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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Mother-infant emotional availability through the COVID-19 pandemic: examining continuity, stability, and bidirectional associations

Nila Shakiba; Gal Doron; Avigail Gordon-Hacker (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Infancy
The COVID-19 pandemic may impact the development of infants' social communication patterns with their caregivers. The current study examined continuity, stability, and bidirectional associations in maternal and infant dyadic Emotional Availability (EA) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were 110 Israeli mother-infant dyads (51% girls) that were assessed prior to (Mage = 3.5 months) and during (Mage = 12.4 months) the pandemic.
The association of families' socioeconomic and demographic characteristics with parents' perceived barriers to returning to youth sport following the COVID-19 pandemic

Daniel J. M. Fleming; Travis E. Dorsch; Sarfaraz Serang (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Psychology of Sport and Exercise
Developmentally appropriate sport contexts have the potential to positively influence young people’s physiological, psychological, and social outcomes. However, little is known about how families returned to sport in the wake of COVID-19-related restrictions or how socioeconomic and demographic factors influenced parents’ perceptions of barriers to returning. A nationally representative sample (N = 6183) of American youth sport parents completed a questionnaire in which they provided demographic information and answered questions related to the barriers they perceived in returning to sport, such as the risk of their child getting sick. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships among a range of socioeconomic and demographic factors and these barriers to returning.
Knowledge, attitude and practice of hand hygiene among parents: a post COVID-19 pandemic survey

Shalinawati Ramli; Anis Hafizah Azmi; Nurul Azmawati Mohamed (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities
Hand hygiene is one of the effective measures to prevent infectious diseases such as hand, foot and mouth disease and COVID-19. Parents involvement as the child's first educator in establishing the child's sanitary behavior are crucial in nurturing good hand hygiene habit. This study aimed to assess parents' knowledge, attitudes, and practice on hand hygiene in relation to childcare during the endemic phase of COVID-19. This cross-sectional study involved parents of pre-school children from the Sepang district of Selangor, Malaysia. The parents were given a set of pre-tested, self-administered questionnaires about their knowledge, attitude, and practice of personal hand hygiene, hand hygiene practice while caring for children, and diseases caused by inadequate hand hygiene.
Parents' pandemic stress, parental involvement, and family quality of life for children with autism

Shengli Cheng; Sanyin Cheng; Shushan Liu (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

Research has shown that parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suffered high levels of stress during the COVID-19 pandemic and faced poor family quality of life (FQOL). However, little is known about the inherent dynamic interaction between pandemic stress and FQOL, especially in the Chinese cultural context. This study provides preliminary evidence by examining the relationships among pandemic stress, parental involvement, and FQOL for children with autism in mainland China. A total of 709 parents of children with autism completed measures of FQOL, parental involvement, and pandemic stress. Structural equation modeling was employed to examine the interrelations among these variables.

Parental intervention strategies and operating mechanism on adolescent social media use: the concept of literacy improvement based on interaction

Bowei Wang; Jiali Chen

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
This study focuses on a realistic picture of parental intervention in the use of social media among teenagers in the post-pandemic era. First, based on a questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews, and under the guidance of the concept of interactive literacy improvement, we propose a conceptual model and a verifiable measurement dimension of parental-mediated intervention. Second, based on the comparison of parent–child samples, it was found that parental-mediated intervention strategies are often used in families, and parents and children have roughly the same cognition and preference for the four intervention strategies. However, parents reported that they use intervention strategies much more frequently than perceived by their children. Third, we constructed and verified the prediction model of “individual technical characteristics-online family environment-parental-mediated intervention,” namely, the hierarchical progressive logic of parental-mediated intervention, and realized the systematization of influencing factors.
Giving a lot of ourselves: How mother leaders in higher education experienced parenting and leading during the COVID-19 pandemic

