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International labour migration has become a crucial part of the Nepali society. The number of youths leaving the country for employment is significantly high, with around half a million people taking labour permits every year. Lack of economic opportunities within the country is cited as one of the major reasons for seeking foreign employment. The government has planned to create employment opportunities in the country so that international labour migration can become a choice than compulsion. COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on Nepali migrant workers, who have been key contributors to the socioeconomic development of Nepal. During the migration cycle and upon return, migrant workers continue to face vulnerabilities and challenges to fully reintegrate back in their home communities due to their migration experiences. This study attempts to map the services that are available and directly or indirectly contribute to sustainable reintegration of returnee migrant workers. The research has identified good practices, gaps, challenges and has recommended a way ahead that can be a departure point for addressing the gaps surfaced for a sustainable reintegration.
Cambodia has seen an increasing trend in migration over the last two decades pushed by better job prospects abroad and closer bilateral cooperation with neighbouring countries. Migrants make immense contribution to the Cambodian economy through regular remittances sent home and by enriching the labour market with skills picked up from abroad. Women are almost equal contributors of these benefits, yet they face disproportionate challenges in their migration journey and when they return. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the urgent need for an effective reintegration plan to help women transition into their local environment as a starting point in economically empowering them. The main objective of this literature review is to examine the current research materials available and identify key industries and micro, small- and medium-sized enterprises in Cambodia that can potentially provide employment and income-generating opportunities to low or unskilled female migrant workers in a post-COVID-19 environment. The report details the profile and demographics of Cambodian migrant women to design intervention efforts for their economic empowerment. The recommendations put forward in this report call for an effective reintegration path and creation of an enabling environment for migrant women to be economically empowered.
Marie McAuliffe; Anna Triandafyllidou
Since 2000, IOM has been producing its flagship world migration reports every two years. The World Migration Report 2022, the eleventh in the world migration report series, has been produced to contribute to increased understanding of migration and mobility throughout the world. This new edition presents key data and information on migration as well as thematic chapters on highly topical migration issues, and is structured to focus on two key contributions for readers: Part I: key information on migration and migrants (including migration-related statistics); and Part II: balanced, evidence-based analysis of complex and emerging migration issues. This flagship World Migration Report has been produced in line with IOM’s Environment Policy and is available online only. Printed hard copies have not been made in order to reduce paper, printing and transportation impacts.
The COVID-19 pandemic represents an enormous challenge for all countries due to its public health consequences and socio-economic effects on families. In this difficult context, the Latin America and the Caribbean region is facing the largest displacement in its recent history, with approximately 4.2 million Venezuelans now living in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Panama and Trinidad and Tobago. This migrant population faces various risks, whether linked to the migration process or their migratory status, or others that were aggravated by the health emergency. Their extreme vulnerability to the socioeconomic impacts of the measures adopted in response to COVID-19, given their overrepresentation in the informal sector of the economy, coupled with their low inclusion in social protection mechanisms, profoundly jeopardizes their welfare and compromises public health as well as the overall well-being of local populations. Faced with this scenario, social protection may play a fundamental role in reducing the vulnerabilities of migrants and in helping to mitigate the impact of the crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.
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