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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Unravelling the role of the mandatory use of face covering masks for the control of SARS-CoV-2 in schools: a quasi-experimental study nested in a population-based cohort in Catalonia (Spain)

AUTHOR(S)
Ermengol Coma; Martí Català; Leonardo Méndez-Boo (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Archives of Disease in Childhood

This study aims to assess the effectiveness of mandatory use of face covering masks (FCMs) in schools during the first term of the 2021–2022 academic year. It is a retrospective population-based study conducted in the schools of Catalonia (Spain).

Attitudes and perceptions of mothers towards childhood vaccination in Greece: lessons to improve the childhood COVID-19 vaccination acceptance

AUTHOR(S)
Georgia Fakonti; Andria Hadjikou; Eleana Tzira (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics

Maternal attitudes and beliefs have been shown to influence childhood vaccination coverage, resulting in under-vaccination, non-vaccination, and vaccination delay. This study aimed to investigate the mothers' attitudes and perceptions about vaccination for their children in Greece. This was an online cross-sectional study, conducted from 4 April to 8 June 2020. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information about mothers' and their children's socio-demographic characteristics, previous vaccination behavior, and mothers' attitudes and perceptions about childhood vaccination. Participants included adult mothers with at least one minor child.

Family communication patterns and parents' intentions to vaccinate their child against COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Nichole Egbert; Ying Zhu; Mina Choi (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Health Communication
This study explored how family communication patterns relate to parental knowledge about COVID-19, vaccine confidence, and intentions to vaccinate their children. Parents from 4 states (Ohio, New York, Georgia, and Texas; n = 702) completed an online survey in March 2021.
"Having a family is the new normal": parenting in neoliberal academia during the COVID‐19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Thais França; Filipa Godinho; Beatriz Padilla (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Gender, Work & Organization
The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has made explicit the burden of care shouldered by academic mothers, in addition to juggling their scholarly commitments. Although discussions are abundant on the impact of caring responsibilities on the careers of women academics, neoliberal academia continues to minimize such struggles. Despite the disruptions to family routines caused by the health crisis, academic institutions have expected academic mothers and fathers to continue undertaking their professional responsibilities at the same level as before, disregarding their parenting demands. This paper contributes to the research on parenthood in academia by looking at how, throughout the pandemic, academic parents have negotiated the tensions between parenthood and academic demands, and by investigating the strategies they use to confront neoliberal culture of academic performativity, even amid the health crisis. The paper engages with the “space invaders” concept used by Puwar (2004) to analyze the “hypervisibility” of academic mothers' and fathers' “bodies out of place” during the pandemic, and to investigate their “renegade acts” against the uncaring attitudes of their institutions. Evidence is drawn from a qualitative study conducted during December 2020 and January 2021 among scholars affiliated to Portuguese academic institutions: 17 in-depth interviews conducted with women, and two mixed-gender focus groups.
How middle and high school students wear their face masks in classrooms and school buildings

AUTHOR(S)
Gerald Jarnig; Reinhold Kerbl; Mireille N. M. van Poppel

Published: August 2022   Journal: Healthcare
In addition to other mitigation measures, face masks have been used in schools worldwide as a precondition for allowing school attendance during the COVID-19 pandemic. The quality and habits of mask wearing have, however, not been evaluated thus far, leaving uncertainty about the efficacy of this measure. It was the aim of this study to assess the accuracy of face mask wearing by children and adolescents in different school situations. In May and June 2022, students of two selected Austrian schools were asked to provide information about the different variations in wearing a face mask in different situations at school (in classrooms with or without the presence of a teacher, and in school buildings outside classrooms without the presence of a teacher).
The attitude of parents toward their children receiving the COVID-19 vaccine

