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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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COVID-19 pandemic impact on mental health in children: a call for longitudinal datasets on prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder

Gowda Parameshwara Prashanth

Published: December 2022   Journal: Middle East Current Psychiatry
Mental health in children is intricate with psychological, social, and physical environments acting as key factors influencing the health status and the opposing outcomes and hence difficult to forecast. Important contextual risk factors such as natural calamities, migration, political conflicts, and socioeconomic adversities could produce negative mental health outcomes in childhood. Recent medical literature is abundant with empirical studies reporting adverse mental health symptoms and health behaviors among children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Psychological stress experienced by parents and posttraumatic emotional stress experienced by children during the COVID-19 pandemic

S. Çimke; D. Yildirim Gürkan

Published: December 2022   Journal: Psychological Trauma
This study was conducted to determine psychological stress experienced by parents and posttraumatic emotional stress experienced by children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: The study has cross-sectional design and included parents who have 3- to 10 year-old children studying at kindergartens and primary schools under the Yozgat Directorate of National Education in Turkey, and who volunteered to participate in the study. The study was completed with 1,109 parents. School administrators were informed of the study and an online data collection form was distributed through parent WhatsApp groups.
The association between post-traumatic stress disorder and psychological distress among primary school and middle school teachers during the COVID-19 epidemic: a moderated mediation analysis

Jia-Xin Liang; Ying Gao; I-Hua Chen (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Sustainability
The outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and its rapid spread may have led to individuals developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychological distress. Under this context, teachers merit more attention as a group with high levels of work stress. The purpose of this study was to verify the relationship between PTSD and psychological distress and to explore sleep problems as a possible mediator in the relationship between PTSD and psychological distress, as well as the moderator of internet gaming disorders (IGD) in the relationship between sleep problems and psychological distress. A total of 11,014 Chinese primary and middle school teachers participated in this study. The survey was conducted online between 25 May and 30 June 2020. Results: PTSD was shown to have both a direct and indirect effect on teachers’ psychological distress.
Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic in children: a review and suggested solutions

Zahra Karbasi; Parisa Eslami

Published: September 2022   Journal: Middle East Current Psychiatry

The outbreak of coronavirus began in China in December 2019. It became a pandemic and a public health emergency. There have been numerous reports related to post-traumatic stress disorder outbreaks in the COVID-19 crisis. After a natural disaster, children are at a higher risk for post-traumatic stress disorder. The current study is a review of the scientific literature on the effect of COVID-19 on the prevalence of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in children. It searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases until February 02, 2022. The search strategy was based on a combination of the following keywords “child,” “COVID-19,” and “post-traumatic stress disorder.”

Posttraumatic stress disorder among adolescent girls infected with COVID-19: a cross-sectional study

Anandu Suresh; Sindhu Shankar Shivanna; Pradeep Tarikere Satyanarayana (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of Indian Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health

Pandemics are known to cause an increase in the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current COVID-19 pandemic has led to a surge in the same along with other problems such as anxiety and depression. This study aimed to find out the prevalence of PTSD and other mental health abnormalities among adolescent girls who have contracted COVID-19 infection and the factors associated with it. This was a cross-sectional study carried out for 6 months at RL Jalappa Hospital and Research Center, Kolar. Adolescent girls infected with COVID-19 were included. A total of 100 girls took part in the study after matching inclusion and exclusion criteria. To assess for PTSD, the Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview-KID (MINI-KID) and CPSS-5 Interviewer Version (CPSS 5-I) questionnaire were used. Data entered in Microsoft office excel were analyzed using SPSS v 22 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). To check for the association between factors, chi-square test was applied.

Prevalence and related factors of child posttraumatic stress disorder during COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Fan Yang; Jiaxing Wen; Ning Huang (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: European Psychiatry

The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically impacted many aspects of society and has indirectly produced various psychological consequences. This systematic review aimed to estimate the worldwide prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children due to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as to identify protective or risk factors contributing to child PTSD. A systematic literature search in the PubMed, ProQuest, PsycINFO, Embase, Web of Science, WanFang, CNKI, and VIP databases was conducted. Studies published between January 1, 2020 and May 26, 2021, that reported the prevalence of child PTSD due to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as factors contributing to child PTSD were searched. Eighteen studies were included in this systematic review, of which 10 studies were included in the meta-analysis.

Factors associated with anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptomatology during the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey: a comparison of youths and adults

Onur Tugce Poyraz Findik; Veysi Ceri; Nese Perdahli Fis (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Marmara Medical Journal

The aim of this study was to investigate anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and their possible associated factors among youths, comparing to their older adult counterparts. This cross-sectional online study assessed 1493 participants in Turkey. Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) were used.

