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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Caregiver perspectives on schooling from home during the Spring 2020 COVID-19 closures

AUTHOR(S)
Amy M. Briesch; Robin S. Codding; Jessica A. Hoffman (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: School Psychology Review
The abrupt onset of the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated an unprecedented shift to remote schooling for students across the United States and required many caregivers to take a primary or secondary role as schoolteacher. The goal of this study was to better understand caregivers’ experiences of schooling from home during the spring 2020 COVID-19 closures. Roughly 1,000 caregivers, the majority of whom were White, highly educated mothers, responded to the survey, documenting their children’s daily remote learning experiences and providing insight into the frequency and perceived quality of specialized services and individualized support plans.
Cyber-safety and COVID-19 in the early years: a research agenda

AUTHOR(S)
Susan Edwards

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Early Childhood Research
Young children aged birth to 5 years are known users of the internet, both unsupervised and in collaboration with adults. Adults also use the internet to share details of children’s lives with others, via sharenting and educational apps. During COVID-19 internet use by children and families rose significantly during periods of enforced stay-home. Internet use by children, and by adults on behalf exposes children to conduct, contact and content risks online. These risks mean that cyber-safety in the early years is increasingly necessary, especially concerning increased internet usage during COVID-19. While cyber-safety is well developed for primary and secondary-school aged children this is not the case for young children, their families and educators. This paper proposes a research agenda for cyber-safety in the early years, using critical constructivism and internet studies to define the internet as a non-unitary technology. Three main objects of study concerning cyber-safety in the early years, including the reference to COVID-19 are identified for targeted research, including: technologies, context and policy.
Faces of risk and resilience: fathers and their families

AUTHOR(S)
Rob Palkovitz; Jay Fagan

Published: March 2021   Journal: Adversity and Resilience Science
The global Covid-19 pandemic and heightened focus on systemic racism in the USA provide differential lenses for considering contexts of risk and resilience as they apply to individual fathers and their families. Intersections of race, class, culture, personal characteristics, and access to resources uniquely shape fathers’ resilience as they navigate risks to themselves and their families. The interdependence of families with other community members, family work, role enactments, gender, and policy highlights the centrality of fathers’ executive function in conjunction with available resources to shape the quality of individual father–child relationships and the overall wellbeing of fathers and their families. This commentary focuses on the current pandemic and racism as risk factors for families, the ways in which fathers are uniquely affected by these risks, the ways in which fathers exhibit resilience in the face of these adversities, and implications for future research about the ways in which fathers’ gendered behaviors and attitudes may ultimately change as a consequence of the pandemic and systemic racism.
COVID-related fear maintains controlling parenting behaviors during the pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Karl Wissemann; Brittany Mathes; Alexandria Meyer (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
The direct threat posed by the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), uncertainty surrounding best safety practices, and secondary consequences of the virus have led to widespread stress and declining mental health across communities and individuals. These stresses may impact parenting behaviors, potentially leading to negative consequences for children. Controlling parenting behaviors increase in the face of perceived environmental threat and are associated with adverse mental health outcomes for children; however, determinants of parenting behaviors have not been investigated during the COVID-19 pandemic. The current study prospectively evaluated parenting behaviors during the pandemic (N=87).
Evaluation of parents' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding self-medication for their children’s dental problems during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional survey

AUTHOR(S)
Emine Sen Tunc; Emre Aksoy; Hatice Nilden Arslan (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: BMC Oral Health
Self-medication refers to taking medicine without consultation with a doctor or dentist, and it is an important health issue, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. There are no data about parents’ SM practices for their children’s dental problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study aims to evaluate parents’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding self-medication for their children’s dental problems during the COVID-19 pandemic in Northern Turkey.
Parental behaviors and involvement in children’s digital activities among Israeli Jewish and Arab families during the COVID-19 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Galia Meoded Karabanov; Merav Asaf; Margalit Ziv (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Early Education and Development
The study explored everyday parenting behaviors and their relations to parents’ involvement in their children’s digital activities during the COVID-19 lockdown, among Israeli Jewish and Arab parents of young children. It studied parents’ behaviors through the prism of the Parenting Pentagon Model (PPM), which integrates five constructs of daily parenting behaviors that are beneficial for children’s development: Partnership between the caretakers, Parental Leadership, Love Behaviors, Encouraging Independence, and Adherence to Rules.
Parental buffering of stress in the time of COVID-19: family-level factors may moderate the association between pandemic-related stress and youth symptomatology

AUTHOR(S)
Emily M. Cohodes; Sarah McCauley; Dylan G. Gee

Published: February 2021   Journal: Research on child and adolescent psychopathology
Nearly all families in the United States were exposed to varying degrees of stress related to the COVID-19 pandemic during the spring of 2020. Building on previous research documenting the pernicious effects of stress on youth mental health, this paper aimed to test the effects of exposure to COVID-19-related stress on youth symptomatology. Further, in light of evidence suggesting that parents play an important role in buffering children from environmental stress, it assessed how specific parental behaviors (i.e., parental emotion socialization, maintenance of home routines, and availability to discuss the pandemic with child) contributed to effective parental buffering of the impact of pandemic-related stress on children’s symptomatology.
Parents who first allowed adolescents to drink alcohol in a family context during spring 2020 COVID-19 emergency shutdowns