AUTHOR(S)
Salmah Alghamdi

Published: August 2022   Journal: Children
Parental attitudes towards childhood vaccination programs are important for successful delivery. Children were affected by COVID-19; however, parental attitudes towards childhood COVID-19 vaccination have not been fully assessed. The purpose is to assess parental hesitancy and attitudes about their children receiving a COVID-19 vaccination. This was a cross-sectional study using an electronically distributed questionnaire including a convenience sample of 123 Saudi Arabian parents of school-aged children between five and eleven years old. Most of the participants were mothers (77.2%) aged 31–40 years old (61%). The mean score of the questionnaire about parents’ attitudes towards the COVID-19 vaccine was M = 18.95, SD = 5.52.
Reasons underlying the intention to vaccinate children aged 5-11 against COVID-19: A cross-sectional study of parents in Israel, November 2021

AUTHOR(S)
Nicole G. Morozov; Amiel A. Dror; Amani Daoud (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Vaccination is a key tool to mitigate impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. In Israel, COVID-19 vaccines became available to adults in December 2020 and to 5–11-year-old children in November 2021. Ahead of the vaccine roll-out in children, this study aimed to determine whether surveyed parents intended to vaccinate their children and describe reasons for their intentions. Information on parental socio-demographic characteristics, COVID-19 vaccine history, intention to vaccinate their children against COVID-19, and reasons for parental decisions were collected using an anonymous online survey. Associations between parental characteristics and plans to vaccinate children were identified using a logistic regression model and described reasons for intentions to vaccinate or not.
[No] Knowledge of pre-school children on the covid-19 pandemic - in the light of parents and teachers' opinions

AUTHOR(S)
Aleksandra Romana Kruszewska; Stanisława Katarzyna Nazaruk; Ewa Grygiel

Published: August 2022   Journal: Rozprawy Społeczne/Social Dissertations
The main aim of the research was to find out about their knowledge or ignorance about the pandemic, about the principles of safe behavior, about virus transmission. The development of the proprietary research tools resulted from an objective fact, because no standardized measurement tools were found for the aforementioned research problems. Surveys, two types of research tools were used: an original questionnaire for parents and worksheets for children.
Children and the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic: a Caribbean perspective

AUTHOR(S)
Tracy Evans-Gilbert; Paula Michele Lashley; Emmeline Lerebours (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Pan American Journal of Public Health
This study aims to assess coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) surveillance methods, health resources, vaccination coverage and income stratification and quantify burdens of disease and death in children and adolescents in the Caribbean. The investigation was a descriptive, cross-sectional study that included 15 Caribbean countries/territories and utilized surveys and secondary data sources. Quarantine and isolation measures were robust and surveillance strategies were similar. Pediatric specialists were available across the region, but few had designated pediatric hospitals or high-dependency units. There were more cases in children on islands with larger populations. Compared to high-income countries/territories, upper and lower middle-income countries/territories had higher disease burdens, fewer doctors and nurses per 1 000 population, lower bed capacities, and lower vaccination coverage.
Global employment trends for youth 2022: investing in transforming futures for young people
Institution: International Labour Organisation
Published: August 2022

The COVID‑19 crisis exacerbated the numerous labour market challenges generally faced by young people. Between 2019 and 2020, those aged between 15 and 24 years experienced a much higher percentage loss in employment than adults (defined as those aged 25 years and above). Many of them dropped out of the labour force, or failed to enter it altogether, owing to the enormous difficulty of searching for and securing a job at a time when lockdowns and confinement measures were being imposed by many governments and employers suffered massive losses in revenue as a result of business closures. Moreover, steep drops in family income and the switch to distance learning by educational institutions rendered the pursuit of education and training more arduous for many. Consequently, the already high number of young people not in employment, education or training (NEET) rose even further in 2020.

Parental attitudes towards vaccination against COVID-19 in China during pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Lingling Lu; Wei Gu; Hang Xie (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Infection and Drug Resistance
The Chinese government has authorized the emergency use of an inactivated vaccine for COVID-19 in children and adolescents aged 3 to 17 years. This study aimed to investigate parents’ attitudes towards vaccinating their children against COVID-19 and influencing factors. Through an online questionnaire survey, we collected self-reported children’s demographic characteristics, physical conditions and parents’ attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination for children. The parents in the unwilling group received online consultation about the benefits and risks of COVID-19 vaccine and were asked to complete the questionnaire again.
Understanding the role of psychosocial factors in Pakistani parents' hesitancy to vaccinate their kids: the mediating role of knowledge and mistrust of science about the COVID-19 vaccine

