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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 168
Ethical responsibilities of European children’s teams facing the resurgent COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Anna Zanin; Enrico Furlan; Marek Migdal (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: European Journal of Pediatrics
The COrona VIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is posing an unprecedented challenge to healthcare systems around the globe. Europe has been struggling for 1 year now, and despite some encouraging progress (above all, the beginning of vaccination), the second wave is ongoing. Even though children are less affected than adults, the COVID-19 pandemic—and in particular the measures to counter it—is having a considerable impact on the paediatric healthcare setting. It is, therefore, the duty of paediatric teams in Europe to prepare for the challenges ahead. We wish to contribute to this necessary preparedness in two ways: firstly, by assessing the direct and indirect impact of the pandemic on children and on the paediatric setting; secondly, and more importantly, by identifying the various responsibilities of paediatric healthcare professionals, in light of established ethical principles.
YouTube's growth in use among children 0–5 during COVID19: the Occidental European case

AUTHOR(S)
Raquel Lozano-Blasco; Alberto Quilez-Robres; Diego Delgado-Bujedo (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Technology in Society
YouTube has become an educational and entertainment tool among Western European families, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study monitored the main channels for children aged 0–5 years by using the social media analysis (SNA) methodology from March 24, 2020 to August 24, 2020. The software used has been FanpageKarma, which allows the collection and interpretation of data. The results indicate not only a growth in the use of such channels during confinement, but also how their expansion is related to the evolution of the COVID-19, reflecting, in turn, the consequences of the government policies adopted. Social distancing generated a greater consumption of recreational content, but not a greater growth in educational content regardless of the country or culture.
Social network-based cohorting to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in secondary schools: a simulation study in classrooms of four European countries

AUTHOR(S)
Anna Karoline Kaiser; David Kretschmer; Lars Leszczensky

Published: July 2021   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Europe
Operating schools safely under pandemic conditions is a widespread policy goal. This study analyses the effectiveness of classroom cohorting, i.e., the decomposition of classrooms into smaller isolated units, in inhibiting the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in European secondary schools and compare different cohorting strategies. Using real-world network data on 12,291 adolescents collected in classrooms in England, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden in 2010/2011, it applys agent-based simulations to compare the effect of forming cohorts randomly to network-based cohorting. Network-based cohorting attempts to allocate out-of-school contacts to the same cohort to prevent cross-cohort infection more effectively.
The impact of COVID-19 on early childhood education in the Asia-Pacific and Sub-Saharan Africa: insights from the results of rapid regional personnel survey

AUTHOR(S)
Yoshie Kaga; Kyungah Bang

Institution: UNESCO
Published: July 2021

Declared a global pandemic on 11 March 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO), COVID-19 has had far-reaching impacts on every facet of life around the world, exacerbating pre-existing  inequalities  and  negatively  impacting  on  vulnerable  and  disadvantaged  populations  the  most.  Learning  continuity  has  been  disrupted  by  school  closures,  generating an unprecedented situation worldwide. According to UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) data collated in July 2020, over 18.6 million children in pre-primary education in forty-eight Sub-Saharan African countries and 4.4 million pre-primary teachers – eighty-five per cent of whom were women – in twenty-four countries in the Asia-Pacific region were affected by school or centre closures. Recognizing the possible severe and detrimental impact that COVID-19 might have on ECE personnel and their practices, UNESCO Bangkok and Dakar teamed up with several partners to undertake regional surveys in the Asia-Pacific and Sub-Saharan Africa from April to July 2020. Based on the regional surveys, this report features eight key findings and three key messages to better understand ECE personnel’s needs and to identify possible responses to support them.

