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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Prevalence and related factors of child posttraumatic stress disorder during COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Fan Yang; Jiaxing Wen; Ning Huang (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: European Psychiatry

The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically impacted many aspects of society and has indirectly produced various psychological consequences. This systematic review aimed to estimate the worldwide prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children due to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as to identify protective or risk factors contributing to child PTSD. A systematic literature search in the PubMed, ProQuest, PsycINFO, Embase, Web of Science, WanFang, CNKI, and VIP databases was conducted. Studies published between January 1, 2020 and May 26, 2021, that reported the prevalence of child PTSD due to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as factors contributing to child PTSD were searched. Eighteen studies were included in this systematic review, of which 10 studies were included in the meta-analysis.

Factors associated with anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptomatology during the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey: a comparison of youths and adults

Onur Tugce Poyraz Findik; Veysi Ceri; Nese Perdahli Fis (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Marmara Medical Journal

The aim of this study was to investigate anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and their possible associated factors among youths, comparing to their older adult counterparts. This cross-sectional online study assessed 1493 participants in Turkey. Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) were used.

Factors influencing post-traumatic stress symptoms in Chinese adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Siyuan Ke; Li Sun; Jiawei Zhou (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry
To investigate the prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) and analyze the influencing factors of PTSS among adolescents in a large sample study during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study did a cross-sectional study by collecting demographic data and mental health measurements from a large group of 175,318 adolescents in 32 Chinese provinces and autonomous regions, using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) that was used to measure the PTSS of the participants.
How does parent–child communication affects posttraumatic stress disorder and growth in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic? The mediating roles of self-compassion and disclosure

Baohua Zhen; Benxian Yao; Xiao Zhouc (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

Research suggests that family factors play an important role in adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG). Parent–child communication has attracted particular attention. However, it remains unclear whether parent–child communication affects PTSD and PTG via unique or shared underlying mechanisms. The study aim was to examine the effect of parent–child communication on PTSD and PTG via self-compassion and self-disclosure. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 683 adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic.

When COVID-19 met families living in armed-conflict zones: the importance of maternal trauma and child self-regulation

Kinneret Levavi; Porat Yakov; Alison Pike (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry
The COVID-19 outbreak began in Israel at the end of February 2020, and on March 17, 2020, a general lockdown was announced. Families were instructed to stay at home and schools and non-essential businesses were closed. Aiming to understand how families who were already living in areas of high exposure to armed conflict would be affected by another external stressful condition, data were collected before and after the outbreak. Mothers and children (aged 10–45 months) were recruited from areas with high (n = 40) and low (n = 78) exposure to armed conflict. Mothers reported on their posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and on their child's effortful control tendencies prior to the outbreak. Toward the end of the first lockdown, mothers were interviewed regarding adverse effects of the outbreak on their family. No group differences were found for maternal perceptions of adverse effects of COVID-19. However, a moderation model was revealed, indicating that maternal PTSS as well as child effortful control predicted adverse effects of COVID-19 only in the high-exposure group. Results are discussed considering cumulative stress and risk factors.
Relationship between post-traumatic disorder and posttraumatic growth in COVID-19 home-confined adolescents: the moderating role of self-efficacy

Yunchao Jian; Tao Hu; Yu Zong (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Current Psychology
Although the COVID-19 pandemic has been traumatogenic for some people, posttraumatic growth (PTG) outcomes have also been observed. This study examined the PTG in adolescents and the moderating effect of self-efficacy on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and PTG. An online questionnaire was conducted on 2090 adolescent Chinese students to measure COVID-19 related exposure, self-efficacy, PTSD, and PTG. PTG prevalence was found in 20.6% of the sample, with the relationship between PTSD and PTG being found to be a reverse U-shaped curve.
Network analysis of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in adolescents across COVID-19 and Typhoon Lekima

Junjun Qi; Rui Sun; Xiao Zhou

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

Network analytic studies indicate that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be comorbid with depression at the symptom level, but it remains unclear whether these findings are replicable and generalizable across trauma types. This study aim was to examine and compare PTSD–depression comorbidity networks of two types of trauma related to Typhoon Lekima and COVID-19.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in parents of children with type 1 diabetes during Covid-19 pandemic

C. Carducci; N. Rapini; A. Deodati (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics

The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a group of persistent psychological and physiological symptoms due to a traumatic, severe, event. Only few studies focused on the effects of Covid-19 on psychosocial outcomes in children with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) and their parents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence PTSD in parents of children with T1D during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. In the period between March and May 2020 we submitted the “Impact of Event Scale – Revised” (IES-R) questionnaire to the parents of 34 children with Type 1 Diabetes, asking them to express their emotions about the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic.