Laura Boche

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Education
This qualitative interpretative phenomenological analysis explored the lived experience of mother executive administrators in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic. Utilizing the philosophical underpinnings of the Heideggerian phenomenological approach, the following research question guided this study: What are the lived experiences of mother executive administrators in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic? Participants included nine self-identified mother executive administrators from one Midwest state at a variety of institution types and locations within the state. Data collection involved two focus groups and individual interviews with all nine participants. After data analysis, three recurrent themes emerged from the data: (1) Burnout and Exhaustion, (2) Never Enough: Responsibility Generated Feelings of Guilt, and (3) Receiving Support: Importance of Gender, Family Role, and Agency.
Family functioning and quality of life among children with nephrotic syndrome during the first pandemic wave

Nowrin F. Aman; Jessica Fitzpatrick; Isabel de Verteuil (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Pediatric Nephrology

During the SARS-CoV-2 global pandemic, one of the longest lockdowns worldwide occurred in Ontario, Canada, during the first wave. For parents and children managing care at home and at risk for COVID-19, the impact on their psychosocial functioning is unknown. A total of 122 families of children aged 2–18 years were enrolled as part of the prospective cohort of childhood nephrotic syndrome and completed a survey during the first wave of the pandemic (August 21–December 10), 2020. In a subset, 107 families had data available pre-pandemic to assess change. Validated measures included the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD) for parents and children ≥ 12 years for family functioning, the Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4) for both parent and child, and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PEDSQL™-V4) for children only. Scores were compared using Student’s t-test or the Mann–Whitney U test, as appropriate.

The change in children's subjective relational social cohesion with family and friends during the COVID-19 pandemic: a multinational analysis

Oliver Nahkur; Dagmar Kutsar

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Sociology
As a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, social-distancing measures have been implemented worldwide, including school closures. Previous studies indicated that children's relational social cohesion with family (RSC-Fa) and friends (RSC-Fr) may have decreased during the pandemic, but some children described that positive experiences were gained from the confinement measures of social distancing. Mostly, these studies are qualitative or capture a single country and have an exploratory character. Using data collected in 2021 of more than 20,000 children primarily aged 9–13 years as part of the International Children's Worlds COVID-19 Supplement Survey from 18 countries (Germany, Turkey, Bangladesh, Italy, Albania, Romania, Chile, Wales, Taiwan, Belgium, Algeria, Israel, Russia, South Korea, Indonesia, Estonia, Finland, and Spain), this study aimed to examine how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected children's RSC-Fa and RSC-Fr and explore the role of relational factors. RSC-Fa and RSC-Fr are measured through satisfaction in relationships with family members and friends before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, respectively. This study employed descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, and multinomial logistic regression analysis.
The effect of duration of youth/parent communication on depression and anxiety during COVID-19 isolation in China

Weijian Hu; Cuiyun Deng; Zhaoquan Liu

Published: December 2022   Journal: School Psychology International
The current study examines the mediating roles of self-efficacy and sleep disturbance and the moderating role of gender in the association between the duration of youth/parent communication on depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 isolation period in China. It used the self-designed demographic variable questionnaire, General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Self-Rating Depression Scale, and the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale with 1,772 youths aged 15–24 from 26 provinces in China during the COVID-19 lockdown. It performed demographic variable analysis, correlation analysis, mediation analysis, and moderated analysis.
Family literacy practices and their contribution to emergent literacy skills during the COVID-19 pandemic

Joana Cruz; Maria Mackaaij; Helena Bilimória (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Written Language & Literacy
To develop emergent literacy skills, preschool children need to be supported by adults in a rich and stimulating environment. During the first lockdown due to the SARS-CoV2 virus, there were several social, family, technological, and individual barriers to promote family literacy and emergent literacy. The present study aimed to provide insight on the relationship between family literacy practices and emergent literacy skills among preschool children after the first confinement due to COVID-19 pandemic. This study included 102 participants, which consisted of parents (90.2% mothers) and one preschool child per parent. Results showed evidence of a higher frequency of training and teaching activities than family literacy playful activities. There were statistically significant differences in emergent skills, according to the frequency of family playful activities and family training and teaching activities.
The role of muslim parents in familiarizing halal snacks in Indonesia after the Covid-19 pandemic

