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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Social connection when physically isolated: family experiences in using video calls

Ilze Kacane; Maria Jose Hernández-Serrano

Published: January 2023   Journal: Open Cultural Studies
Digital (video) calls have become a significant tool during the challenging times marked by the COVID-19 pandemic. The article focuses on the perceived functionality of video calls for maintaining social contacts and overcoming loneliness in celebrating family festivities limited by physical distance policies. The qualitative study conducted at the end of 2021 in Latvia and Spain examines families’ cultural socialisation via digital tools and, based on data obtained from semi-structured in-depth interviews, assesses the users’ digital experiences in celebrating Christmas and the New Year from retrospective and prospective standpoints.
Searching for online information on the fit of children's footwear during the COVID-19 pandemic: an analysis of Google Trends data

Carina Price; Stewart Morrison; Michael Haley (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
Selecting footwear with appropriate fit in children is challenging due the changes with foot size and dimensions which occur throughout childhood. Access to appropriate footwear is important but recent challenges with the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in closure of retail stores for prolonged periods where parents/carers could not physically purchase footwear for their children and the footwear industry suffered disruption to their supply chain, and falls in retail sales. Simultaneously increased use of social media platforms for health information seeking throughout the pandemic have been documented. This likely would have included parents/carers seeking information online to support footwear purchases for their children. The primary aim of this work was to explore how searches for online fitting information for children changed throughout the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown periods. A secondary aim was to identify how searches were influenced by footwear style.
Analysis of the digital educational scenario in Italian high schools during the pandemic: challenges and emerging tools

Tiziana Guzzo; Maria Chiara Caschera; Fernando Ferri (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Sustainability
During the COVID-19 pandemic, educational institutions around the world were forced to move from face-to-face lessons to distance learning. The application of distance learning fostered the use of new tools and applications that impacted the school system and produced several challenges to be addressed. This paper provides an analysis of distance learning tools that have been used during COVID-19 in Italian schools and the related emerging needs and challenges. A quantitative survey was carried out by using a standardized online questionnaire that involved 420 Italian teachers of different ages, gender, and teaching areas. This survey collected information about experiences, opportunities, and challenges of distance learning, used tools, and students’ inclusion and involvement. In addition, this work analyses emerging technologies and how they can be integrated into distance learning tools to overcome the identified challenges.
"Mature enough to handle it?": gendered parental interventions in and adolescents' reactions to technology use during the pandemic

Hillary Steinberg; Stefanie Mollborn; Jennifer Pace

Published: January 2023   Journal: Journal of Family Issues
This study investigated how teenagers reacted to parental regulation of technology. Using longitudinal dyadic interviews with 24 teenagers and their 21 parents in two predominantly white middle-class communities, it explored how teenagers used technology during the COVID-19 pandemic and the differential consequences parental interventions had for teens’ well-being and confidence with technology. Parents’ narratives and actions about technology use were deeply gendered. Boys felt confident about their self-regulation of technology, and parents did not substantially limit boys’ technology use during the pandemic. Girls were less confident about their ability to self-regulate and either worked with their mothers to manage technology, distrusted parents who monitored them, or lacked access to virtual hangout spaces such as video games and social media.
Investigating how the interaction between individual and circumstantial determinants influence the emergence of digital poverty: a post-pandemic survey among families with children in England

Maria Laura Ruiu; Massimo Ragnedda; Felice Addeo (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Information, Communication & Society
This paper explores Digital Poverty (DP) in England by adopting the DP Alliance’s theoretical framework that includes both Individual Determinants (individual capability and motivation) and Circumstantial Determinants (conditions of action). Such a framework is interpreted as an expression of Strong Structuration Theory (SST), by situating the connection between social structure and human agency in an intertwined relationship. This study focuses on new potential vulnerabilities that are connected to DP in England by drawing on a survey conducted on a randomised stratified sample (n = 1988) of parents aged between 20–55 with children at school.
Effects of physical activity and use of digital devices on visual acuity in children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study

Xiao Zheng; Lei Shi; Weiyan Ou (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

To determine the association between poor visual acuity, the use of digital devices and physical activity (PA) during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 327,646 Chinese children and adolescents were included in the analysis using a cluster random sampling method; this is a case-control study, of those 144,708 children and adolescents with poor visual acuity were included in the case group, while 182,938 who did not have poor visual acuity were included in the control group. A logistic regression model was used to assess the contribution of PA and the use of digital devices to poor visual acuity.

