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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Food security, household size and anemia status among Malaysian urban poor adolescents during the pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Satvinder Kaur; Nik Norasma Che’Ya; Wan Ying Gan (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Current Developments in Nutrition
The study aimed to determine the association between food security, household size, and anemia status among Malaysian urban poor adolescents during the pandemic. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 204 urban poor adolescents aged between 10–17 years in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between November 2021 to January 2022. Food insecurity status was assessed using the 18-item US Household Food Security Survey Module. Anthropometric assessments including weight and height were performed and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. WHO Anthro Plus was used to determine the height-for-age (HAZ) and BMI-for-age (BAZ). Haemoglobin concentration was measured using HemoCueR 201+.
Factors associated with adolescent pregnancy in Sub-Saharan Africa during the COVID-19 pandemic: a review of socioeconomic influences and essential interventions

AUTHOR(S)
Kelly Kons; Adriana A. E. Biney; Kristin Sznajder

Published: June 2022   Journal: International Journal of Sexual Health
A literature review was conducted to analyze the impact of COVID-19 on documented preexisting determinants of adolescent pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa such as poverty, inequitable gender norms, low access to education, and reproductive health services. The terms “sub-Saharan Africa,” “Gender Norms,” “Poverty,” and “Adolescent Pregnancy” were used to search the literature for preexisting determinants of adolescent pregnancy in academic and grey literature. “COVID-19” was added to investigate the potential consequences of the pandemic. The literature revealed similar experiences in adolescent girls during the Ebola outbreak, which lead to the analysis of government and healthcare official responses to previous epidemics.
Subjective well-being and material deprivation during COVID-19 pandemic: a study in children and adolescents in Indonesia

AUTHOR(S)
Ihsana Sabriani Borualogo; Sulisworo Kusdiyati; Hedi Wahyudi

Published: April 2022   Journal: Jurnal Psikologi

This study aimed to investigate the contribution of material deprivation on the subjective well-being (SWB) of children and adolescents aged 10-18 years old during COVID-19 in Indonesia. Participants (N= 3,094; 54.3% girls; 53.2% high school students) were children and adolescents from 33 provinces in Indonesia with mean age = 15.39.  Convenience sampling was used in this study, of which data were collected using internet-based questionnaires.  SWB was measured using three SWB scales:  Children’s Worlds Subjective Well-Being Scale (CW-SWBS), Overall Life Satisfaction (OLS), and one item measures subjective material well-being.   Material deprivation was measured by  participants’  reports  on  their  accessibility  to  necessities  they  need  in  life.   Participants  were further asked whether they were worried about their family’s money and access to have food to eat each day. Data were analyzed using linear regression, and descriptive statistics using crosstabs, Chi  Square  and  ANOV

Diet and food insecurity among mothers, infants, and young children in Peru before and during COVID-19: a panel survey

AUTHOR(S)
Rebecca Pradeilles; Rossina Pareja; Hilary M. Creed-Kanashiro (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Maternal & Child Nutrition
The COVID-19 pandemic may impact diet and nutrition through increased household food insecurity, lack of access to health services, and poorer quality diets. The primary aim of this study is to assess the impact of the pandemic on dietary outcomes of mothers and their infants and young children (IYC) in low-income urban areas of Peru. It conducted a panel study, with one survey prepandemic (n = 244) and one survey 9 months after the onset of COVID-19 (n = 254). IT assessed breastfeeding and complementary feeding indicators and maternal dietary diversity in both surveys. During COVID-19, it assessed household food insecurity experience and economic impacts of the pandemic on livelihoods; receipt of financial or food assistance, and uptake of health services.
Association between the perceived household financial decline due to COVID-19 and smartphone dependency among Korean adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Yun Hwa Jung; Soo Young Kim; Sung-In Jang (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
This cross-sectional study identified the association between COVID-19-related perceived household financial decline and smartphone dependency among adolescents in South Korea. Data from the 2020 Youth Risk Behavior Survey of Korea was used and 54,809 middle and high school students were included. COVID-19-related perceived household financial decline was categorized as no financial decline, mild, moderate, and severe. Smartphone dependency was calculated by 10 questions and was largely categorized as yes and no, and as normal, low, and high (prevalence rate: 25.0%). Binary and multinomial regression analyses were performed to analyze the association.
A rural school’s adaptations, improvements, and innovations during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Kristen C. Wilcox

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Cases in Educational Leadership
COVID-19 prompted unprecedented disruptions to schools with challenges particularly severe for high-poverty remote rural schools. This case study recounts the story of a rural school that had participated in a research–practice partnership (RPP) multi-year improvement effort prior to the pandemic and documents the ways the RPP and the school-based improvement team worked to navigate pandemic-related disruptions. This case study provides educational leaders with insights into ways to surmount challenges and innovate especially during times of significant disruption and provides prompts to consider with regard to the use of RPP support and improvement science-based processes and tools.
Are we asking the right questions?: choices and challenges in assessing COVID-19 impact on the vulnerable in Bangladesh

