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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Parental psychological distress associated with COVID-19 outbreak: a large-scale multicenter survey from Turkey

AUTHOR(S)
Alperen Bıkmazer; Muhammed Tayyib Kadak; Vahdet Görmez (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Pandemics can cause substantial psychological distress; however, we do not know the impact of the COVID-19 related lockdown and mental health burden on the parents of school age children. This study aims to comparatively examine the COVID-19 related stress and psychological burden of the parents with different occupational, locational, and mental health status related backgrounds.
Worry and permissive parenting in association with the development of internet addiction in children

AUTHOR(S)
Barbara Chuen Yee Lo; Romance Nok Man Lai; Ting Kin Ng (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The recent COVID-19 pandemic and the preventive measures has led to increased use of the Internet in the daily lives of children. Therefore, Internet addiction has become an increasingly important public health issue worldwide. More than 90% of Hong Kong’s citizens use the Internet, and 70% of children in the age group of 6–17 years have daily access to it. However, internet addiction could pose serious social and health issues. The current study examined the relationship between worry and Internet addiction among children in Hong Kong and investigated the moderating effect of the permissive parenting style on such a relationship. 
Parenting activities and the transition to home-based education during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Shawna J. Lee; Kaitlin P. Ward; Olivia D. Chang (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
This study reports on parent-child dynamics following COVID-19 related school closures, based on cross-sectional analyses of a survey that utilized a convenience sampling approach. Data were collected approximately five weeks after the World Health Organization declared that the Coronavirus was a pandemic. Participants (N = 405) were adults recruited throughout the U.S. This study examines data from parents (69% mothers and 31% fathers) with at least one child 0-12 years of age.
The impacts of home confinement due to Coronavirus (COVID-19) on children: a cross sectional survey study, Mediclinic City Hospital, Dubai, UAE

AUTHOR(S)
Sam Hassan; Mary Saviour; Sanjay Perkar (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: American Journal of Pediatrics
This is a cross sectional parental survey, to assess the impacts of home confinement on children in the cosmopolitan city of Dubai, UAE. Children included were from 3 years until 16 years old who were in schools or pre-school placements before COVID-19 started. Total number of children included in the survey was 658 of which 327 were boys and 331 girls. We found that the impact of the home confinement on children was significant and directly affected their quality of life that may extend beyond the lockdown for longtime. This study will help relevant authorities and organizations to understand the negative impacts brought by the COVID-19 confinement on children and to adopt appropriate strategies to help children and their parents tackle these impacts and get them back to normal life and school again. This study also paved the way for future studies in the identification and management of children’s behavior, attention, education, and other factors that play active roles in quality of life and normal development. Moreover, this study may help in embracing early preventative and management plans by schools and authorities in future similar pandemics, infections, disasters or school outbreaks. We also discuss strategies for school reopening and flexibility when an outbreak happens again in a school or community.
Cite this research | Vol.: 6 | Issue: 4 | No. of pages: 408-420 | Language: English | Topics: Health, Mental Health | Tags: child mental health, parent-child relationship, parents, school attendance, COVID-19 response, lockdown | Countries: United Arab Emirates
Estimating the immediate impact of the COVID-19 shock on parental attachment to the labor market and the double bind of mothers

AUTHOR(S)
Misty L. Heggeness

Published: October 2020   Journal: Review of Economics of the Household
This study examines the impact of the COVID-19 shock on parents’ labor supply during the initial stages of the pandemic. Using difference-in-difference estimation and monthly panel data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), I compare labor market attachment, non-work activity, hours worked, and earnings and wages of those in areas with early school closures and stay-in-place orders with those in areas with delayed or no pandemic closures. While there was no immediate impact on detachment or unemployment, mothers with jobs in early closure states were 68.8 percent more likely than mothers in late closure states to have a job but not be working as a result of early shutdowns. There was no effect on working fathers or working women without school age children. Mothers who continued working increased their work hours relative to comparable fathers; this effect, however, appears entirely driven by a reduction in fathers’ hours worked. Overall, the pandemic appears to have induced a unique immediate juggling act for working parents of school age children. Mothers took a week of leave from formal work; fathers working full time, for example, reduced their hours worked by 0.53 hours over the week. While experiences were different for mothers and fathers, each are vulnerable to scarring and stunted opportunities for career growth and advancement due to the pandemic.
Parenting-related exhaustion during the Italian COVID-19 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Daniela Marchetti; Lilybeth Fontanesi; Cristina Mazza (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Worldwide, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has generated significant worry, uncertainty, anxiety, sadness, and loneliness. In Italy, these effects have been particularly pronounced. While research on the COVID-19 outbreak has mainly focused on the clinical features of infected patients and the psychological impact on the general population and health professionals, no investigation has yet assessed the psychological impact of the pandemic on parents. The present research is a web-based survey of Italian parents to examine the prevalence of parenting-related exhaustion—and to identify its associated risk and protective factors—4 weeks into the lockdown.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 45 | Issue: 10 | No. of pages: 1114-1123 | Language: English | Topics: Mental Health | Tags: mental health, parent-child relationship, parents, psychological distress, COVID-19 response, lockdown | Countries: Italy
Parenting stress and risk of child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic: a family stress theory-informed perspective