Sisca Wulandari; Edi Sumatirta; Siti Fatimatul Zuhro

Published: December 2022   Journal: International Halal Science And Technology Conference

The  ease  of  ordering  snacks  through  online  applications  after  the  COVID-19  pandemic  makes  it difficult for parents to control the halal snacks consumed by their children. In fact, there are still many parents who do not understand what halal snacks are like. Whereas the knowledge and behavior of parents  greatly  influence  the  way  children  choose  whatever  snacks  to  consume.  This  community service activity is expected to increase understanding of the role of parents in familiarizing children with halal snacks. The methods are: a) the lecture method, used to convey knowledge about changes in the halal logo in Indonesia, the urgency, ways, and creative media to familiarize children with halal snacks; b)  the  question  and  answer  method,  used  to  provide feedback  to  parents  as  well  as  to  get parents'  feedback  on  the  material  that  has  been  delivered  during  the  activity;  (3)  the  practical method, used to practice making a variety of simple creative media that can easily familiarize halal snacks  on  child.

The qualitative study of Cypriot parents' views about online education during COVID-19 pandemic: the challenges and responsibilities

Aygil Takır

Published: December 2022   Journal: Education 3-13
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to fundamental changes in Northern Cyprus much like all the other countries. Education is one of the sectors that has been affected intensely by the pandemic. This qualitative study aims to investigate parents’ views about educational challenges, experiences, and responsibilities about their children’s online learning process during the COVID-19 pandemic. Telephone interviews were conducted for data collection. Parents described the most performed online education activity as teacher-oriented instruction. Nearly all of the parents complained about internet connections being slow and weak along with teachers’ insufficient technology proficiency. Parents agreed that their role was much more challenging and complicated than it was in a traditional education setting.
The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on food habits and neophobia in children in the framework of the family context and parents' behaviors: a study in an Italian central region

Annalisa Di Nucci; Umberto Scognamiglio; Federica Grant (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Nutrition

This paper aims to evaluate whether changes in lifestyle and eating habits resulting from the Covid-19 emergency have influenced the post-pandemic level of food neophobia and in children living in an Italian central region.  A sample of 99 children took part in a retrospective assessment carried out with a self-administrated questionnaire. Pre and post-pandemic evaluation of eating habits, physical activity, and lifestyle indicators was carried out. Food neophobia was evaluated following the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS). Descriptive statistics were produced. A contingency analysis was performed to check associations between variables.

Parenthood and psychological distress among English Millennials during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic: evidence from the Next Steps cohort study

B. Chen; A. McMunn; T. Gagné

Published: November 2022   Journal: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology

The COVID-19 pandemic led to disproportionate mental health responses in younger adults and parents. The aim of the study was to investigate how Millennial parents’ experiences were associated with psychological distress over the first year of the pandemic. It examined data in September 2020 (n men = 994; n women = 1824) and February 2021 (n men = 1054; n women = 1845) from the Next Steps cohort study (started ages 13–14 in 2003–04). In each wave, it examined differences in GHQ-12 scores between parent groups defined by the age and number of children, adjusting for background characteristics at ages 13–14, psychological distress at ages 25–26, and other circumstances during the pandemic. We also examined if differences varied by work status, financial situation before the outbreak and relationship status.

Social support in a parenting Facebook group during the COVID-19 pandemic

Alison Hooper; Claire Schweiker; Cailin Kerch

Published: November 2022   Journal: Family Relations

This paper includes a mixed methods content analysis of a parenting Facebook group focused on COVID-19. It analyze participants' posts to identify the types of support parents sought and gave. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in increased parental stress and challenges related to children's development. Many families turned to social media as a source of information and social support. This study analyzed 1,180 posts from a large, closed Facebook group focused on parenting during COVID-19. It coded posts using a modified version of social support theory and supplemented this analysis with codes related to giving and receiving support, post format, and topic.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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