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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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What will the coronavirus do to our kids? Parents in Austria dealing with the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on their children

AUTHOR(S)
Ulrike Zartler; Vera Dafert; Petra Dirnberger (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Family Research
This study investigates parents' experiences in dealing with the potential negative effects of the pandemic on their offspring, and seeks to explicate (1) how parents have assessed their children's situations during the pandemic; (2) what challenges parents have experienced in accompanying their offspring through the crisis; and (3) what strategies parents have developed for helping their children cope with the effects of the pandemic.
How does parent–child communication affects posttraumatic stress disorder and growth in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic? The mediating roles of self-compassion and disclosure

AUTHOR(S)
Baohua Zhen; Benxian Yao; Xiao Zhouc (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

Research suggests that family factors play an important role in adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG). Parent–child communication has attracted particular attention. However, it remains unclear whether parent–child communication affects PTSD and PTG via unique or shared underlying mechanisms. The study aim was to examine the effect of parent–child communication on PTSD and PTG via self-compassion and self-disclosure. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 683 adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic.

The impact of parental monitoring on cyberbullying victimization in the COVID-19 era

AUTHOR(S)
Seung Yeop Paek; Julak Lee; Yeon-Jun Choi

Published: March 2022   Journal: Social Science Quarterly

The purpose of the current research was to examine the predictors of cyberbullying victimization among South Korean students during a period in which the coronavirus disease was spreading worldwide. This study assessed whether parental guardianship protected against victimization when most people worked from home and school instructions were shifted to online learning. It analyzed nationally representative data collected between October 6 and November 13, 2020. Binary logistic regression models were developed based on the Routine Activities Theory theoretical model to investigate the correlates of cyberbullying victimization among participants.

Looking ahead: caregivers’ COVID-19 vaccination intention for children 5 years old and younger using the health belief model

AUTHOR(S)
Morgan E. Ellithorpe; Fashina Aladé; Robyn B. Adams (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Vaccine

COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is a significant public health issue. While vaccines are not yet available for children, clinical trials are underway, and children will likely be an important factor in the U.S. reaching herd immunity. However, little research has been conducted to examine parents’ intention to vaccinate their young children for COVID-19. An online survey with a national U.S. sample of 682 primary caregivers of children under age six assessed variables associated with intention to accept the COVID-19 vaccine for their children from November 13, 2020, to December 8, 2020.

Factors associated with parental acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination: a multicenter pediatric emergency department cross-sectional analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Brigitte M. Baumann; Robert M. Rodriguez; Amy M. DeLaroche (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Annals of Emergency Medicine

At a time when the COVID19 vaccine was approved for everyone > 12 years of age, this study sought to identify characteristics and beliefs associated with COVID-19 vaccination acceptance. It conducted a cross-sectional survey study of parents of children aged 3-16 years presenting to one of 9 emergency departments from June-August 2021 to assess parental acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines. Using multiple variable regression, it ascertained which factors were associated with parental and pediatric COVID-19 vaccination acceptance.

Parental support for young learners’ online learning of English in a Chinese primary school

AUTHOR(S)
Jian Tao; Yueting Xu

Published: January 2022   Journal: System
Online language learning is challenging to young learners who often need high levels of support from teachers and parents due to their limited skills in self-regulated learning. While technology integration in education is on the rise, there continues to be a lack of research into how young learners can be better supported in online language learning. This qualitative study examines how parents support young learners' online learning of English during the COVID-19 pandemic, based on interviews with 30 parents of students in Grades 1–5 at a Chinese primary school. The study reveals a range of supportive practices: monitoring of learning emerged as the top priority for parents, followed by affective, academic and technology support. Most of these parental support strategies were mediated primarily by the children's grade level and/or parents' socioeconomic background. Parents also sought teachers' help and played bridging roles to enable teacher-student interaction, particularly when they were unable to provide direct help themselves.
Are there any changes in mothers' attitudes? Analysis of the impact of the COVID-19 quarantine on child-rearing attitudes

AUTHOR(S)
Mehmet Toran; Bülent Özden

Published: January 2022   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
The present study aims to examine the impact of the time spent by mothers at home with their children during the quarantine period that was implemented due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the mothers’ child-rearing attitudes, taking into consideration some variables and the experiences of mothers. The study was designed using embedded mixed design, in which qualitative and quantitative research methods were used together. The quantitative research group consisted of 673 mothers and the qualitative research group consisted of 16 mothers. The research data was gathered online using the Lime Survey platform, and the interviews with the mothers were also held online. Demographic information form, the Child Rearing Attitude Scale, and a semi-structured interview form were used as data collection tools. Moderator variable analysis was used for the quantitative research data and descriptive analysis was used for the qualitative research data in support of the quantitative data.
Parental mediation in pandemic: predictors and relationship with children's digital skills and time spent online in Ireland

AUTHOR(S)
Beatrice Sciacca; Derek A. Laffan; James O'Higgins Norman (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
During the COVID-19 pandemic, an increasing reliance on digital technology to carry out social, entertainment, work and school activities increased, which may have affected the ways in which parents mediated their children's digital technology use. Given the prominent role that digital technology will have in the future, it is important to investigate parent and child characteristics which impacted parental mediation of children's digital technology use. Therefore, the present study aimed at analysing the frequency of parental mediation strategies (i.e. active and restrictive) during lockdown, their determinants, and how the two strategies affected children's digital skills and time spent online. Data were collected from 461 parent and 461 child participants. Results showed that almost half of parents (46%) practiced parental mediation with the same frequency, while the 42.6% applied it more often.
Providing children with COVID-19 vaccinations is challenging due to lack of data and wide-ranging parental acceptance

AUTHOR(S)
Jiatong She; lanqin Liu; Wenjun Liu

Published: October 2021   Journal: Acta Paediatrica

Vaccines are vital to ending the COVID-19 pandemic and we reviewed the data on vaccinating children, and including them in clinical trials, as most of the activity has focused on adults. English and Chinese databases, including PubMed, Elsevier Scopus, Web of Science, CNKI and CQVIP were searched, along with websites such as the World Health Organization and the University of Oxford.

