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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness and perinatal outcomes of COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy.

Smriti Prasad; Erkan Kalafat; Helena Blakeway (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Nature Communications
Safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy is a particular concern affecting vaccination uptake by this vulnerable group. Here we evaluated evidence from 23 studies including 117,552 COVID-19 vaccinated pregnant people, almost exclusively with mRNA vaccines. This study shows that the effectiveness of mRNA vaccination against RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection 7 days after second dose was 89·5% (95% CI 69·0-96·4%, 18,828 vaccinated pregnant people, I2 = 73·9%). The risk of stillbirth was significantly lower in the vaccinated cohort by 15% (pooled OR 0·85; 95% CI 0·73–0·99, 66,067 vaccinated vs. 424,624 unvaccinated, I2 = 93·9%). There was no evidence of a higher risk of adverse outcomes including miscarriage, earlier gestation at birth, placental abruption, pulmonary embolism, postpartum haemorrhage, maternal death, intensive care unit admission, lower birthweight Z-score, or neonatal intensive care unit admission (p > 0.05 for all). COVID-19 mRNA vaccination in pregnancy appears to be safe and is associated with a reduction in stillbirth.
Impact of COVID-19 on maternal health and child care behavior: Evidence from a quasi-experimental study of vulnerable communities in Boa Vista, Brazil

Georg Loss; Günther Fink; Luana Bessa (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Child abuse & neglect

COVID-19 related distress has been shown to have negative associations with family well-being. This study aimed to determine the immediate impact of acute COVID-19 infection on maternal well-being and parenting practices among Brazilian families. It analyzed 2′579 mothers (29′913 observations) of young children from vulnerable neighborhoods in Boa Vista, Brazil over 12 months.

Barriers and facilitators of access to maternal, newborn and child health services during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria: findings from a qualitative study

Godwin O. Akaba; Osasuyi Dirisu; Kehinde S. Okunade (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: BMC Health Services Research

COVID-19 pandemic may have affected the utilization of maternal and newborn child health services in Nigeria but the extent, directions, contextual factors at all the levels of healthcare service delivery in Nigeria is yet to be fully explored. The objective of the study was to explore the barriers and facilitators of access to MNCH services during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. A qualitative study was conducted among different stakeholder groups in 18 public health facilities in Nigeria between May and July,2020. In-depth interviews were conducted among 54 study participants (service users, service providers and policymakers) selected from across the three tiers of public health service delivery system in Nigeria (primary health centers, secondary health centers and tertiary health centers). Coding of the qualitative data and identification of themes from the transcripts were carried out and thematic approach was used for data analyses.

The analysis of the influence of information about the Covid-19 pandemic on toddlers' parenting

Emy Sutiyarsih; Narita Diatanti; Eli Lea WP

Published: April 2022   Journal: Jurnal Ners dan Kebidanan

The government's policy in implementing the New Normal to prevent the spread of COVID-19 has changed all aspects of society, including the family environment. In current conditions, parenting is the most important thing in determining optimal child development (Dewi and Khotimah, 2020). The conditions of parenting and communication in the family have both positive and negative impacts on children's development. (Kuswanti, Munadhil, Zainal & Oktarina, 2020). The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of information about the COVID-19 pandemic on toddlers’ parenting. This study was a cross-sectional analytical study. This study used a bivariate data analysis with Chi Square test

"Separated during the first hours"—Postnatal care for women and newborns during the COVID-19 pandemic: A mixed-methods cross-sectional study from a global online survey of maternal and newborn healthcare providers

Aline Semaan; Teesta Dey; Amani Kikula (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: PLOS Glob Public Health
Routine postnatal care (PNC) allows monitoring, early detection and management of complications, and counselling to ensure immediate and long-term wellbeing of mothers and newborns; yet effective coverage is sub-optimal globally. The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted availability and quality of maternal and newborn care despite established guidelines promoting continuity of essential services. We conducted a cross-sectional global online survey of 424 maternal and newborn healthcare providers from 61 countries, to explore PNC provision, availability, content and quality following the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. The questionnaire (11 languages), included four multiple-choice and four open-text questions on changes to PNC during the pandemic. Quantitative and qualitative responses received between July and December 2020 were analysed separately and integrated during reporting.
Breastfeeding in the context of Covid19: benefits for mothers

Iliadou Maria; Potamianou Irene; Askeridou Georgia

Published: April 2022   Journal: World Journal of Advanced Research and Reviews
Coronavirus 19 disease can cause short as well as long-term effects on human health and function. In particular, its response measures affect breastfeeding and pregnant women in general, resulting in a variety of issues such as changes in breastfeeding practices and increased stress levels. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding at least for the first six months of a child's life, even if the mother herself is ill, and only if her health condition allows it.
This paper provides general information about Covid 19 disease, how it affects breastfeeding, and what benefits will be visible to the breastfeeding mother in a direct or indirect way.
Pandemic beyond the virus: maternal COVID-related postnatal stress is associated with infant temperament.

Catherine Bianco; Ayesha Sania; Margaret H. Kyle

Published: April 2022   Journal: Pediatric Research
Studies have shown that infant temperament varies with maternal psychosocial factors, in utero illness, and environmental stressors. This study predicted that the pandemic would shape infant temperament through maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and/or maternal postnatal stress. To test this, it examined associations among infant temperament, maternal prenatal SARS-CoV-2 infection, maternal postnatal stress, and postnatal COVID-related life disruptions.
Evaluation of postpartum depression and maternal attachment scale in a low socioeconomic level region: how was it affected during the Covid-19 pandemic period?