AUTHOR(S)
Riffat Shahani; Jianxun Chu; Olayemi Hafeez Rufai (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Vaccines
Vaccination is a vital component in the battle against outbreaks of infectious diseases. Recognizing parents’ reluctance to vaccinate their children is even more critical now, given the ongoing threat of a COVID-19 pandemic. Conspiracy theories, vaccination safety concerns, parental efficacy and risk perception, and a lack of confidence in science all influence intention. To investigate how these variables interact with vaccination behavior against COVID-19,  a model was developed, with psychosocial factors serving as the predictor and mistrust in science and vaccine knowledge serving as the mediator. In order to validate the model, the parents’ intentions regarding their children’s vaccination with COVID-19 were used. The study included 454 Pakistani parents who completed an online questionnaire assessing their intention to vaccinate their children.
Parents' attitudes, their acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccines for children and the contributing factors in Najran, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional survey

AUTHOR(S)
Abdullah Ibrahim Aedh

Published: August 2022   Journal: Vaccines
The COVID-19 pandemic is still ongoing, so it is critical to immunize the majority of people, including children, to achieve herd immunity against the pandemic. As parents are the ones who ultimately decide whether or not to vaccinate their children, this study was conducted to determine parental acceptance and hesitancy toward vaccinating their children against COVID-19, as well as their knowledge of and concerns regarding vaccination against COVID-19, as well as factors that might influence their willingness to vaccinate in Najran city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: In February 2022, a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study using a convenientand snowball sampling technique was carried out. Parents of children between the ages of 5 and 11 were given access to an online self-administered survey.
COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy for children in parents: a cross sectional survey among health care professionals in India

AUTHOR(S)
Himanshi ; Kranti S. Kadam; Parul U. Uttarwar

Published: August 2022   Journal: Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
There is evidence of morbidity and mortality in children due to COVID-19 infection. “Vaccine Hesitant Parents (VHPs)” may act as barriers to vaccination of children and their knowledge, attitude, beliefs, and perceptions come into play. Health-care providers are cited as the most important source for vaccine information by VHPs, and provider recommendation for vaccination is crucial for improving vaccine uptake. Hence, this study aims to determine among Indian health-care professionals having children <18 years of age, the prevalence of parental hesitancy for pediatric COVID-19 vaccine and to assess their knowledge, attitude, beliefs, and perceptions about pediatric COVID-19 vaccine.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 15 | Issue: 8 | No. of pages: 5 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, immunization, immunization programmes, pandemic, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: India
Vaccine effectiveness of two-dose BNT162b2 against symptomatic and severe COVID-19 among adolescents in Brazil and Scotland over time: a test-negative case-control study

AUTHOR(S)
Pilar T. V. Florentino; Tristan Millington; Thiago Cerqueira-Silva (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Little is known about vaccine effectiveness over time among adolescents, especially against the SARS-CoV-2 omicron (B.1.1.529) variant. This study assessed the associations between time since two-dose vaccination with BNT162b2 and the occurrence of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 among adolescents in Brazil and Scotland. It did test-negative, case-control studies in adolescents aged 12–17 years with COVID-19-related symptoms in Brazil and Scotland. It linked records of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and antigen tests to national vaccination and clinical records. It excluded tests from individuals who did not have symptoms, were vaccinated before the start of the national vaccination programme, received vaccines other than BNT162b2 or a SARS-CoV-2 booster dose of any kind, or had an interval between their first and second dose of fewer than 21 days. Additionally, it excluded negative SARS-CoV-2 tests recorded within 14 days of a previous negative test, negative tests recorded within 7 days after a positive test, any test done within 90 days after a positive test, and tests with missing sex and location information. Cases (SARS-CoV-2 test-positive adolescents) and controls (test-negative adolescents) were drawn from a sample of individuals in whom tests were collected within 10 days of symptom onset. It estimated the adjusted odds ratio and vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic COVID-19 for both countries and against severe COVID-19 (hospitalisation or death) for Brazil across fortnightly periods.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.