COVID-19 related posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia

Mohamed H. Sayed; Moustafa A. Hegazi; Mohamed S. El-Baz (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Plos One
The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in quarantine/lockdown measures in most countries. Quarantine may create intense psychological problems including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) especially for the vulnerable critically developing children/adolescents. Few studies evaluated PTSD associated with infectious disasters but no Saudi study investigated PTSD associated with COVID-19 in children/adolescents. This study was undertaken to screen for PTSD in children/adolescent in Saudi Arabia to identify its prevalence/risk factors during COVID-19 pandemic and its quarantine.
Does time change the anxiety and depression scores for pregnant women on Covid-19 pandemic?

Ayşe Geren; Özer Birge; Mehmet Sait Bakır (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Research
Post-traumatic stress disorder, the tip form of stress disorder, is considered as delayed onset if the symptoms occur at least 6 months after the main effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the severity of anxiety and depression in pregnant women during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, in addition to investigating the demographic and economic aspects affecting maternal anxiety and depression scores, 6 months after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.
What we have learnt about trauma, loss and grief for children in response to COVID-19

Dominic A. Fitzgerald; Kenneth Nunn; David Isaacs

Published: May 2021   Journal: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
The disruption of daily life resulting from COVID-19 and its precautions has taken an enormous emotional toll on children and families. The consequences of disrupted schooling, changed social interactions and altered family dynamics has had some unanticipated positives such as improved on-line educational upskilling and personal resilience. However, the potential longer term implications for educational outcomes, economic impacts of job loss and prolonged financial insecurity, physical wellbeing and mental health remain unclear. The potential for post-traumatic stress disorders from what is experienced by children with imposed isolation from friends and extended family, domestic violence and death of relatives remains concerning.
The role of trauma in mothers' COVID-19 vaccine beliefs and intentions

Stephanie Milan; Ana Luısa B. T. Dau

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Research on COVID-19 vaccine beliefs has focused primarily on adults’ intentions to vaccinate themselves; however, many parents will also face decisions about vaccinating their children. This study examines how maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and trauma history relate to mothers’ beliefs and intentions about the COVID-19 vaccine for themselves and their children
Impact of containment and mitigation measures on children and youth with SD during the COVID-19 pandemic: report from the ELENA Cohort

Mathilde Berard; Cécile Rattaz Rattaz; Marianne Peries (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Containment, involving separation and restriction of movement of people due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and mitigation, also referred to as lockdown, involving closure of schools, universities and public venues, has had a profound impact on people's lives globally. The study focuses on the effects of containment and mitigation measures, on the behavior of children and youth (CaY) with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The study primary aim was to examine the impact of these urgent measures on the behaviors, communication, sleep, and nutritional status of the CaY. A secondary aim was to explore risk and protective factors on behavior change including sociodemographic variables, living conditions, ASD symptom severity and continuity of interventions.
A prospective study of mental health during the COVID‐19 pandemic in childhood trauma–exposed individuals: social support matters

Katja I. Seitz; Katja Bertsch; Sabine C. Herpertz

Published: February 2021   Journal: Journal of Traumatic Stress
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic and its unprecedented social restrictions may have serious mental health implications, especially in individuals who have experienced childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs). This prospective study aimed to investigate whether general psychopathology and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity increased during the pandemic as compared to prepandemic baseline data collected approximately 1 year earlier.
The impact of positive youth development attributes on posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among Chinese adolescents under COVID-19

Daniel T. L. Shek; Li Zhao; Diya Dou (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: The Journal of adolescent health
This study examined the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among adolescents in mainland China under COVID-19. The direct effects of the perceived threat of COVID-19 and positive youth development (PYD) qualities, as well as the moderating effect of PYD qualities on PTSD symptoms, were studied.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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