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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Pediatric myopia progression during the COVID-19 pandemic home quarantine and the risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Ze Yang; Xiang Wang; Shiyi Zhang (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

The COVID-19 pandemic has made many countries adopt restrictive measures like home quarantine. Children were required to study at home, which made parents worried about the rapid myopic progression of their children. This study aims to compare myopia progression during the COVID-19 pandemic home quarantine with the time before it and risk factors of myopia progression. It searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science to find literature from December 2019 to March 2022 related to COVID-19 pandemic home quarantine and children's myopia progression. Outcomes of myopia progression included axial length and spherical equivalent refraction. Factors of digital screen device time and outdoor activity time were analyzed.

School wellbeing and psychological characteristics of online learning in families of children with and without hearing loss during the Covid‐19 pandemic

Bianca Maria Serena Inguscio; Maria Nicastri; Ilaria Giallini (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Psychology in the Schools
This study investigated the psychological characteristics of online learning on Italian students with and without hearing loss (HL) and on their parents, who were forced into isolation during the Covid-19 pandemic. An online survey collected information on socio-demographic data and opinions concerning online learning from 61 children (mean age 11; 25 males, 36 females), including 43 with HL and also from their parents; additionally, school wellbeing and anxiety were assessed.
Long-COVID in immunocompromised children

Karolina Kuczborska; Piotr Buda; Janusz Książyk

Published: July 2022   Journal: European Journal of Pediatrics
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to an illness characterized by persistent symptoms which affect various organs and systems, known as long-COVID. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and clinical characteristics of long-COVID in children with immunodeficiency, in comparison to those without. A self-constructed questionnaire was created, which included questions regarding the child’s general health, the course of their COVID-19, their symptoms of long-COVID and its impact on their daily functioning, the diagnosis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C), and vaccination status. The questionnaire was completed by parents of 147 children — 70 children with a diagnosis of immunodeficiency (47.6%) and 77 who were immunocompetent (52.4%). Immunocompetent children were more significantly affected by long-COVID than those immunocompromised. Its prevalence in the first 12-week post-infection was 60.0% and 35.7% in these groups, respectively. Beyond this period, these percentages had dropped to 34.6% and 11.43%, respectively. Children who were immunocompetent reported more often symptoms of fatigue, reduced exercise tolerance, and difficulty concentrating. Meanwhile, there was a slight increase in complaints of gastrointestinal symptoms in immunocompromised patients. The risk of developing long-COVID increased with age and COVID-19 severity in both groups.
How The child with hearing loss and their parents affected during the Covid-19 pandemic?

Deniz Tuz; Filiz Aslan; Esra Yucel

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
This study aimed to determine parents’ perception of the behavioral and auditory performance differences of children with hearing loss and anxiety levels of children and their parents during the pandemic. This is a cross-sectional study. The study included 75 parents who have preschool-aged children with hearing loss. The inclusion criteria were being a family member of a child with hearing loss between the ages of one and six years. The children’s mean age was 4.09 (± 1.42). The evaluation forms included the control list to determine how the children with hearing loss and their parents were affected during the pandemic, the Parents' Evaluation of Aural Performance of Children rating scale to measure children's auditory performance, the Preschool Behavior.
Healthy lifestyle gone bad: effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the daily habits of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes

Giovana B. de Oliveira; Janine Alessi; Isadora Nunes Erthal (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism

This study aims to assess caregivers’ perception about the changes in the daily habits of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Primary caregivers of youth aged ≤18 with or without type 1 diabetes were selected for the diabetes and the control groups. Caregivers estimated the youth’s time (hours) of physical activity and screen time before and during the pandemic, and rated the quality of eating habits and medication adherence from 0 to 10. The primary outcome was the change in physical activity time, screen time, and eating habits scores during isolation. Between-group analyses and within-group comparisons were conducted. A post hoc analysis was performed using logistic regression to correct for confounding factors.

Changes in physical activity and sedentary time among children with asthma during the COVID-19 pandemic and influencing factors.

Sandra Lee; Ai Zhang; Lei Liu (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Asthma

Regular physical activity is essential for asthma control in children, but it remains understudied within the context of COVID-19. Physical activity and sedentary time levels before and during the COVID-19 pandemic among children with asthma were documented and differences by characteristics were explored. This was a cross-sectional self-administered online survey study of 5- to 17-year-old children with asthma from the United States between December 2020 and April 2021.

Unmet needs of children with inherited metabolic disorders in the COVID-19 pandemic

Ezgi Özalp Akın; Fatma Tuba Eminoğlu; Neslihan Doğulu (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Turkish Archives of Pediatrics
Crucial information is lacking on unmet needs of children with rare inherited metabolic disorders during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic from low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to identify the unmet needs of children with rare inherited metabolic disorders from Turkey. In a cross-sectional observational design, all children with rare inherited metabolic disorders aged 0-18 years followed at Ankara University School of Medicine Department of Pediatrics Pediatric Metabolism Division were recruited and interviewed via phone calls. The Expanded Guide for Monitoring Child Development enabled assessment of unmet needs and environmental context during coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Step-wise logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent factors associated with unmet needs.
'This battle, between your gut feeling and your mind. Try to find the right balance': Parental experiences of children with spinal muscular atrophy during COVID-19 pandemic.

Irene L. B. Oude Lansink; P. C. Carolien van Stam; Eline C. W. M. Schafrat (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Child: Care, Health and Development

Parents of children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) often struggle with the all-consuming nature of the demands of caring for a child with substantial physical needs. Our aim was to explore experiences, challenges and needs of parents of a child with SMA in a COVID-19 pandemic situation.Nineteen parents of 21 children (15 months to 13 years of age) with SMA types 1–3 participated in semi-structured interviews in June to July 2020. The interviews were analysed using inductive thematic analysis.