AUTHOR(S)
Jennifer L. Maggs; Jenna R. Cassinat; Brian C. Kelly

Published: February 2021   Journal: The Journal of adolescent health
COVID-19 stay-at-home orders during Spring 2020 dramatically changed daily life and created significant challenges for families. We document levels and predictors of U.S. parents who newly allowed adolescents to drink alcohol at home during the shutdown.
Parental peritraumatic distress and feelings of parental competence in relation to COVID-19 lockdown measures: What is the impact on children’s peritraumatic distress?

AUTHOR(S)
Stéphanie Chartier; Manon Delhalle; Audrey Baiverlin

Published: January 2021   Journal: European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
The objective of this study was to measure, via an online survey, the peritraumatic impact of COVID-19-related lockdown measures on parents and their sense of parental competence, as well as the link withtheir children’s peritraumatic distress. This study investigated the links between the distress felt by the parentand the distress felt by the child in the lockdown from March to May 2020. Participants were 287 parentsand 161 children.
A little autonomy support goes a long way: daily autonomy‐supportive parenting, child well‐being, parental need fulfillment, and change in child, family, and parent adjustment across the adaptation to the COVID‐19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Andreas B. Neubauer; Andrea Schmidt; Andrea C. Kramer (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Child Development
This study examined the effects of daily parental autonomy support on changes in child behavior, family environment, and parental well‐being across 3 weeks during the COVID‐19 pandemic in Germany. Day‐to‐day associations among autonomy‐supportive parenting, parental need fulfillment, and child well‐being were also assessed.
A multi-tiered systems of support blueprint for re-opening schools following COVID-19 shutdown

AUTHOR(S)
ChristopherA. Kearney; Joshua Childs

Published: January 2021   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
The COVID-19 pandemic will create enormous disruptions for youth and families with respect to economic and health status, social relationships, and education for years to come. The process of closing and intermittently reopening schools adds to this disruption and creates confusion for parents and school officials who must balance student educational progress with health and safety concerns. One framework that may serve as a roadmap in this regard is a multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) model. This article briefly addresses four main domains of functioning (adjustment, traumatic stress, academic status, health and safety) across three tiers of support (universal, targeted, intensive). Each section draws on existing literature bases to provide specific recommendations for school officials who must address various and changing logistical, academic, and health-based challenges. The recommendations are designed to be flexible given fluctuations in the current crisis as well as focused on maximum-value targets.
COVID-19: Trends, Promising Practices and Gaps in Remote Learning for Pre-Primary Education
This paper examines the remote learning options that countries around the world have made available for pre-primary students and their families while schools are closed during the COVID-19 pandemic. It highlights trends, gaps and emerging good practices that are supported by existing evidence.
Perceived knowledge as [protective] power: parents’ protective efficacy, information-seeking, and scrutiny during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Elizabeth Johnson Avery; Sejin Park

Published: November 2020   Journal: Health Communication
During the COVID-19 pandemic, parents were issued numerous, sometimes changing, safeguarding directives including social distancing, mask use, hygiene, and stay-at-home orders. Enacting these behaviors for the parent presented challenges, but the responsibility for children to follow protocol properly was an even more daunting undertaking. Self-efficacy is one of the most power predictors of health behavior and has been adapted to a context-specific crisis self-efficacy scale conducted on March20, 2020, captures real-time perceptions of parents as coronavirus anxieties peaked. The study reveals a relationship between self- and protective efficacy that is mediated by parents’ assessments of how informed they are about COVID-19. It also examines the role of perceived knowledge on information-seeking and scrutiny of pandemic information found online.
Worry and permissive parenting in association with the development of internet addiction in children

AUTHOR(S)
Barbara Chuen Yee Lo; Romance Nok Man Lai; Ting Kin Ng (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The recent COVID-19 pandemic and the preventive measures has led to increased use of the Internet in the daily lives of children. Therefore, Internet addiction has become an increasingly important public health issue worldwide. More than 90% of Hong Kong’s citizens use the Internet, and 70% of children in the age group of 6–17 years have daily access to it. However, internet addiction could pose serious social and health issues. The current study examined the relationship between worry and Internet addiction among children in Hong Kong and investigated the moderating effect of the permissive parenting style on such a relationship. 
COVID-19 disease pandemic lockdown: schools closure and students e-learning options in Tanzania

AUTHOR(S)
Fabian G. Mahundu

Published: September 2020
The purpose of this paper is to explore the learning options adopted by students during the closure of schools due to the COVID-19 disease pandemic in Tanzania. It examines the way learners harness the advantage of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), and the role played by parents and guardians at home in supporting their children during the COVID-19 lockdown.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.