Ramazan Denizli; Nihat Farisoğulları; Bedri Sakcak (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Medical Science and Discovery

This study aimed to investigate the frequency of Postpartum Depression (PPD) and maternal attachment status in a region with a low socioeconomic level during the Covid-19 pandemic.Two hundred women who gave birth in our hospital were evaluated on postpartum 10th day with Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Maternal Attachment Inventory (MBI).

Effect of the Covid 19 pandemic on depression and mother-infant bonding in uninfected postpartum women in a rural region

Özlem Erten; İsmail Biyik; Cenk Soysal (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

Postpartum depression and maternal-infant attachment scores were examined in uninfected women during the COVID 19 pandemic in Kutahya, a rural province in Turkey's North Aegean region. This cohort study was conducted in the Kutahya Health Sciences University Hospital obstetrics unit between April 2021 and August 2021. 178 low-risk term pregnant women who gave birth were given the surveys Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale and Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBQ) 6 weeks after birth. The Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale was used to determine postpartum depression and the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale was used to determine maternal attachment.

Assessment of maternal and child health care services performance in the context of COVID-19 pandemic in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: evidence from routine service data

Senedu Bekele Gebreegziabher; Solomon Sisay Marrye; Tsegaye Hailu Kumssa (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Reproductive Health volume

In many settings, health care service provision has been modified to managing COVID-19 cases, and this has been affecting the provision of maternal and child health services. The aim of this study was to assess trends in selected maternal and child health services performance in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional data review was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from April to May 2021. Routine health management information system database was reviewed from Addis Ababa Health Bureau for the period from July 2019 to March 2021 across all quarters. Proportion and mean with standard deviation were computed. T-test was used to assess statistically significant differences in services mean performance.

Breastfeeding experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain:a qualitative study

Isabel Rodríguez-Gallego; Helen Strivens-Vilchez; Irene Agea-Cano (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: International Breastfeeding Journal

The pandemic caused by COVID-19 has affected reproductive and perinatal health both through the infection itself and, indirectly, as a consequence of changes in medical care, social policy or social and economic circumstances. The objective of this study is to explore the impact of the pandemic and of the measures adopted on breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted by means in-depth semi-structured interviews, until reaching data saturation. The study was conducted between the months of January to May 2021. Participants were recruited by midwives from the Primary Care Centres of the Andalusian provinces provinces of Seville, Cádiz, Huelva, Granada, and Jaén. The interviews were conducted via phone call and were subsequently transcribed and analysed by means of reflexive inductive thematic analysis, using Braun and Clarke’s thematic analysis.

The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on maternal delivery experiences and breastfeeding practices in China: data from a cross-sectional study

Jinyue Yu; Mingyue Gao; Zhuang Wei (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: BMC Pediatrics

The COVID-2019 pandemic has placed extensive pressure on health systems and posed a severe public health challenge worldwide. Lockdown measures implemented in many countries have delayed virus spread. However, a considerable number of people have faced unprecedented pressure, especially pregnant and breast-feeding women, because face-to-face professional support has been reduced during the lockdown in many countries. This study aims to compare the delivery and infant feeding experiences of women who delivered before (BL) versus during (DL) the Covid-19 pandemic in Beijing, China and to investigate predictors of breastfeeding at 6-months. Women aged ≥18 years with an infant ≤18 months of age completed an anonymous survey. Information/links were shared online and via local clinics in Beijing. Logistic regression was performed to assess predictors of breastfeeding during the first 6-months.

Indonesian midwives’ perspectives on changes in the provision of maternity care during the COVID-19 pandemic: a qualitative study

Alya Hazfiarini; Rana Islamiah Zahroh; Shahinoor Akter (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Midwifery

To explore how COVID-19 influenced the provision of high-quality maternity care in Indonesia. A qualitative descriptive study using in-depth interviews was undertaken. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data, and behaviour change frameworks (Theoretical Domain Framework (TDF) and Capability, Opportunity, and Motivation (COM-B)) were used to identify and map facilitators and barriers influencing maternity care provision during the COVID-19 pandemic.

The effect of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection timing on birth outcomes: a retrospective multicentre cohort study

Samantha N. Piekos; Ryan T. Roper; Yeon Mi Hwang (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: The Lancet Digital Health

The impact of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unclear. This study evaluated the risk of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection on birth outcomes and how this is modulated by the pregnancy trimester in which the infection occurs. It also developed models to predict gestational age at delivery for people following a SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. This is a retrospective cohort study of the impact of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection on birth outcomes. It used clinical data from Providence St Joseph Health electronic health records for pregnant people who delivered in the USA at the Providence, Swedish, or Kadlec sites in Alaska, California, Montana, Oregon, or Washington. The SARS-CoV-2 positive cohort included people who had a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR-based test during pregnancy, subdivided by trimester of infection. No one in this cohort had been vaccinated for COVID-19 at time of infection.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 4 | Issue: 2 | No. of pages: 95-104 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, infectious disease, maternal and child health, pandemic, postnatal care, pregnancy, prenatal care | Countries: United States
COVID-19 pandemic and population-level pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in general population: A living systematic review and meta-analysis (Update#2: November 20, 2021)

Jie Yang; Rohan D’Souza; Ashraf Kharrat (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica.

Conflicting reports of increases and decreases in rates of preterm birth (PTB) and stillbirth in the general population during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have surfaced. The objective of this study was to conduct a living systematic review and meta-analyses of studies reporting pregnancy and neonatal outcomes by comparing the pandemic and pre-pandemic periods. PubMed and Embase databases and reference lists of articles published up until November 20, 2021, and included English language studies that compared outcomes between the COVID-19 pandemic time period with pre-pandemic time periods were searched. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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