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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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A ramp that leads to nothing: outdoor recreation experiences of children with physical disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic

Annika L. Vogt; Chris A. B. Zajchowski; Eddie L. Hill

Published: March 2022   Journal: Leisure Studies
During the global COVID-19 pandemic, access to outdoor recreation is desperately needed for youth; however, children with physical disabilities who regularly experience barriers and constraints to engagement in outdoor physical activity may experience additional challenges. This study examined the outdoor recreation experiences of children with physical disabilities (ages 6–10) living in Coastal Virginia during the COVID-19 pandemic by interviewing their parents using a modified Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Responses were coded inductively and then deductively using a typology of factors related to physical activity participation among children and adults with physical disabilities.
Parents’ psychological stress and their views of school success for deaf or hard-of-hearing children during COVID-19

Sanyin Cheng; Shengli Cheng (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Communication Disorders Quarterly
This study mainly explored psychological stress due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among parents of deaf and hard-of-hearing children and how it related to parents’ views of school success in mainland China. The Psychological Stress Questionnaire and Views of Social and Academic Success were administered to 213 parents of deaf and hard-of-hearing children. Results showed that parents’ and children’s characteristics were related to psychological stress due to COVID-19, which significantly negatively predicted parents’ views of school success. The contributions, limitations, and implications of the present research are discussed.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the provision of assistive technology in the State of Palestine

Golnaz Whittaker; Gavin Wood

Institution: *UNICEF
Published: February 2022

Official statistics identify 2% to 7% of the population in the State of Palestine as having a disability. Evidence is limited regarding levels of access to assistive technologies (AT) by people with disabilities in the State of Palestine. However, estimates suggest that there are high levels of unmet need. Less than 10% of children with disabilities received assistive devices in the year of one recent survey. The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on a range of such services in many countries, but little information is yet available on the impact on AT provision in humanitarian settings.

Distress, anxiety, and its correlates among caregivers of children with kidney diseases during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown

Rajni Sharma; Bikramjit Singh Jafra; Karalanglin Tiewsoh (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Archives de Pédiatrie

The COVID-19 pandemic has generated a significant amount of psychological burden in the form of stress, anxiety, uncertainty, depression, anger, and helplessness. The caregivers of children with chronic diseases in particular are at a higher risk of mental stress and burden. This online survey among caregivers of children with kidney diseases was conducted to assess the psychosocial impact of COVID-19. The psychosocial impact of COVID-19 pandemic on their mental health was assessed through standardized psychological scales (Peritraumatic Distress Inventory, Insomnia Severity Scale [ISI], Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale [DASS], and Positive and Negative Aspect Scale) and a semi-structured interview was conducted telephonically.

Pandemic-associated mental health changes in youth with neuroinflammatory disorders

Lindsey M. Logan; Samantha Stephens; Beyza Ciftci-Kavaklioglu (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders

Children with neuroinflammatory disorders have high rates of anxiety and depression, alongside low rates of physical activity. Given general concerns for mental and physical health in children during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, this study sought to understand how sleep, anxiety, depression, and physical activity changed with the lockdown in children with neuroinflammatory disorders. It hypothesized that outcomes would worsen during the lockdown, and that they would differ by underlying disorder category and age. Patients attending a specialized neuroinflammatory clinic (n = 314) completed questionnaires (n = 821 responses; Jan 2017-Aug 2020) assessing sleep, anxiety, depression, and physical activity. Respondents had either: childhood-onset chronic or recurrent neuroinflammatory disorders (CRNI), a history of Autoimmune Encephalitis (AE) or Monophasic Acquired Demyelinating Syndromes (monoADS). We performed linear mixed models to examine the association between our outcome measures (sleep, anxiety, depression, and physical activity) and categories of disorder type, sex, age, physical activity, relapses, and time (pre- vs. post- COVID-19 lockdown). Participant ID acted as a random effect, to account for repeated measures.