The impact of smartphone use on learning effectiveness: a case study of primary school students

Jen Chun Wang; Chia-Yen Hsieh; Shih-Hao Kung

Published: November 2022   Journal: Education and Information Technologies
This study investigated the effects of smartphone use on the perceived academic performance of elementary school students. Following the derivation of four hypotheses from the literature, descriptive analysis, t testing, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson correlation analysis, and one-way multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA) were performed to characterize the relationship between smartphone behavior and academic performance with regard to learning effectiveness. All coefficients were positive and significant, supporting all four hypotheses.
Insights from impacts of the digital divide on children in five majority world countries during the COVID-19 pandemic

Effie Lai-Chong Law; Panos Vostanis; Michelle J. O’Reilly

Published: November 2022   Journal: Behaviour & Information Technology
The digital divide is especially pertinent in Majority World Countries (MWCs), and this was exacerbated greatly by the pandemic. Tackling the digital divide underpins the work of Human–Computer Interaction for Development (HCI4D) and remains an important global endeavour. This project aimed to understand how children and young people (CYP) in MWC coped during the pandemic and how technology played a role. Voices of CYP were complemented by those of their parents and professionals with whom CYP interacted regularly. This empirical study involved 73 CYP and 76 adults from Brazil, Kenya, Pakistan, South Africa, and Turkey. Qualitative data from diaries, drawings and focus groups were analysed thematically. Four major themes were identified – ‘access’, ‘usage’, ‘risk’, and ‘future.
Towards a child-centred digital equality framework

Ellen Helsper; Steven Vosloo

Institution: *UNICEF
Published: October 2022

The digitization of society does not have a universal effect on all children. Even with the same internet access, digital literacy and content, children from different places and backgrounds can still have unequal experiences and outcomes. A child’s individual environment influences the extent to which they can seize digital opportunities and avoid digital risks. Unaddressed injustices and inequities based on sexism, racism, classism and other forms of discrimination, contribute to this, and technological advances reflect and amplify existing social, cultural and economic inequalities. In order to get the most out of digital technology, underlying inequalities in the lives of children need to be addressed. This report presents a future-ready, child-centred digital framework that incorporates all aspects of digital inclusion, addresses known gaps, explicitly aims to achieve digital equality, involves a broader range of stakeholders to do this, and responds to emerging technologies and trends.

The role of life satisfaction in the association between problematic technology use and anxiety in children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Raquel Luengo-González; Concepción Noriega-Matanza; Ernesto J. Espín-Lorite (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
The main aim of this study is to explore problematic technology use among adolescents (Internet, video games, mobiles, and television) and its association with anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, it also analysed the possible moderating role of life satisfaction in this relationship during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain. A cross-sectional survey of 4025 children and adolescents (52% females and 48% males) between 12 and 18 years old was carried out to explore problematic technology use and its correlation with anxiety and life satisfaction after pandemic lockdown. Four multivariate regressions containing the independent variable (problematic technology use), the moderator (life satisfaction), and their interaction were entered to predict the outcome (anxiety). The moderated models were examined using SPSS PROCESS macro software (Model 1).
Policy insights: the digitalisation of education

The introduction of technology into education has never – alone – solved the problems that education faces. Yet processes of digitalisation have transformed education – and will continue to do so – in ways that are complex, evolving, and deeply unequal. Despite resurgent interest in technology in education policy, planning and practice, as well as in research, many areas that are critical to understanding the digitalisation of education remain under-studied, and the evidence that does exist remains under-shared. This multi-disciplinary publication brings together 24 contributions presented in digestible format across six themes. The publication resulted from a Policy Dialogue convened by NORRAG in partnership with the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Education. Over 20 experts who took part in the expert consultation process contributed to this publication, which aims to surface and amplify under-represented expertise about the digitalisation of education.