Young children and the pandemic: UNICEF early childhood COVID-19 response in East Asia and the Pacific
Institution: *UNICEF
Published: July 2021

At the height of nationwide lockdowns due to the COVID-19 pandemic, more than 150 million children younger than 5 years in East Asia and the Pacific were affected. The pandemic brought service provision for young children in many of the 27 countries supported by UNICEF programmes that promote nurturing care and are essential to their optimal development to a standstill. Yet, even before the pandemic, more than 42 million children in the region were at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. Using the latest available evidence, this report summarizes the impact of the pandemic on services essential for young children’s development: For example, that the number of children younger than 5 years visiting community health centres in Viet Nam dropped by 48 per cent; that in Indonesia, more than 50 per cent of households reported not being able to meet their family’s nutritional needs; or that in the Philippines, more than 80 per cent of households experienced a decrease in their household income. Households facing disadvantages before COVID-19 – those with young children, those living in rural and remote areas and low-income households – are in most cases more disproportionally affected by the pandemic.

Unequal experience of COVID-induced remote schooling in four developing countries

AUTHOR(S)
Mobarak Hossain

Institution: Young Lives
Published: July 2021   Journal: International Journal of Educational Development
Lockdown measures during the pandemic have resulted in school closure worldwide affecting nearly 9 out of 10 students. Consequently, remote schooling has become a growing phenomenon. However, due to a lack of infrastructural capacity and widespread poverty, the experience of remote learning in developing countries may have been unequal by pupils’ socioeconomic status, gender and location. This study draws evidence from a phone survey conducted by Young Lives (YL) in Ethiopia, two states of India, Peru and Vietnam enquiring which sociodemographic groups are benefiting more from remote schooling.
Home schooling through online teaching in the era of COVID-19: Exploring the role of home-related factors that deepen educational inequalities across European societies

AUTHOR(S)
Kostas Dimopoulos; Christos Koutsampelas; Anna Tsatsaroni

Published: June 2021   Journal: European Educational Research Journal
The COVID-19 pandemic has forced governments worldwide to produce solutions to the abruptly interrupted work in education. School systems appear to have responded rapidly, creating home schooling and online educational environments, where teachers and students would interact with safety. In this paper, we attempt a synthesis of Sen’s capability approach, Bourdieu’s theory of capital and Bernstein’s framework in order to theorize the relationships between home and school conditions and practices, and to analyse the data of the 2nd Survey of Schools: ICT in Education (a survey conducted in 2019 on behalf of the European Commission collecting data regarding digitalization in education and digital technologies in learning in the European Union). The survey is complemented by a second set of indicators provided by Eurostat to further investigate the availability and functionality of household space per family in selected European countries.
Disruptions in maternal and child health service utilization during COVID-19: analysis from eight sub-Saharan African countries

AUTHOR(S)
Gil Shapira; Tashrik Ahmed; Salomé Henriette Paulette Drouard (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Health Policy and Planning
The coronavirus-19 pandemic and its secondary effects threaten the continuity of essential health services delivery, which may lead to worsened population health and a protracted public health crisis. We quantify such disruptions, focusing on maternal and child health, in eight sub-Saharan countries. Service volumes are extracted from administrative systems for 63 954 facilities in eight countries: Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Somalia. Using an interrupted time series design and an ordinary least squares regression model with facility-level fixed effects, we analyze data from January 2018 to February 2020 to predict what service utilization levels would have been in March–July 2020 in the absence of the pandemic, accounting for both secular trends and seasonality.
Cash and voucher assistance in response to the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Sani Dan Aoude

Institution: CARE
Published: June 2021
In April 2020, CARE received a five million dollar grant from MARS to implement a multi-country program, including Cote d’Ivoire, Ecuador, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Peru, Thailand, and Venezuela1, with the aim of reducing the negative impacts of COVID-19 on vulnerable populations, especially women and girls, using complementary and multimodal approaches. A key activity of this program was the provision of cash and voucher assistance (CVA) to vulnerable populations to meet their diverse basic needs. Program data indicated that CVA was implemented in Cote d’Ivoire, Ecuador, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, and Thailand.
Building a resilient generation in Central Asia and Europe
Institution: *UNICEF, European Training Foundation
Published: June 2021
What are the hopes, concerns, and expectations of young people in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ECA) about their futures and the role of education, social inclusion, and the environment? This UNICEF-ETF joint report brings youth voices, views, and sentiments from the ECA region as a contribution to the regional and global discussions on how to create better lifelong learning systems, more inclusive communities, and greener societies.
Troubled schools in troubled times: how COVID-19 affects educational inequalities and what measures can be taken