Perceived impact of lockdown on daily life in children with physical disabilities and their families during the COVID-19 pandemic

Roxane Varengue; Sylvain Brochard; Sandra Bouvier (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child: Care, Health and Development

The first lockdown during COVID-19 pandemic in France led to an abrupt change in children's daily lives. For children with physical disabilities and their families, activities were limited, access to healthcare and therapy was disrupted, and family organization was altered. The objective was to report the impact of the lockdown on daily life activities and well-being of children with physical disabilities as perceived by caregivers. Two online national surveys were addressed to the parents of children with physical disabilities (ECHO survey: 6 April to 11 May 2020) and without disabilities (E-COPAIN survey: 24 April to 11 May 2020), confined at home during the lockdown. A lockdown impact score was calculated from difficulties related to children's well-being (morale, behaviour and social interaction) and daily life activities (schooling and physical activity) and compared between groups. Data on family environment, parental stress and concerns were collected.

Life in lockdown: impact of COVID-19 lockdown measures on the lives of visually impaired school-age children and their families in India

Vijaya K. Gothwal; KrishnaPriya Kodavati; Ahalya Subramanian (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics

The COVID-19 outbreak has adversely impacted all societal domains including education. Home confinement, school closures and distance learning impacted children's, teachers' and parents' lives worldwide. This study aimed to examine the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on the lives, including education, of school-age children with vision impairment (VI) and their parents in India. Primary and secondary school children with VI were recruited from the Institute for Vision Rehabilitation, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. A qualitative research methodology, utilising a self-constructed questionnaire with open and closed questions and stem and leaf design, was employed to explore the experiences of school closure and its impact on education and attending online classes during the COVID-19 lockdown. Textual data from responses to the questions were analysed using content analysis to identify themes pertinent to the cohort studied.

Isolation, uncertainty and treatment delays: parents’ experiences of having a baby with cleft lip/palate during the Covid-19 pandemic

Bruna Costa; Danielle McWilliams; Sabrina Blighe (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal

Previous literature finds that having a child with a cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) may pose social and emotional challenges for parents. For parents of children born during the Covid-19 pandemic, such challenges may be heightened. Further, novel demands brought about by the pandemic could have caused additional hardships. The aim of this study was to describe the impact of the pandemic on new parents through qualitative exploration of their experiences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 parents of children born in the United Kingdom with CL/P between January and June 2020, around the start of the pandemic. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis.

What are the challenges of teaching children with hearing loss during the COVID-19?

Filiz Aslan; Deniz Tuz; Esra Yücel

Published: October 2021   Journal: International Journal of Disability, Development and Education
This study aimed to determine the difficulties of teaching children with hearing loss in the special education centre during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Turkey. Sixty-three professionals who works children with hearing loss participated in this study. The demographic form included personal information about the professional’ and a checklist to determine the effects of the Pandemic on special education. Lastly, the professionals and the teachers completed ‘The Special Education Teachers’ Sense of Professional Self-Efficacy Scale’. An email or a phone message was sent to potential participants, and interested individuals were requested to complete an online questionnaire by clicking on a link that led them to a secure online data collection service (Google Forms). Statistically significant relationships were determined between professionals using virtual communication tools in the distance education, contact with their students, continuing the rehabilitation with them and providing consultancy support to their parents.
The effect of COVID-19 on anxiety levels of children with CF and healthy peers

Muruvvet Yanaz; Cansu Yilmaz Yegit; Almala Pinar Ergenekon (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Pediatrics International

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic disease causing recurrent respiratory tract infections. Viral respiratory tract infections are more severe in CF. The first case of COVID-19 was seen in Turkey on March 11, 2020 and nationwide school closure and lockdown were implemented. School closure and home confinement might have adverse effects on children’s physical and mental health. In this study, we aimed to compare the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on psychological reactions of CF patients and healthy controls. This is a controlled cross-sectional study including 7-18 year-old children with CF. The survey included questions regarding family environment and peer relations, self care and psychological reactions to COVID-19 pandemic. The questionnaire was applied to children via telephone call under parental supervision.

