school, sex, ID level, and parental education level influenced the PA levels and QoL in children and adolescents with IDs.
Internet-based parent training with telephone coaching on managing disruptive behavior in children during The COVID-19 pandemic

Saana Sourander; Andre Sourander; Susanna Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: JMIR Pediatrics and Parenting

There is growing concern about the short- and long-term impacts that the COVID-19 pandemic will have on the mental health and psychosocial well-being of children and families. There are no existing studies about feasibility and outcomes using internet-based parent training programs with telephone coaching for disruptive behavioral problems in childhood during the COVID-19 pandemic in clinical settings.  This study explored how the Strongest Families Smart Website (SFSW) parent training program, with telephone coaching, provided support during the COVID-19 pandemic at specialist family counseling centers in Helsinki, Finland, when restrictions made face-to-face counseling impossible. This study followed the success of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and its implementation study of the SFSW parent training program by primary care child health clinics. The aim was to improve parenting skills, so that parents could tackle disruptive behavior by developing positive parent-child relationships. It started in May 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic was at its height in Finland.

Resilience, and positive parenting in parents of children with syndromic autism and intellectual disability. Evidence from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on family's quality of life and parent-child relationships

Corneliu Bolbocean; Kayla B. Rhidenour; Maria McCormack (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Autism Research
Family quality of life (FQoL) outcomes collected during the first year of COVID-19 has been combined with 2018 data to estimate the outbreak's impact on parental outcomes on a sample of 230 families with syndromic autistic children and those with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Despite challenges imposed by the COVID-19 outbreak, this study found that FQoL outcomes reported by participating parents during the first year of COVID-19 appears to be similar to ratings from a prepandemic study of families with the same conditions. Parents of children in our sample generally displayed a stable functioning trajectory as measured by the validated FQoL instrument.
Relationship between children with neurodevelopmental disorders and their caregivers and friends during early phase of COVID-19 school closure in Japan: association with difficulty in implementing infection prevention measures

Tomoka Yamamoto; Sanae Tanaka; Arika Yoshizaki (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic people had to implement various infection prevention measures. Researchers have reported the difficulties experienced by children with neurodevelopmental disorders in implementing these measures and their caregivers’ resultant anxiety and stress. This study examined the relationship between these difficulties and the deterioration of the children’s relationships with their caregivers and friends during school closure and after school reopened. A total of 150 caregivers of children with neurodevelopmental disorders answered a questionnaire asking about parent‒child relationships, their child’s friendships, and the presence or absence of difficulty in implementing infection prevention measures at three time points: before the pandemic, while schools were closed, and after school reopened. The frequency and percentages of the child’s behavioral problems, deterioration in their relationships, and difficulty implementing infection control measures were calculated. Using the relationship deterioration scores, independent and multiple regression analyses were performed for the presence or absence of difficulty implementing infection control measures, presence or absence of caregivers’ mental health concerns, and the presence or absence of deterioration of one or more problematic behaviors.

Parents/primary caregivers' perspectives on the well-being, and home-based learning of children with neurodevelopmental disorders during COVID-19 in Bangladesh

Sonia Islam Nisha; Fariea Bakul

Published: October 2022   Journal: International Journal of Developmental Disabilities

The coronavirus pandemic (CP) leading to prolonged lockdown, and restriction of movement for almost two years in Bangladesh severely affected not only the well-being (physical and mental health) of both children and adults but also their access to home-based learning. The present study aimed to explore the mental, and physical health problems of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), their use of telehealth services, and the status of their home-based learning by asking questions to their parents/primary caregivers (N = 149) during the second year of lockdown (November and December 2021). The present study was a cross-sectional self-reported survey covering as many parents/primary caregivers as possible within Bangladesh. The survey questions were selected from a larger study by Masi et al. named ‘COVID-19 impact survey’ with permission. A total of 149 parents/primary caregivers with one or more children (mean age = 5.54) having any of the NDDs took part in the survey. Data were collected via physical sitting, telephone interview, and anonymous Google form.

The difference in the quality of life of Korean children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder between before and after COVID-19

Jung-Hoon Lee; Seri Maeng; Jeong-Seop Lee (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
This study aimed to compare the quality of life (QoL) of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) before and during coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and to examine how their QoL is affected by emotional and environmental factors during COVID-19.  Participants in the pre-COVID-19 (n=43) and COVID-19 (n=36) groups were recruited from the same university hospital. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 4.0 Child Self-report, the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS), the PedsQL 4.0 Parent Proxy Report, and the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) were employed. Independent t-tests, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were conducted.
Parental perceptions of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the sleep of children with neurodevelopmental disorders

Alex Pizzo; Elizabeth Keys; Penny Corkum

Published: September 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Little is known about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on sleep in schoolaged children with neurodevelopmental disorders. This study aimed to (1) determine and describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and (2) identify and describe contributing factors. Parents of children with neurodevelopmental disorders and insomnia symptoms (n = 100) were surveyed to determine if their child's sleep had changed because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Parents who reported changes were asked to describe how the pandemic influenced their child's sleep.
Exploring home-based learning by using mobile for children with autism during Covid-19 pandemic

Muhamad Fairus Kamaruzaman; Faizah Abdul Majid; Nurshamshida Md Shamsudin (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal

Educating children with autism is a big responsibility for special education teachers and parents. Since the Covid-19 pandemic hit Malaysia, the learning approach has been shifted to virtual learning. The use of education technology has gained state-of-the-art research interest in children with autism, especially in the context of mobile learning. This study will examine how mobile learning could assist children with autism in coping with their daily routine study during the pandemic era. Instructors, teachers, and parents of children with autism may find the findings useful as one of their references in determining their teaching aids and strategies.

