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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 75
Lockdown babies: Birth and new parenting experiences during the 2020 Covid-19 lockdown in South Africa, a cross-sectional study

Elise Farley; Amanda Edwards; Emma Numanoglu (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Women and Birth

Perceived birth experiences of parents can have a lasting impact on children. This study explored the birth and new parenting experiences of South African parents in 2020 during the Covid-19 lockdown. It was a cross-sectional online survey with consenting parents of babies born in South Africa during 2020. Factors associated with negative birth emotions and probable depression were estimated using logistic regression.

COVID-19 impact on parental emotion socialization and youth socioemotional adjustment in Italy

Laura Di Giunta; Carolina Lunetti; Irene Fiasconaro (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Research on Adolescence
This study examines the change and associations in parental emotion socialization strategies in response to children’s negative emotions and youths’ adjustment, comparing before the Covid-19 pandemic hit Italy and since the pandemic began. Participants were convenient cross-sectional/normative (Study 1) and clinical/longitudinal (Study 2) samples of Italian parents whose children were in middle childhood and adolescence. In Study 1, self-reported socialization strategies, youths’ maladjustment, and emotion dysregulation increased since the pandemic began. Whereas, in Study 2, socialization strategies and youths’ maladjustment decreased since the pandemic started. In both studies, unsupportive parental emotion socialization predicted youths’ maladjustment and emotion dysregulation, while supportive parental emotion socialization predicted adaptive emotion regulation. This study advances knowledge about the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the family context.
Longitudinal changes in adolescents’ school bonding during the COVID-19 pandemic: individual, parenting, and family correlates

Sahitya Maiya; Aryn M. Dotterer; Shawn D. Whiteman

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Research on Adolescence
The current study examined changes in adolescents’ school bonding from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic and its individual, parenting, and family-level correlates. Participants were two adolescents (50% male; Mage = 14 years) and one parent (85% female; Mage = 45 years) from 682 families (N = 2046) from an ongoing longitudinal study. Adolescents reported on their school bonding, stress, and coping, while parents reported on their involvement in adolescents’ education and pandemic-related financial need. A two-wave latent change score model suggested that adolescents’ school bonding decreased from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic. Stress and pandemic-related financial need served as risk factors, whereas coping and parental involvement served as protective factors against declines in adolescents’ school bonding.
Caring for a sick or injured child during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in 2020 in the UK: An online survey of parents' experiences

Sarah Neill; Rachel Carter; Ray Jones (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Health Expectations

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the first UK lockdown (March to May 2020) witnessed a dramatic reduction in children presenting to primary/emergency care, creating concern that fear of the virus was resulting in children presenting late. An online survey was co-developed with UK parents to understand the impact of the lockdown on parents' help-seeking for, and care of, their sick/injured child(ren). The survey was advertised through social media and snowballing to parents whose children had been ill/injured during the lockdown. Analysis used descriptive statistics, SPSSv25 and thematic analysis.

Self-compassion and rumination type mediate the relation between mindfulness and parental burnout

Marine Paucsik; Agata Urbanowicz; Christophe Leys (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The COVID-19 lockdown increased the day-to-day challenges faced by parents, and thereby may have increased parental burnout risk. Therefore, identifying parental burnout protection factors is essential. This study aimed to assess the protective role of the following factors which can be increased through mindfulness practice: trait mindfulness, self-compassion, and concrete vs. abstract ruminations. A total of 459 parents (Mage = 40; 98.7% female) completed self-reported questionnaires at two-time points to assess the predictive role of mindfulness on parental burnout, self-compassion and rumination type, and the mediating role of self-compassion and rumination type in the relation between mindfulness and parental burnout.
Developmental gains and losses during parenthood

Elizabeth M. Westrupp; Jacqui Macdonald; Subhadra Evans

Published: August 2021   Journal: Current Opinion in Psychology
The onset of parenthood irrevocably changes the landscape of adults’ functioning, amplifying the potential for parents’ experiences of both developmental losses and gains/growth, in context of increased responsibilities and more limited access to environmental resources/supports. This paper draws on dual theoretical lenses to integrate the frameworks of Baltes’ lifespan development theory of gains and loss, and Bronfenbrenner’s bio-ecological model. It summarize empirical evidence in relation to a normative transition, exemplified by the transition to parenthood, and a non-normative event, the COVID-19 pandemic, and show that parents’ experiences of developmental loss and gains/growth are inextricably linked. This study's findings illustrate how parents’ losses/gains are influenced by a broad range of individual and environmental factors, with implications for parent prevention/intervention programs.
Sleep quality among parents and their children during COVID-19 pandemic in a Southern - Brazilian sample

Luis Eduardo Wearick-Silva; Samanta Andresa Richter; Thiago Wendt Viola (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Jornal de Pediatria

This study aims to evaluate sleep characteristics of parents and their children during the COVID-19 pandemic and predictors for sleep disturbances. Cross-sectional web-based study using an online survey made available for dyads of parents and their children during the 7th week of quarantine in southern Brazil. Parents' and adolescents’ sleep were characterized using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. For children aged 0-3 years parents completed the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire, for those aged 4-12 years the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children. Parents also informed, subjectively, their perception about sleep habits during social distancing. Multiple regression was run to predict sleep disturbances in adults using independent variables: sex, income, education, children age, and children with sleep disturbances.

