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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Internet-based parent training with telephone coaching on managing disruptive behavior in children during The COVID-19 pandemic

Saana Sourander; Andre Sourander; Susanna Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: JMIR Pediatrics and Parenting

There is growing concern about the short- and long-term impacts that the COVID-19 pandemic will have on the mental health and psychosocial well-being of children and families. There are no existing studies about feasibility and outcomes using internet-based parent training programs with telephone coaching for disruptive behavioral problems in childhood during the COVID-19 pandemic in clinical settings.  This study explored how the Strongest Families Smart Website (SFSW) parent training program, with telephone coaching, provided support during the COVID-19 pandemic at specialist family counseling centers in Helsinki, Finland, when restrictions made face-to-face counseling impossible. This study followed the success of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and its implementation study of the SFSW parent training program by primary care child health clinics. The aim was to improve parenting skills, so that parents could tackle disruptive behavior by developing positive parent-child relationships. It started in May 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic was at its height in Finland.

"Will it work as well on Zoom?" A natural experiment during the Covid-19 pandemic of delivering parenting groups via video conferencing or in person

Livia van Leuven; Maria Lalouni; Martin Forster

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of Child and Family Studies
While rates of child maltreatment increased during the Covid-19-pandemic, face-to-face interventions to support families got difficult to carry out due to restrictions. Meanwhile, many services do not have access to parenting programs designed for digital or remote delivery. A solution employed by some services was to use video conferencing (VC) to deliver their regular parenting programs. This study examined the effectiveness of the universal group-based parenting program ABC offered through VC instead of on-site meetings during the pandemic. Pre and post measurements were collected from 469 parents participating in either 1) ABC with VC meetings only, 2) on-site meetings only, or 3) blended – a combination of VC and on-site sessions. In addition, 74 group leaders completed a survey about their experiences of VC groups.
Telehealth training in principles of applied behavior analysis for caregivers of young children with autism spectrum disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic

Brittany Batton; Rachel Kaplan; Kaci Ellis (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Education and Treatment of Children
Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the U.S. government declared a state of emergency and many applied behavior analysis clinics temporarily closed. The current study described a pilot of an existing manualized caregiver behavior skills training, the Online and Applied System of Intervention Skills (OASIS), to promote telehealth caregiver training during the pandemic and facilitate the start of early intervention for families on waitlists. The OASIS telehealth curriculum trains caregivers to use applied behavior analysis with their children with autism spectrum disorder. Pre/post measures suggest that OASIS modestly improved parent knowledge, improved perceived quality of life, decreased stress, improved caregiver self-efficacy, and was viewed positively by participating families.
Parental factors contribute to childhood cancer abandonment treatment during COVID-19

Susi Susanah; Ismiana Fatimah Modjaningrat; Nur Melani Sari (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Global Pediatric Health
Factors influence a person’s health seeking behavior related to abandonment rate on pediatric oncology treatment during this pandemic is unknown. The aim is to identify factors influencing abandonment rates in early pandemic. This was a cross-sectional studies during early pandemic and analyze factors in parents whose children had treatment for malignancy contribute to their children’s abandonment treatment rate through guided interview using questionnaire.
The effectiveness of psychoeducation to improve the well-being of parents having children with autism during the pandemic

Nurussakinah Daulay; Nefi Darmayanti

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal An-Nafs: Kajian Penelitian Psikologi
This study aimed to determine the role of group-based parenting support training with the psychoeducational method in improving the well-being of parents having children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) during the pandemic. The participants were 10 parents divided into the psychoeducational group and 12 parents in the control group in one State Special School for Autism in Medan. The instrument used a scale based on seven aspects of subjective well-being, as expressed by White (2010). Furthermore, data analysis was carried out using an independent sample t-test.
Parental socioeconomic and psychological determinants of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccine uptake in children

Krista Salo-Tuominen; Tamara Teros-Jaakkola; Laura Toivonen (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Vaccine

Before COVID-19, the previous pandemic was caused by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in 2009. Identification of factors behind parental decisions to have their child vaccinated against pandemic influenza could be helpful in planning of other pandemic vaccination programmes. We investigated the association of parental socioeconomic and psychosocial factors with uptake of the pandemic influenza vaccine in children in 2009–2010. This study was conducted within a prospective birth-cohort study (STEPS Study), where children born in 2008–2010 are followed from pregnancy to adulthood. Demographic and socioeconomic factors of parents were collected through questionnaires and vaccination data from electronic registers. Before and after the birth of the child, the mother’s and father’s individual and relational psychosocial well-being, i.e. depressive symptoms, dissatisfaction with the relationship, experienced social and emotional loneliness, and maternal anxiety during pregnancy, were measured by validated questionnaires (BDI-II, RDAS, PRAQ, and UCLA).

Online positive parenting programme for promoting parenting competencies and skills: randomised controlled trial.

Sararat Tuntipuchitanon; Ing‑on Kangwanthiti; Ketsupar Jirakran (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Scientific Reports
Positive parenting programmes (PPP), albeit effective, are not readily accessible to the general public, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. In 103 healthy caregiver-child dyads, tyhis study investigated the effectiveness of online PPP on parenting sense of competencies (primary outcome), parenting styles and behavioural concerns of children aged 3–6 years (secondary outcomes) between 2 blinded, parallel groups. After block of 4 randomisations, intervention group (n = 52) attended live, group-based, internet delivered PPP while both intervention and active control group (n = 51) received weekly general education via communication application. Outcomes were measured at baseline, 8 and 14 weeks.
Supporting children on the autism spectrum as they experience the challenges of COVID-19

