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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Providing children with COVID-19 vaccinations is challenging due to lack of data and wide-ranging parental acceptance

AUTHOR(S)
Jiatong She; lanqin Liu; Wenjun Liu

Published: October 2021   Journal: Acta Paediatrica

Vaccines are vital to ending the COVID-19 pandemic and we reviewed the data on vaccinating children, and including them in clinical trials, as most of the activity has focused on adults. English and Chinese databases, including PubMed, Elsevier Scopus, Web of Science, CNKI and CQVIP were searched, along with websites such as the World Health Organization and the University of Oxford.

The protective role of parent resilience on mental health and the parent–child relationship during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Beth S. Russell; Alexandria J. Tomkunas; Morica Hutchison (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Child Psychiatry & Human Development
The COVID-19 pandemic is linked to particularly potent psychological effects for children and their caregivers while families adjust to new daily routines for work, education, and self-care. Longitudinal associations are presented from a national sample of 271 parents (mean age = 35.29 years, 48.5% female) on resilience, mental health and stress indicators, and parenting outcomes. Multigroup path model results indicate significant associations between resilience and parent stress or parent perceived child stress initiates a sequence of significant linkages to parent depression, followed by caregiver burden and parent–child relationship quality. This final set of linkages between depression and both parenting outcomes were significantly stronger for men, who also reported higher rates of perceived child stress. Results suggest that fathers’ depression symptoms and associated spill-over to perceived child stress is producing stronger effects on their parenting experiences than effects reported by mothers.
Sibling conflict during COVID-19 in families with special educational needs and disabilities

AUTHOR(S)
Umar Toseeb

Published: August 2021   Journal: British Journal of Educational Psychology
Young people with special educational needs and disabilities (SENDs) and their families have been particularly hard hit by the COVID-19 pandemic. In this longitudinal study, sibling conflict in these families during and after the first lockdown in the United Kingdom was investigated. Online questionnaires were completed by 504 parents of young people with SENDs at four time points between 23 March 2020 and 10 October 2020 (over half completed the questionnaire at multiple time points). As lockdown progressed, young people with SENDs were more likely to be picked on or hurt by their siblings compared with earlier stages of the lockdown but there was no change in how frequently they harmed or picked on their siblings. After lockdown, both perpetration and victimization decreased but not to the same rates as the first month of lockdown. Young people with SENDs with severe or complex needs were somewhat protected from sibling conflict.
Abusive and positive parenting behavior in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic under the state of emergency

AUTHOR(S)
Yui Yamaoka; Mariko Hosozawa; Makiko Sampei (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the lives of children and parents, raising concerns about child maltreatment. This study examined the prevalence of abusive parenting behavior during the pandemic of the COVID-19 and its relations with physical, psychological, and social factors and positive parenting behavior. An online survey was performed during the COVID-19 state of emergency in Japan. Participants were 5344 parents of children aged 0–17 years.

Caregiver perspectives on schooling from home during the Spring 2020 COVID-19 closures

AUTHOR(S)
Amy M. Briesch; Robin S. Codding; Jessica A. Hoffman (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: School Psychology Review
The abrupt onset of the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated an unprecedented shift to remote schooling for students across the United States and required many caregivers to take a primary or secondary role as schoolteacher. The goal of this study was to better understand caregivers’ experiences of schooling from home during the spring 2020 COVID-19 closures. Roughly 1,000 caregivers, the majority of whom were White, highly educated mothers, responded to the survey, documenting their children’s daily remote learning experiences and providing insight into the frequency and perceived quality of specialized services and individualized support plans.
Cyber-safety and COVID-19 in the early years: a research agenda

AUTHOR(S)
Susan Edwards

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Early Childhood Research
Young children aged birth to 5 years are known users of the internet, both unsupervised and in collaboration with adults. Adults also use the internet to share details of children’s lives with others, via sharenting and educational apps. During COVID-19 internet use by children and families rose significantly during periods of enforced stay-home. Internet use by children, and by adults on behalf exposes children to conduct, contact and content risks online. These risks mean that cyber-safety in the early years is increasingly necessary, especially concerning increased internet usage during COVID-19. While cyber-safety is well developed for primary and secondary-school aged children this is not the case for young children, their families and educators. This paper proposes a research agenda for cyber-safety in the early years, using critical constructivism and internet studies to define the internet as a non-unitary technology. Three main objects of study concerning cyber-safety in the early years, including the reference to COVID-19 are identified for targeted research, including: technologies, context and policy.
Faces of risk and resilience: fathers and their families