COVID-19 pandemic and autism spectrum disorder, consequences to children and adolescents — a systematic review

Janise Dal Pai; Cecília Gatti Wolff; Carolina Siciliani Aranchipe (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
This systematic review aimed to identify the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children/adolescents with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The protocol was registered on PROSPERO CRD42021255848. Articles were selected from PubMed, Embase, and LILACS according to these characteristics: patients from zero to 18 years old, exposed to the COVID-19 pandemic, impact on social communication/interaction and restricted/repetitive behavior domains. The Newcastle–Ottawa Scale was used to assess methodological quality and the risk of bias. Of the 351 articles initially identified, 26 were finally included with information on 8,610 patients. Although the studies were heterogeneous, they indicated that the pandemic-related issues experienced by patients with ASD were mostly manifested in their behavior and sleep patterns.
Parental perceptions of service access for transition-aged youth with autism during COVID-19

Meghan M. Burke; W. Catherine Cheung; Chak Li (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Services are critical for youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), especially during the transition to adulthood. Under the best of circumstances, though, it can be difficult to access needed adult services. With COVID-19, services were more difficult to obtain and retain. In this study, we explored parent perceptions of accessing new services and maintaining current services during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Structured interviews were conducted with 65 parents of transition-aged youth (aged 16–26) with ASD living in three states (IL, TN, and WI) in the United States. None of the participants reported receiving new services during the pandemic, and many struggled to access services via online applications. In addition, participants reported that service suspensions and changes in modality (e.g., from in-person to telehealth) were spearheaded by professionals and not families. Participants, especially those in TN, were more likely to pay out-of-pocket for services during the COVID-19 pandemic to compensate for service disruptions. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Mental health impact of COVID-19 on Saudi families and children with special educational needs and disabilities in Saudi Arabia: a national perspective

Shuliweeh Alenezi; Mohamad-Hani Temsah; Ahmed S. Alyahya (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

The COVID-19 pandemic revealed a multidimensional impact on mental health due to health concerns, social distancing and lockdowns, job loss, and limits in institutional support. Accordingly, COVID-19 may disproportionally impact families with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) due to the already high prevalence of mental health conditions in children with SEND and their parents. Hence, it is essential to determine the short-term impact of the pandemic on the mental health of families with SEND to identify their ongoing health, including psychological wellbeing and support needs. The current study examines the anxiety level and concerns of children with SEND and their parents living in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional national study design was utilized as a part of an international consortium using an online Arabic survey. Data were collected from the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Development beneficiaries from May to July 2020. The sample consisted of 1,848 parents of children with SEND aged between 1 and 18 years (mean = 9.66; SD = 4.31). A descriptive and bivariant analysis is reported.

Managing autism spectrum disorder in the face of pandemic using internet-based parent-mediated interventions: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

Iyus Yosep; Stephanie Amabella Prayogo; Kelvin Kohar (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Children
ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is primarily treated with psychosocial intervention. However, it is costly and requires extensive resources to be effective. This inaccessibility is also further worsened by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, making the shift to a digital approach a sensible option. Among the available ASD therapies, parent-mediated interventions (PMIs) have a broad application and lower implementation cost. Hence, this systematic review aims to evaluate the potential that telehealth-based PMI holds and explore its feasibility throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. To build up this study, a systematic search through PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, Wiley, and Cochrane was performed until 14 January 2021. Using the preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines, we ultimately included six studies in the review. Each study was evaluated utilizing the Cochrane Risk of Bias (ROB)-2 tool. Generally, parents’ outcomes (knowledge, satisfaction, and compliance) were higher in intervention group (E-learning) compared to control (standard treatment or wait-list).
Video-based screening for children with suspected autism spectrum disorders - experience during the COVID-19 pandemic in India

Archana Kadam; Isha Godiwal Soni; Sandeep Kadam (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders

Assessments for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) must adapt to the current COVID-19 pandemic through innovation in screening and assessment strategies using technology. To our knowledge there are no such studies reported from India. This study aimed to study the predictive ability of video-based screening tool with definitive diagnosis in children with ASD. Thirty-nine children were screened independently by two examiners with a video-based screening tool to start intervention followed by an in-person evaluation by clinical DSM-5 diagnosis three months later.

Challenges of parents with children with intellectual and neurodevelopmental disorders during COVID-19: experiences and their impact on mental health

Elisa Kaltenbach; Ting Xiong; Donna Thomson (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability

Parents of children with intellectual and neurodevelopmental disorders are a highly burdened group that faces additional challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, parents of children with intellectual and neurodevelopmental disorders (N = 600) living in Canada participated in a cross-sectional online survey.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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