AUTHOR(S)
Qi Wu; Yanfeng Xu

Published: October 2020   Journal: Developmental Child Welfare
The risk of child maltreatment is heightened during the pandemic due to multiple COVID-19 related stressors, such as physical and mental health concerns, economic stress, challenges in homeschooling, marital conflicts and intimate personal violence, and intensified child–parent relationships. Both parental internal (e.g., parenting styles) and external resources (e.g., social support), and parental perceptions toward stressors will affect how parents cope with these stressors, which may exacerbate or mitigate the risk of child maltreatment. Guided by family stress theory, this article identifies COVID-19 related stressors at the family level, and further elaborates on how these stressors are associated with child maltreatment via parents’ resources, perceptions, and coping strategies. Implications for future practice and research are discussed.
High levels of stress due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic among parents of children with and without chronic conditions across the USA

AUTHOR(S)
Miranda A. L. van Tilburg; Emily Edlynn; Marina Maddaloni (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Children
The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced unprecedented levels of stress for parents, especially those of children with chronic conditions. Mental health effects are expected to continue for months/years and preparation is needed to meet an increasing demand for mental health care.
Parental burnout: moving the focus from children to parents

AUTHOR(S)
Moïra Mikolajczak; Isabelle Roskam

Published: October 2020
Parental burnout (PB)—a condition characterized by intense exhaustion related to parenting, emotional distancing from one's children, and a loss of parental fulfillment—has received increasing attention in recent years, even more since the worldwide COVID‐19 crisis and the confinement of parents with their children. This crisis put the spotlight on parents’ suffering, and the need to better understand parental burnout and how to best assess and treat it emerged as a priority. This brief article introduces the Thematic Issue of New Directions in Child and Adolescent Development focused on the measurement of parental burnout across various regions of the world. It briefly reviews the concept of parental burnout, its phenomenological experience, its etiology and consequences, and its measurement.
The hidden impact of COVID-19 on child protection and well-being

AUTHOR(S)
Daniela Ritz; Georgina O’Hare; Melissa Burgess (et al.)

Institution: Save the Children
Published: September 2020
This report is one in a series presenting findings from the Global COVID-19 Research Study. The results presented here focus on the implications for Child Protection issues, drawing on data from our representative sample of 17,565 parents/caregivers and 8,069 children in our programme participants group. Comparisons with our general public sample have been made in some places.Topics investigated include violence occurring in the home, the separation of children from their caregivers, mental health and psycho-social well-being of caregivers and children, child labour, online safety and child protection support and services. Available data was analysed and presented considering the socio-ecological model in order to highlight the interconnectedness of the broader socio-ecological environment which places children within their households and communities. This enabled the detailing of the range of associated risks and protective factors in relation to these child protection issues as well as drawing attention to the complexity of their interrelationship. Differences in impact and the needs of children by region, age, gender, disability, minority group, indicators of poverty, and more, were explored.
Virtual parent-child visitation in support of family reunification in the time of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Jacqueline Singer; David Brodzinsky

Published: September 2020   Journal: Developmental Child Welfare
The present article examines existing data on how children respond to virtual communication with parents and extended family and what practical issues and training needs are encountered when implementing virtual visits in juvenile dependency cases. During periods of sheltering in place in response to COVID-19 face-to-face visits have been largely curtailed. In their place, child welfare agencies have begun using virtual visitation through various technology platforms such as smartphones, FaceTime, Zoom, WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger and Skype, often facilitated by foster parents. A number of questions have arisen, however, about the effectiveness of virtual visitations and how best to use them as a means of supporting reunification goals.
Parents’ distress and poor parenting during COVID-19: the buffering effects of partner support and cooperative coparenting

AUTHOR(S)
Caitlin S. McRae McRae; Annette M. E. Henderson; Rachel S. T. Low (et al.)

Published: September 2020
The COVID-19 pandemic is placing considerable demands on parents that amplify the risk of poor parenting. Leveraging an ongoing longitudinal study, the current study tests whether parents’ distress during a mandated lockdown predicts residual changes in poorer parenting and identifies within-family support processes that buffer these harmful effects.
A mixed-method study of individual, couple, and parental functioning during the state-regulated COVID-19 lockdown in Spain

AUTHOR(S)
Cristina Günther-Bel; Anna Vilaregut; Eduard Carratala (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Family Process
This study explored the individual and relational well-being of people confined together with their partners and/or children during the first 3 weeks of state-regulated lockdown during the recent COVID-19 outbreak in Spain.  Although correlates of psychological distress (e.g., unemployment, perceived economic risk) were relatively stable across subgroups, predictors of relationship functioning varied substantially with household/parental status (e.g., telecommuting and employment facilitated conjugal functioning only for couples with children).
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 59 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 1060-1079 | Language: English | Topics: Mental Health | Tags: mental health services, parent-child relationship, psychological distress, COVID-19 response, lockdown | Countries: Spain
Child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic: consequences of parental job loss on psychological and physical abuse towards children

AUTHOR(S)
Monica Lawson; Megan H. Piel; Michaela Simon

Published: September 2020   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect
The current study investigated factors associated with child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic, including parental job loss, and whether cognitive reframing moderated associations between job loss and child maltreatment.
How personality relates to distress in parents during the Covid-19 lockdown: the mediating role of child's emotional and behavioral difficulties and the moderating effect of living with other people

AUTHOR(S)
Cristina Mazza; Eleonora Ricci; Daniela Marchetti (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Since the initiation of the COVID-19 lockdown, Italian parents have been forced to manage their children at home. The present study aimed at investigating the psychological distress of parents during the lockdown, identifying contributing factors.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 17 | No. of pages: 13 | Language: English | Topics: Mental Health | Tags: mental stress, parent-child relationship, psychological distress, lockdown | Countries: Italy
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.