AUTHOR(S)
Julia Frohn

Published: June 2021   Journal: European Educational Research Journal
When discussing possible consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, it seems certain that the effects of the pandemic will most likely magnify existing educational disparities in Europe and around the world. However, so far, little is known about how the conditions and consequences of distance learning intensify existing dynamics of educational inequalities. This paper aims at answering the question of how educational disadvantages in socially deprived settings are exacerbated through the pandemic. On this basis, it reflects on potential educational practices that can help countering these dynamics. For this study, interviews with teachers in socio-economically disadvantaged (n = 12) and in privileged settings (n = 4) were conducted, transcribed and investigated through qualitative data analysis. The data were categorized with reference to Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of capital to analyze and systematize the empirical results. Finally, a case study from the interview material offers options for action that can counteract a possible worsening of educational disadvantages and help (re-)think school and teaching based on the experiences gained during the lockdown.
Improving clinical paediatric research and learning from COVID-19: recommendations by the Conect4Children expert advice group

AUTHOR(S)
Athimalaipet V. Ramanan; Neena Modi; Saskia N. de Wildt (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Pediatric Research

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating impact on multiple aspects of healthcare, but has also triggered new ways of working, stimulated novel approaches in clinical research and reinforced the value of previous innovations. Conect4children (c4c, www.conect4children.org) is a large collaborative European network to facilitate the development of new medicines for paediatric populations, and is made up of 35 academic and 10 industry partners from 20 European countries, more than 50 third parties, and around 500 affiliated partners. This study summarises aspects of clinical research in paediatrics stimulated and reinforced by COVID-19 that the Conect4children group recommends regulators, sponsors, and investigators retain for the future, to enhance the efficiency, reduce the cost and burden of medicines and non-interventional studies, and deliver research-equity.

Children’s pictures of COVID-19 and measures to mitigate its spread: An international qualitative study

AUTHOR(S)
Lucy Bray; Lucy Blake; Jo Protheroe (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Health Education Journal

This study aims to gain insight into children’s health-related knowledge and understanding of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) and COVID-19, and measures adopted to mitigate transmission. A child-centred qualitative creative element embedded in an online mixed-methods survey of children aged 7–12 years. Children participated in the study in six countries – the UK, Australia, Sweden, Brazil, Spain and Canada.

From the pandemic to the pan: the impact of COVID19 on parental inclusion of children in cooking activities – a cross-continental survey

AUTHOR(S)
Tony Benson; Blain Murphy; Amanda McCloat (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Public Health Nutrition

This study aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on time spent cooking and parental inclusion of children in cooking. A secondary aim was to investigate differences between those who frequently included their children in cooking activities during the COVID-19 pandemic and those that included their children less, on a number of factors such as working from home, parents’ diet quality and cooking skills confidence. Cross-continental survey with Wilcoxon signed ranks, Independent t-tests, Mann Whitney-U, Chi2, and a binomial logistic regression used for assessment.

Impact of COVID-19 on learning : evidence from six Sub-Saharan African countries

AUTHOR(S)
Hai-Anh Dang; Gbemisola Oseni; Alberto Zezza

Institution: The World Bank
Published: May 2021
The COVID-19 pandemic has wreaked havoc upon global learning, with many countries facing severe school disruptions and closures. An emerging literature based on household survey data points to the pandemic as having exacerbated inequalities in education and learning in countries from Italy to Denmark, the United Kingdom, and the United States. This brief offers new analysis on the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on learning outcomes for six sub-Saharan African countries. We analyze detailed householdlevel data from several rounds of panel phone surveys collected by the World Bank in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, and Uganda.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.