AUTHOR(S)
Rob Palkovitz; Jay Fagan

Published: March 2021   Journal: Adversity and Resilience Science
The global Covid-19 pandemic and heightened focus on systemic racism in the USA provide differential lenses for considering contexts of risk and resilience as they apply to individual fathers and their families. Intersections of race, class, culture, personal characteristics, and access to resources uniquely shape fathers’ resilience as they navigate risks to themselves and their families. The interdependence of families with other community members, family work, role enactments, gender, and policy highlights the centrality of fathers’ executive function in conjunction with available resources to shape the quality of individual father–child relationships and the overall wellbeing of fathers and their families. This commentary focuses on the current pandemic and racism as risk factors for families, the ways in which fathers are uniquely affected by these risks, the ways in which fathers exhibit resilience in the face of these adversities, and implications for future research about the ways in which fathers’ gendered behaviors and attitudes may ultimately change as a consequence of the pandemic and systemic racism.
COVID-related fear maintains controlling parenting behaviors during the pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Karl Wissemann; Brittany Mathes; Alexandria Meyer (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
The direct threat posed by the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), uncertainty surrounding best safety practices, and secondary consequences of the virus have led to widespread stress and declining mental health across communities and individuals. These stresses may impact parenting behaviors, potentially leading to negative consequences for children. Controlling parenting behaviors increase in the face of perceived environmental threat and are associated with adverse mental health outcomes for children; however, determinants of parenting behaviors have not been investigated during the COVID-19 pandemic. The current study prospectively evaluated parenting behaviors during the pandemic (N=87).
Evaluation of parents' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding self-medication for their children’s dental problems during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional survey

AUTHOR(S)
Emine Sen Tunc; Emre Aksoy; Hatice Nilden Arslan (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: BMC Oral Health
Self-medication refers to taking medicine without consultation with a doctor or dentist, and it is an important health issue, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. There are no data about parents’ SM practices for their children’s dental problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study aims to evaluate parents’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding self-medication for their children’s dental problems during the COVID-19 pandemic in Northern Turkey.
Parental behaviors and involvement in children’s digital activities among Israeli Jewish and Arab families during the COVID-19 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Galia Meoded Karabanov; Merav Asaf; Margalit Ziv (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Early Education and Development
The study explored everyday parenting behaviors and their relations to parents’ involvement in their children’s digital activities during the COVID-19 lockdown, among Israeli Jewish and Arab parents of young children. It studied parents’ behaviors through the prism of the Parenting Pentagon Model (PPM), which integrates five constructs of daily parenting behaviors that are beneficial for children’s development: Partnership between the caretakers, Parental Leadership, Love Behaviors, Encouraging Independence, and Adherence to Rules.
Parental buffering of stress in the time of COVID-19: family-level factors may moderate the association between pandemic-related stress and youth symptomatology

AUTHOR(S)
Emily M. Cohodes; Sarah McCauley; Dylan G. Gee

Published: February 2021   Journal: Research on child and adolescent psychopathology
Nearly all families in the United States were exposed to varying degrees of stress related to the COVID-19 pandemic during the spring of 2020. Building on previous research documenting the pernicious effects of stress on youth mental health, this paper aimed to test the effects of exposure to COVID-19-related stress on youth symptomatology. Further, in light of evidence suggesting that parents play an important role in buffering children from environmental stress, it assessed how specific parental behaviors (i.e., parental emotion socialization, maintenance of home routines, and availability to discuss the pandemic with child) contributed to effective parental buffering of the impact of pandemic-related stress on children’s symptomatology.
Parents who first allowed adolescents to drink alcohol in a family context during spring 2020 COVID-19 emergency shutdowns

AUTHOR(S)
Jennifer L. Maggs; Jenna R. Cassinat; Brian C. Kelly

Published: February 2021   Journal: The Journal of adolescent health
COVID-19 stay-at-home orders during Spring 2020 dramatically changed daily life and created significant challenges for families. We document levels and predictors of U.S. parents who newly allowed adolescents to drink alcohol at home during the shutdown.
Parental peritraumatic distress and feelings of parental competence in relation to COVID-19 lockdown measures: What is the impact on children’s peritraumatic distress?

AUTHOR(S)
Stéphanie Chartier; Manon Delhalle; Audrey Baiverlin

Published: January 2021   Journal: European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
The objective of this study was to measure, via an online survey, the peritraumatic impact of COVID-19-related lockdown measures on parents and their sense of parental competence, as well as the link withtheir children’s peritraumatic distress. This study investigated the links between the distress felt by the parentand the distress felt by the child in the lockdown from March to May 2020. Participants were 287 parentsand 161 children.
A little autonomy support goes a long way: daily autonomy‐supportive parenting, child well‐being, parental need fulfillment, and change in child, family, and parent adjustment across the adaptation to the COVID‐19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Andreas B. Neubauer; Andrea Schmidt; Andrea C. Kramer (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Child Development
This study examined the effects of daily parental autonomy support on changes in child behavior, family environment, and parental well‐being across 3 weeks during the COVID‐19 pandemic in Germany. Day‐to‐day associations among autonomy‐supportive parenting, parental need fulfillment, and child well‐being were also assessed.
A multi-tiered systems of support blueprint for re-opening schools following COVID-19 shutdown

AUTHOR(S)
ChristopherA. Kearney; Joshua Childs

Published: January 2021   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
The COVID-19 pandemic will create enormous disruptions for youth and families with respect to economic and health status, social relationships, and education for years to come. The process of closing and intermittently reopening schools adds to this disruption and creates confusion for parents and school officials who must balance student educational progress with health and safety concerns. One framework that may serve as a roadmap in this regard is a multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) model. This article briefly addresses four main domains of functioning (adjustment, traumatic stress, academic status, health and safety) across three tiers of support (universal, targeted, intensive). Each section draws on existing literature bases to provide specific recommendations for school officials who must address various and changing logistical, academic, and health-based challenges. The recommendations are designed to be flexible given fluctuations in the current crisis as well as focused on maximum-value targets.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.