Willingness and influential factors of parents of 3-6-year-old children to vaccinate their children with the COVID-19 vaccine in China

Xiao Wan; Haitao Huang; Jia Shang (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
The impact of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on children aged 3–6 can be severe. Vaccination for COVID-19 is one of the most important primary preventative measures to reduce disease transmission. Parents are hesitant to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 because it was reported in the news that some adults have had adverse reactions to the vaccine. This study aims to investigate the willingness of Chinese parents of 3–6 year old children to vaccinate them with the COVID-19 vaccine and identify what factors influence their decisions. A survey was conducted using a two-stage stratified random sampling method from December 2020 to February 2021. We used univariate analysis and multivariate binary logistic analysis to explore potential factors that may determine the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine.
We just have to sail this sea all together until we find a shore: parents’ accounts of home-educating primary-school children in England during COVID-19

Claire Lee; Lucy Wenham

Published: August 2021   Journal: Education 3-13
Parents’ everyday realities of enforced home-schooling during COVID-19 may offer important insights into strengths and weakness of education systems. This article presents findings from a qualitative study involving parents of primary-school-age children in England during the first ‘lockdown’. Parents shared common concerns with routine, motivation, resources, support, and children’s wellbeing, and responded creatively to the challenges they faced. This reseqarch argues that focusing narrowly on ‘learning loss’ and getting ‘back on track’ may lead to impoverished educational experiences post-COVID-19, and that a broad, engaging curriculum with social and emotional wellbeing at its core will support children’s thriving in an uncertain future.
Parental distress in the time of COVID-19: a cross-sectional study on pediatric patients with neuropsychiatric conditions during lockdown

Gianluca Sesso; Eleonora Bonaventura; Bianca Buchignani (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research snd Public Health
The lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic has had adverse psychological effects on children and parents. While parenting is essential for positive development, increased parental distress has interfered with children’s wellbeing. This study aimed to identify the predictors of parental distress in families of children with neuropsychiatric disorders during lockdown. Seventy-seven parents of children with neuropsychiatric disorders were asked to fill three online questionnaires (a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Parental-Stress-Index (PSI-4-SF) to explore the relationship between parental distress, emotional/behavioral problems in children and quarantine-related factors through univariate analyses and multiple mediation models.
It’s not homeschool, it’s school at home: parents’ experiences as teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic

Debra P. Price; Jamey Peersman; Savannah Matherne

Published: July 2021   Journal: Educational Media International
This article explores the oral histories of five parents from the United States and Europe who found themselves teaching their children at home, last spring, when school buildings closed in response to the COVID −19 pandemic. Their stories resulted from interviews conducted via Zoom. This article examines data exclusively shared through an interview process. In addition to the oral histories, thematic analysis was conducted in order to facilitate the communication of themes to education policy holders and administration. Of particular importance were the influences of virtual learning and technology, both hardware and software. Themes based on issues of communication, support, learning environments and curriculum give insight into how schools and communities might respond differently to future events where school buildings are closed, but school remains in session.
Anti-COVID-19 medications, supplements, and mental health status in Indonesian mothers with school-age children

Annette d' Arqom; Brihastami Sawitri; Zamal Nasution (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: International Journal of Women's Health
The COVID-19 pandemic affects all aspects of life and might cause stress for vulnerable groups such as mothers with school-age children, both housewives and working mothers. With the uncontrolled circulating information about medications, supplements, and herbs that are believed to treat COVID-19, self-medication and misused might escalate. Therefore, this study aims to determine the consumption of “anti-COVID” agents and the mental health of mothers with school-age children in Indonesia. Online questionnaires regarding medications/supplements for COVID-19 prevention and treatment of “anti-COVID” consumption behavior and mental health using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21) were distributed among Indonesian mothers with school-age children.
The impact of COVID-19 restrictions on psychological distress in family caregivers of children with neurodevelopmental disability in the UK

Karri Gillespie-Smith; Doug McConachie; Carrie Ballantyne (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Caregivers of a child with a neurodevelopmental disability are more vulnerable to mental health difficulties. These difficulties are influenced by the child’s challenging behaviours, and the caregiver’s coping strategies; factors impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. An online mixed methods survey was conducted on caregivers of children with neurodevelopmental disabilities (n = 43) and children who are typically developing (n = 67). The results showed that presence of challenging behaviours related to neurodevelopmental disability, and caregiver coping strategies predicted caregiver psychological distress during lockdown.
Ties in tough times: how social capital helps lower-income Jewish parents weather the economic hardship of COVID-19

Ilana M. Horwitz; Sasha Lascar

Published: July 2021   Journal: Contemporary Jewry
This exploratory study examined how social ties helped lower-income Jewish parents in the Greater Philadelphia area weather the COVID-19 pandemic. 36 parents who self-identified as Jewish, had at least one school-age child, and earned less than the median Jewish household income in the Philadelphia area were interviewed. The data were analyzed through the lens of social capital, focusing on three forms: bonding, bridging, and linking social capital. Unlike in weather-related disasters, where social capital yields crucial physical help, the social distancing requirements of the COVID-19 pandemic changed how social capital functions. Parents with strong social ties in the Jewish community were able to connect to people and institutions of power, such as rabbis and Jewish organizations, who provided valuable material resources while families sheltered in place.
Parental plans to vaccinate children for COVID-19 in New York city

Chloe A. Teasdale; Luisa N. Borrell; Yanhan Shen (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Vaccine
Once COVID-19 vaccines are approved for children < 12 years of age, high pediatric vaccination coverage will be needed to help minimize the public health threat from the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. We conducted an online survey of 1,119 parents and caregivers of children ≤ 12 years in New York City from March 9 to April 11, 2021. Among parents surveyed, 61.9% reported plans to vaccinate their youngest child for COVID-19, 14.8% said they do not plan to vaccinate their child and 23.3% were unsure. Female and non-Hispanic Black parents were least likely to report plans to vaccinate their children. Safety, effectiveness and perceptions that children do not need vaccination were the primary reasons for vaccine hesitancy/resistance. Parents who have or will vaccinate themselves were significantly more likely to report they would vaccinate their children.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.