Family attitudes toward the use of technological devices by children during COVID-19

Esra Tural Büyük; Hatice Uzsen; Merve Koyun

Published: July 2022   Journal: Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions
This study aimed to find out the technological device using behaviors of the children and the attitudes of their families regarding this during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The study was a descriptive research composed of the mothers of 0- to 18-year-old children who were contacted through social media. Descriptive statistics of data were carried out with frequency and percentage distribution based on the demographic characteristics of the mothers. The mean age of the parents included in the study was found to be 35 ± 7 years; 89.1% were females and 31% were secondary school graduates.
A comparative assessment of secondary school students' satisfaction with ICT studies: Implications for managing secondary school education for global competitiveness in post COVID-19 era

M. E. Asuquo; K. V. Emeribe; E. G. Anam (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Global Journal of Educational Research
Technological advancement has ushered Computer studies which is also regarded as Information and Communication Technology (ICT) instruction into educational curriculum. The aim of ICT studies in secondary school system is to equip every student with the prerequisite skills and competence to function effectively in the contemporary society that is characterized by emerging technologies. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to assess students’ satisfaction with ICT instruction in secondary schools in Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria. Three research hypotheses were formulated to give direction to the study. The study sample was 5245 students drawn from the population of Senior Secondary (SS) 2 and Senior Secondary (SS) 3 classes across public and private schools in 2019/2020 academic session. A survey research design was adopted for the study. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire entitled "Secondary School Students' Satisfaction with Computer Studies Questionnaire (SSSSCSQ)". The data collected were analyzed using population t-test and independent t-test.
Rapid retooling and adaptation of EIE data processes and programming: Pashe Achhi Model in early childhood education in emergencies in the Rohingya camps of Bangladesh

In March 2020, after the coronavirus cases in Bangladesh were confirmed, both Humanitarian Play Labs (HPL) and mainstream Play Labs temporarily stopped their face-to-face operations according to the government mandate. The pandemic endangered people’s physical health and highly impacted their socio-economic and mental health conditions. Hence, BRAC explored alternative approaches and designed a telecommunication model, Pashe Achhi, to support all the direct beneficiaries during the pandemic. The objective of the intervention was to be connected with the beneficiaries and promote children’s wellbeing and development through play-based learning, positive parenting, and self-care practices of caregivers. Since caregivers are the core agent for children’s learning and development during the pandemic, the model provides psychosocial support and learning support to them. To facilitate the calls, the model trained facilitators on ECD, learning through play, playfulness, and mental health. Pashe Achhi is a telecommunication model consisting of tele-counseling and tele-learning components. After receiving the training, the Play Leaders started to call the families every week to conduct a 20 minutes phone session (10 minutes with the mother and 10 minutes with the child) based on the scripts delivered. In the first 10 minutes, Play Leaders give mothers and caregivers basic psychosocial support, tips on engaging with children and discuss health and hygiene issues.

An analysis of parents' perceptions about using smart gadgets by pre-school students during pandemic-19

Iqra Almas; Muhammad Salman Abbas; Abdul Waheed

This research examines the implementation of technology-based learning, such as the use of android, personal computers, and IPads. The action of this research is the use of digital technology for early childhood on the role of parents during the COVID-19 pandemic. This method was chosen because the researcher wanted to identify the parents' responses through a questionnaire on the use of technology as well as some of the roles of parents towards their children during taking advantage of this technology. That way, the survey method is considered very suitable to be used and in line with the function of survey research, namely to collect and explain opinions or opinions from a group of people (samples) on a particular topic. The number of samples in this study was 385 respondents (parents). The simple random technique is the sampling technique of choice used by researchers in sampling. Location research is Bahawalpur City. This research data was obtained online through the google forms platform. The instrument used is a questionnaire regarding the use of technology through the role of parents. The statements in this research questionnaire are 10 statements. There are five Likert scales used, namely very often (5), often (4), sometimes (3), never (2), and never (1).
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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