The protective role of parent resilience on mental health and the parent–child relationship during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Beth S. Russell; Alexandria J. Tomkunas; Morica Hutchison (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Child Psychiatry & Human Development
The COVID-19 pandemic is linked to particularly potent psychological effects for children and their caregivers while families adjust to new daily routines for work, education, and self-care. Longitudinal associations are presented from a national sample of 271 parents (mean age = 35.29 years, 48.5% female) on resilience, mental health and stress indicators, and parenting outcomes. Multigroup path model results indicate significant associations between resilience and parent stress or parent perceived child stress initiates a sequence of significant linkages to parent depression, followed by caregiver burden and parent–child relationship quality. This final set of linkages between depression and both parenting outcomes were significantly stronger for men, who also reported higher rates of perceived child stress. Results suggest that fathers’ depression symptoms and associated spill-over to perceived child stress is producing stronger effects on their parenting experiences than effects reported by mothers.
Sibling conflict during COVID-19 in families with special educational needs and disabilities

AUTHOR(S)
Umar Toseeb

Published: August 2021   Journal: British Journal of Educational Psychology
Young people with special educational needs and disabilities (SENDs) and their families have been particularly hard hit by the COVID-19 pandemic. In this longitudinal study, sibling conflict in these families during and after the first lockdown in the United Kingdom was investigated. Online questionnaires were completed by 504 parents of young people with SENDs at four time points between 23 March 2020 and 10 October 2020 (over half completed the questionnaire at multiple time points). As lockdown progressed, young people with SENDs were more likely to be picked on or hurt by their siblings compared with earlier stages of the lockdown but there was no change in how frequently they harmed or picked on their siblings. After lockdown, both perpetration and victimization decreased but not to the same rates as the first month of lockdown. Young people with SENDs with severe or complex needs were somewhat protected from sibling conflict.
Abusive and positive parenting behavior in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic under the state of emergency

AUTHOR(S)
Yui Yamaoka; Mariko Hosozawa; Makiko Sampei (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the lives of children and parents, raising concerns about child maltreatment. This study examined the prevalence of abusive parenting behavior during the pandemic of the COVID-19 and its relations with physical, psychological, and social factors and positive parenting behavior. An online survey was performed during the COVID-19 state of emergency in Japan. Participants were 5344 parents of children aged 0–17 years.

Caregiver perspectives on schooling from home during the Spring 2020 COVID-19 closures

AUTHOR(S)
Amy M. Briesch; Robin S. Codding; Jessica A. Hoffman (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: School Psychology Review
The abrupt onset of the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated an unprecedented shift to remote schooling for students across the United States and required many caregivers to take a primary or secondary role as schoolteacher. The goal of this study was to better understand caregivers’ experiences of schooling from home during the spring 2020 COVID-19 closures. Roughly 1,000 caregivers, the majority of whom were White, highly educated mothers, responded to the survey, documenting their children’s daily remote learning experiences and providing insight into the frequency and perceived quality of specialized services and individualized support plans.
Cyber-safety and COVID-19 in the early years: a research agenda

AUTHOR(S)
Susan Edwards

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Early Childhood Research
Young children aged birth to 5 years are known users of the internet, both unsupervised and in collaboration with adults. Adults also use the internet to share details of children’s lives with others, via sharenting and educational apps. During COVID-19 internet use by children and families rose significantly during periods of enforced stay-home. Internet use by children, and by adults on behalf exposes children to conduct, contact and content risks online. These risks mean that cyber-safety in the early years is increasingly necessary, especially concerning increased internet usage during COVID-19. While cyber-safety is well developed for primary and secondary-school aged children this is not the case for young children, their families and educators. This paper proposes a research agenda for cyber-safety in the early years, using critical constructivism and internet studies to define the internet as a non-unitary technology. Three main objects of study concerning cyber-safety in the early years, including the reference to COVID-19 are identified for targeted research, including: technologies, context and policy.
Faces of risk and resilience: fathers and their families

AUTHOR(S)
Rob Palkovitz; Jay Fagan

Published: March 2021   Journal: Adversity and Resilience Science
The global Covid-19 pandemic and heightened focus on systemic racism in the USA provide differential lenses for considering contexts of risk and resilience as they apply to individual fathers and their families. Intersections of race, class, culture, personal characteristics, and access to resources uniquely shape fathers’ resilience as they navigate risks to themselves and their families. The interdependence of families with other community members, family work, role enactments, gender, and policy highlights the centrality of fathers’ executive function in conjunction with available resources to shape the quality of individual father–child relationships and the overall wellbeing of fathers and their families. This commentary focuses on the current pandemic and racism as risk factors for families, the ways in which fathers are uniquely affected by these risks, the ways in which fathers exhibit resilience in the face of these adversities, and implications for future research about the ways in which fathers’ gendered behaviors and attitudes may ultimately change as a consequence of the pandemic and systemic racism.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.