A ramp that leads to nothing: outdoor recreation experiences of children with physical disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic

Annika L. Vogt; Chris A. B. Zajchowski; Eddie L. Hill

Published: March 2022   Journal: Leisure Studies
During the global COVID-19 pandemic, access to outdoor recreation is desperately needed for youth; however, children with physical disabilities who regularly experience barriers and constraints to engagement in outdoor physical activity may experience additional challenges. This study examined the outdoor recreation experiences of children with physical disabilities (ages 6–10) living in Coastal Virginia during the COVID-19 pandemic by interviewing their parents using a modified Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Responses were coded inductively and then deductively using a typology of factors related to physical activity participation among children and adults with physical disabilities.
Parents’ psychological stress and their views of school success for deaf or hard-of-hearing children during COVID-19

Sanyin Cheng; Shengli Cheng (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Communication Disorders Quarterly
This study mainly explored psychological stress due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among parents of deaf and hard-of-hearing children and how it related to parents’ views of school success in mainland China. The Psychological Stress Questionnaire and Views of Social and Academic Success were administered to 213 parents of deaf and hard-of-hearing children. Results showed that parents’ and children’s characteristics were related to psychological stress due to COVID-19, which significantly negatively predicted parents’ views of school success. The contributions, limitations, and implications of the present research are discussed.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the provision of assistive technology in the State of Palestine

Golnaz Whittaker; Gavin Wood

Institution: *UNICEF
Published: February 2022

Official statistics identify 2% to 7% of the population in the State of Palestine as having a disability. Evidence is limited regarding levels of access to assistive technologies (AT) by people with disabilities in the State of Palestine. However, estimates suggest that there are high levels of unmet need. Less than 10% of children with disabilities received assistive devices in the year of one recent survey. The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on a range of such services in many countries, but little information is yet available on the impact on AT provision in humanitarian settings.

Distress, anxiety, and its correlates among caregivers of children with kidney diseases during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown

Rajni Sharma; Bikramjit Singh Jafra; Karalanglin Tiewsoh (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Archives de Pédiatrie

The COVID-19 pandemic has generated a significant amount of psychological burden in the form of stress, anxiety, uncertainty, depression, anger, and helplessness. The caregivers of children with chronic diseases in particular are at a higher risk of mental stress and burden. This online survey among caregivers of children with kidney diseases was conducted to assess the psychosocial impact of COVID-19. The psychosocial impact of COVID-19 pandemic on their mental health was assessed through standardized psychological scales (Peritraumatic Distress Inventory, Insomnia Severity Scale [ISI], Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale [DASS], and Positive and Negative Aspect Scale) and a semi-structured interview was conducted telephonically.

Pandemic-associated mental health changes in youth with neuroinflammatory disorders

Lindsey M. Logan; Samantha Stephens; Beyza Ciftci-Kavaklioglu (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders

Children with neuroinflammatory disorders have high rates of anxiety and depression, alongside low rates of physical activity. Given general concerns for mental and physical health in children during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, this study sought to understand how sleep, anxiety, depression, and physical activity changed with the lockdown in children with neuroinflammatory disorders. It hypothesized that outcomes would worsen during the lockdown, and that they would differ by underlying disorder category and age. Patients attending a specialized neuroinflammatory clinic (n = 314) completed questionnaires (n = 821 responses; Jan 2017-Aug 2020) assessing sleep, anxiety, depression, and physical activity. Respondents had either: childhood-onset chronic or recurrent neuroinflammatory disorders (CRNI), a history of Autoimmune Encephalitis (AE) or Monophasic Acquired Demyelinating Syndromes (monoADS). We performed linear mixed models to examine the association between our outcome measures (sleep, anxiety, depression, and physical activity) and categories of disorder type, sex, age, physical activity, relapses, and time (pre- vs. post- COVID-19 lockdown). Participant ID acted as a random effect, to account for repeated measures.

Perceived impact of lockdown on daily life in children with physical disabilities and their families during the COVID-19 pandemic

Roxane Varengue; Sylvain Brochard; Sandra Bouvier (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child: Care, Health and Development

The first lockdown during COVID-19 pandemic in France led to an abrupt change in children's daily lives. For children with physical disabilities and their families, activities were limited, access to healthcare and therapy was disrupted, and family organization was altered. The objective was to report the impact of the lockdown on daily life activities and well-being of children with physical disabilities as perceived by caregivers. Two online national surveys were addressed to the parents of children with physical disabilities (ECHO survey: 6 April to 11 May 2020) and without disabilities (E-COPAIN survey: 24 April to 11 May 2020), confined at home during the lockdown. A lockdown impact score was calculated from difficulties related to children's well-being (morale, behaviour and social interaction) and daily life activities (schooling and physical activity) and compared between groups. Data on family environment, parental stress and concerns were collected.

Life in lockdown: impact of COVID-19 lockdown measures on the lives of visually impaired school-age children and their families in India

Vijaya K. Gothwal; KrishnaPriya Kodavati; Ahalya Subramanian (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics

The COVID-19 outbreak has adversely impacted all societal domains including education. Home confinement, school closures and distance learning impacted children's, teachers' and parents' lives worldwide. This study aimed to examine the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on the lives, including education, of school-age children with vision impairment (VI) and their parents in India. Primary and secondary school children with VI were recruited from the Institute for Vision Rehabilitation, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. A qualitative research methodology, utilising a self-constructed questionnaire with open and closed questions and stem and leaf design, was employed to explore the experiences of school closure and its impact on education and attending online classes during the COVID-19 lockdown. Textual data from responses to the questions were analysed using content analysis to identify themes pertinent to the cohort studied.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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