Factors influencing post-traumatic stress symptoms in Chinese adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Siyuan Ke; Li Sun; Jiawei Zhou (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry
To investigate the prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) and analyze the influencing factors of PTSS among adolescents in a large sample study during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study did a cross-sectional study by collecting demographic data and mental health measurements from a large group of 175,318 adolescents in 32 Chinese provinces and autonomous regions, using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) that was used to measure the PTSS of the participants.
How does parent–child communication affects posttraumatic stress disorder and growth in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic? The mediating roles of self-compassion and disclosure

Baohua Zhen; Benxian Yao; Xiao Zhouc (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

Research suggests that family factors play an important role in adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG). Parent–child communication has attracted particular attention. However, it remains unclear whether parent–child communication affects PTSD and PTG via unique or shared underlying mechanisms. The study aim was to examine the effect of parent–child communication on PTSD and PTG via self-compassion and self-disclosure. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 683 adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic.

When COVID-19 met families living in armed-conflict zones: the importance of maternal trauma and child self-regulation

Kinneret Levavi; Porat Yakov; Alison Pike (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry
The COVID-19 outbreak began in Israel at the end of February 2020, and on March 17, 2020, a general lockdown was announced. Families were instructed to stay at home and schools and non-essential businesses were closed. Aiming to understand how families who were already living in areas of high exposure to armed conflict would be affected by another external stressful condition, data were collected before and after the outbreak. Mothers and children (aged 10–45 months) were recruited from areas with high (n = 40) and low (n = 78) exposure to armed conflict. Mothers reported on their posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and on their child's effortful control tendencies prior to the outbreak. Toward the end of the first lockdown, mothers were interviewed regarding adverse effects of the outbreak on their family. No group differences were found for maternal perceptions of adverse effects of COVID-19. However, a moderation model was revealed, indicating that maternal PTSS as well as child effortful control predicted adverse effects of COVID-19 only in the high-exposure group. Results are discussed considering cumulative stress and risk factors.
Relationship between post-traumatic disorder and posttraumatic growth in COVID-19 home-confined adolescents: the moderating role of self-efficacy

Yunchao Jian; Tao Hu; Yu Zong (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Current Psychology
Although the COVID-19 pandemic has been traumatogenic for some people, posttraumatic growth (PTG) outcomes have also been observed. This study examined the PTG in adolescents and the moderating effect of self-efficacy on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and PTG. An online questionnaire was conducted on 2090 adolescent Chinese students to measure COVID-19 related exposure, self-efficacy, PTSD, and PTG. PTG prevalence was found in 20.6% of the sample, with the relationship between PTSD and PTG being found to be a reverse U-shaped curve.
Network analysis of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in adolescents across COVID-19 and Typhoon Lekima

Junjun Qi; Rui Sun; Xiao Zhou

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

Network analytic studies indicate that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be comorbid with depression at the symptom level, but it remains unclear whether these findings are replicable and generalizable across trauma types. This study aim was to examine and compare PTSD–depression comorbidity networks of two types of trauma related to Typhoon Lekima and COVID-19.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in parents of children with type 1 diabetes during Covid-19 pandemic

C. Carducci; N. Rapini; A. Deodati (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics

The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a group of persistent psychological and physiological symptoms due to a traumatic, severe, event. Only few studies focused on the effects of Covid-19 on psychosocial outcomes in children with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) and their parents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence PTSD in parents of children with T1D during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. In the period between March and May 2020 we submitted the “Impact of Event Scale – Revised” (IES-R) questionnaire to the parents of 34 children with Type 1 Diabetes, asking them to express their emotions about the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic.

COVID-19 related posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia

Mohamed H. Sayed; Moustafa A. Hegazi; Mohamed S. El-Baz (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Plos One
The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in quarantine/lockdown measures in most countries. Quarantine may create intense psychological problems including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) especially for the vulnerable critically developing children/adolescents. Few studies evaluated PTSD associated with infectious disasters but no Saudi study investigated PTSD associated with COVID-19 in children/adolescents. This study was undertaken to screen for PTSD in children/adolescent in Saudi Arabia to identify its prevalence/risk factors during COVID-19 pandemic and its quarantine.
Does time change the anxiety and depression scores for pregnant women on Covid-19 pandemic?

Ayşe Geren; Özer Birge; Mehmet Sait Bakır (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Research
Post-traumatic stress disorder, the tip form of stress disorder, is considered as delayed onset if the symptoms occur at least 6 months after the main effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the severity of anxiety and depression in pregnant women during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, in addition to investigating the demographic and economic aspects affecting maternal anxiety and depression scores, 6 months after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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