Barbara Obst; Megan Roesler; Patricia Fato (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: NASN school nurse
The response to the COVID-19 pandemic has amplified stress and social isolation for many children, but those children living with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been disproportionately affected. Prior to the pandemic, children with ASD often faced social isolation due to struggles with their social communication and social development. Planning for children with ASD to return to community experiences, including school, appointments, and even recreational activities, will require an understanding of the impact of COVID-19 on the child and their family. As the child and family are working to adjust to changes like new routines, sleep patterns, and sensory issues as a result of the pandemic, the pediatric nursing community should be knowledgeable and prepared to develop creative opportunities to meet the needs of this vulnerable population.
Student parents or parent students in lockdown pandemic? A third space approach

Z. Nikiforidou; Sarah E. Holmes

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Family Issues
The pandemic has affected families in many ways. Parents, who at the same time are studying, tend to be an under-represented cohort of adult learners, and in this study, their experiences and reflections, on how they navigated through their dual identities during lockdown, are explored. Through an online survey, 91 student parents from 20 different higher education institutions in the United Kingdom shared their views as to how they balanced their parenting and studying responsibilities during lockdown in early 2021. Findings indicate how student parents felt both their roles were impacted rather negatively, but also how the pandemic provided them opportunities for bridging and resisting binaries, through the emergence of a Third Space (Bhabha, H. K. (1994). The location of culture. New York, NY: Routledge; Soja, E. W. (1996). Third space: Journeys to Los Angeles and other real-and-imagined places. Malden, MA: Blackwell). The study shows how student parents re-positioned their identities, identified ways to manage disruptions caused by the lockdown and acknowledged family time and family relationships as very important. 
High parental education protects against changes in adolescent stress and mood early in the COVID-19 pandemic

Sarah Collier Villaume; Jacquelyn E. Stephens; Ednah E. Nwafor (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought dramatic changes to the daily lives of U.S. adolescents, including isolation from friends and extended family, transition to remote learning, potential illness and death of loved ones, and economic distress. This study’s purpose is to measure changes in adolescents’ perceived stress and mood early in the pandemic. The present study drew from a racially and ethnically diverse sample of high school student participants in an ongoing intervention study in the Midwestern U.S., 128 of whom provided reports of their daily stress and mood both before (December 2017 to March 2020) and during (March–July 2020) the COVID-19 pandemic. We expected to see increases in perceived stress, declines in positive mood states, and increases in negative mood states, with larger impacts on individuals from households with lower parental education levels.

Examination of pre-pandemic measures on youth well-being during early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic

Blaire M. Porter; Ian J. Douglas; Tyler L. Larguinho (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Biological Psychiatry Global Open Science

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected our lives in numerous ways. How youth have been impacted by the pandemic, and which pre-existing factors best relate to COVID-19 responses, is of high importance for effective identification and treatment of those most vulnerable. Youth with pre-pandemic mental health difficulties like ADHD could be at risk for worse well-being during and after the pandemic. The current study tested potential risk factors (i.e., pre-pandemic mental health, age, and parent education) and their relation to family experiences during early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were previously enrolled in an on-going, yearly longitudinal study examining the relationship between mental health and executive functions in youths. Families with 1-4 annual pre-pandemic lab visits filled out an online COVID-19 survey in May-July 2020 to assess how the pandemic impacted their well-being (n=135 youth).

A nonrandomized trial of a behavioral parent training intervention for parents with children with challenging behaviors: In-person versus internet-HOT DOCS

Heather Agazzi; Holland Hayford; Nicholas Thomas (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Behavioral parent training (BPT) programs are the first-line interventions for childhood disruptive behaviors. In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, adapting these programs to telehealth modalities is necessary to ensure continued services to children and families. This study evaluates the use of telehealth versus in-person modality to deliver the Helping Our Toddlers, Developing Our Children’s Skills (HOT DOCS) BPT. The study design was quasi-experimental with two nonequivalent groups: in-person HOT DOCS (n = 152) and internet-HOT DOCS (n = 46). Participants were caregivers of children ages 2–5 exhibiting disruptive behaviors. Pre- and post-intervention outcome measures were collected for child disruptive behavior and parenting stress and post-test only for consumer satisfaction.
While quarantined: an online parent education and training model for families of children with autism in China

Seung Eun McDevitt

Published: January 2021   Journal: Research in Developmental Disabilities

In the wake of the COVID-19 outbreak, already limited services and resources for families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in China became even more scarce. This qualitative case study highlights one online parent education and training (PET) program developed during the pandemic to offer home-intervention strategies to parents of children with ASD in mainland China. This exploratory study sought to examine the emic perspectives of the trainers and parents who participated in the 12-week intensive training program while considering the cultural context in China and the transnational, remote nature of the program.

Parents’ distress and poor parenting during COVID-19: the buffering effects of partner support and cooperative coparenting

Caitlin S. McRae McRae; Annette M. E. Henderson; Rachel S. T. Low (et al.)

Published: September 2020
The COVID-19 pandemic is placing considerable demands on parents that amplify the risk of poor parenting. Leveraging an ongoing longitudinal study, the current study tests whether parents’ distress during a mandated lockdown predicts residual changes in poorer parenting and identifies within-family support processes that buffer these harmful effects.
Reimagining parents' educational involvement during the Covid-19 lockdown

Doria Daniels

Published: September 2020   Journal: Southern African Review of Education
This paper argues that under emergency conditions such as Covid-19, the strategies that the official educational establishment imposed to retain the formal curriculum are unjust. The abnormal educational circumstances require that education prioritise the well-being and safety of schoolchildren. Furthermore, the parental educational role needs to be reimagined for its value in advancing educational goals.
Cite this research | Vol.: 26 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 134-147 | Language: English | Topics: Education | Tags: child education, parental guidance, parents education, remote learning | Countries: South Africa
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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