Quality of life of infants, toddlers and preschoolers with seborrhoeic, allergic contact and atopic dermatitis before and during COVID-19 pandemic

Pavel V. Chernyshov; Svitlana V. Vozianova; Olga V. Chubar

Published: September 2021   Journal: Dermatology and Therapy

Different aspects of quality of life (QoL) of infants and children with atopic dermatitis (AD) are well studied but there is a lack of studies on seborrhoeic dermatitis (SD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The aim of this study was to compare the impact of SD, ACD and AD on young children. Parts of questionnaires were filled in during the COVID-19 pandemic and therefore we decided to check if the pandemic affected dermatology-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in our patients. In this cross-sectional study approved by the local ethics committee of the Kiev City Clinical Dermatovenereologic Hospital parents of children with SD, ACD and AD from birth to 4 years old from the same department of dermatology were asked to fill in the dermatology-specific questionnaire the Infants and Toddlers Dermatology Quality of Life (InToDermQoL). Diagnoses were based on clinical manifestations and anamnesis. The study was carried out from 2018 till 2021.

Current and future implications of COVID-19 among youth wheelchair users: 24-hour activity behavior

Ryan T. Conners; Lauren C. Bates; Patricia Pagan Lassalle (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Children
Preventative measures taken worldwide to decrease the transmission of COVID-19 have had a tremendous impact on youth. Following social restrictions, youth with and without physical disabilities are engaging in less physical activity, more increased sedentary behavior, and poor sleep habits. Specifically, youth wheelchair users (YWU) are likely disproportionately affected by COVID- 19 and have a higher risk of contraction due to underlying comorbidities. While all of the negative long-term implications of COVID-19 for YWU cannot be controlled, participation in positive 24-h activity behaviors can decrease chronic disease risk and the likelihood of long-term complications resulting from infection. This commentary is to extend the discourse on the importance of 24-h activity behaviors by focusing on YWU. Specifically, it discuss the importance of chronic disease prevention, provide a brief overview of 24-h activity behaviors, and outline some of the lessons that can be learned from the COVID-19 pandemic.
We are anxious every day: COVID-19 impacts on youth with spina bifida 

Colleen Stiles-Shields; Tessa K. Kritikos; Monique M. Ridosh (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Psychology

This study examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on a national sample of adolescents and young adults (AYA) with spina bifida (SB) and parents of youth with SB. AYA with SB (15–25; n = 298) and parents of children with SB (n = 200) were recruited to complete an anonymous, online survey in English or Spanish. Participants provided information about demographic and condition characteristics, as well as their technology access and use for behavioral health care. They also completed the COVID-19 Exposure and Family Impact Survey (CEFIS), which includes Exposure, Impact, and Distress subscales. Exploratory correlations and t-tests were used to examine potential associations between CEFIS scores and demographic, medical, and access characteristics. Qualitative data from the CEFIS were analyzed using thematic analysis.

Distance education for d/deaf and hard of hearing students during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia: challenges and support

Faisl M. Alqraini; Khalid N. Alasim

Published: August 2021   Journal: Research in Developmental Disabilities

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 to be a global pandemic. This prompted many countries, including Saudi Arabia, to suspend students’ attendance at schools and to start distance education. This sudden shift in the educational system has affected students’ learning, particularly for d/Deaf and hard-of-hearing (d/Dhh) students, who have unique language and communication needs. This study explores the challenges and support methods for d/Dhh students during their distance education in Saudi Arabia.

Deaf students’ linguistic access in online education: the case of Trinidad

Noor-ud-din Mohammed

Published: July 2021   Journal: Deafness & Education International
Comparatively little research on linguistic access in deaf education has occurred in the Caribbean when compared to the rest of the world. During the COVID-19 pandemic, many Caribbean countries attempted large-scale e-learning for the first time. This study investigates how an emergent system of e-learning that started during crisis conditions affects the linguistic access of deaf students in Trinidad and Tobago. The framework for investigation encompasses the learning management system, course materials and language and communication involved in e-learning. A phenomenological method of inquiry is employed to understand the processes of receiving and providing online deaf education in terms of those who experience it. Data are triangulated from deaf primary and secondary school students, their teachers, interpreters and parents.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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