AUTHOR(S)
Debapriya Bhattacharya; Sarah Sabin Khan; Towfiqul Islam Khan

Institution: Citizen’s Platform for SDGs
Published: January 2021
The paper puts forward a framework to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on vulnerable population groups in a developing country context. Bangladesh has been used as a case study. The pandemic has not only exacerbated pre-existing vulnerabilities of these groups but has also induced new ones. Policy actions towards recovery and resumption—both immediately and over the medium-term—need to be informed by genuine and disaggregated evidence based on realities on the ground. The paper urges a need to have conceptual, analytical and methodological clarity on the relevant issues. Towards this end, it explores the current state of knowledge on the topic and digs deep into the existing literature to analyse these issues. The paper offers a set of analytical questions to construct the assessment framework. The resultant framework presented can be adopted and replicated across national contexts.
Exploring resource scarcity and contextual influences on wellbeing among young refugees in Bidi Bidi refugee settlement, Uganda: findings from a qualitative study

AUTHOR(S)
Carmen H. Logie; Moses Okumu; Maya Latif (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Conflict and Health
Contextual factors including poverty and inequitable gender norms harm refugee adolescent and youths’ wellbeing. Our study focused on Bidi Bidi refugee settlement that hosts more than 230,000 of Uganda’s 1.4 million refugees. We explored contextual factors associated with wellbeing among refugee adolescents and youth aged 16–24 in Bidi Bidi refugee settlement.
Socioeconomic impacts of COVID-19 in four African countries

AUTHOR(S)
Anna Josephson; Talip Kilic; Jeffrey D. Michler

Institution: The World Bank
Published: November 2020
This paper provides some of the first evidence on the socioeconomic impacts of and responses to the pandemic among households in Sub-Saharan Africa. Econometric methods are applied to longitudinal household survey data from Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria, and Uganda. Results show that 256 million individuals are estimated to live in households that have lost income due to the pandemic. Attempts to cope with this loss are exacerbated by the inability to access medicine and staple foods among 20 to 25 percent of the households in each country, and food insecurity is disproportionately borne by households that were already impoverished prior to the pandemic. Finally, student-teacher contact has dropped from a pre-COVID-19 rate of 96 percent to just 17 percent among households with school-age children. These findings can help inform decisions by governments and international organizations on measures to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and reveal the need for continued monitoring.
COVID-19 and children: UNICEF data hub
Institution: UNICEF Data & Analytics
Published: October 2020

Children are not the face of this pandemic. But they risk being among its biggest victims, as children’s lives are nonetheless being changed in profound ways. All children, of all ages, and in all countries, are being affected, in particular by the socio-economic impacts and, in some cases, by mitigation measures that may inadvertently do more harm than good. Moreover, the harmful effects of this pandemic will not be distributed equally. They are expected to be most damaging for children in the poorest countries, and in the poorest neighbourhoods, and for those in already disadvantaged or vulnerable situations. The potential losses that may accrue in learning for today’s young generation, and for the development of their human capital, are hard to fathom. 188 countries imposed countrywide school closures during the pandemic, affecting more than 1.6 billion children and youth. Even prior to the pandemic, however, children’s learning was in crisis, and the pandemic has only sharpened these inequities, hitting schoolchildren in poorer countries particularly hard. Globally, many schools lack the resources to invest in digital learning, and many children from poorer households do not have internet access.

A Lifeline at Risk: COVID-19, Remittances and Children

AUTHOR(S)
Gilmar Zambrana Cruz; Gwyther Rees

Millions of children around the world, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, live in households that receive money and other forms of support from a family member who has moved abroad, or to another part of the same country, to work. This form of assistance, or ‘remittances’, can alleviate household poverty and is often a key support for children’s development. In times of global economic uncertainty, however, remittances can be an unstable source of income for families. The COVID-19 pandemic is disproportionately affecting migrant workers’ job security, making it more difficult to send remittances. At the same time, families receiving remittances are facing their own economic and health challenges, meaning that the continuation of remittances is vital to keep them from slipping into poverty. This briefing paper outlines the potential risks of reduction in remittances due to the pandemic for children in households receiving remittances and what can be done to minimize these risks.
COVID-19 pandemic: the impact on vulnerable children and young people in Australia

AUTHOR(S)
Benjamin Jones; Susan Woolfenden; Sandra Pengilly (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
This article aims to present the reasons for vulnerability of children and young people (CYP) during the pandemic, and to focus on actions by health professionals that mitigate additional challenges to their health and well-being. Using a rapid review of the literature and team-based discussions, eight vulnerable groups were identified: CYP with disabilities, mental health conditions and chronic diseases; CYP facing financial hardship; within the child protection system; Aboriginal; migrant and refugee; in residential care; rural; and isolated CYP. Recommendations for action are required at the level of governments, health professionals and researchers and include enhancing access to health and social supports, prioritising vulnerable CYP in resuming health activity and elevating the voice of CYP in designing the response.
This
article aims to present the reasons for vulnerability of CYP during the pandemic, and to focus on actions by health professionals that mitigate
additional challenges to their health and well-being. Using a rapid review of the literature and team-based discussions, eight vulnerable groups
were identied: CYP with disabilities, mental health conditions and chronic diseases; CYP facing nancial hardship; within the child protection sys-
tem; Aboriginal; migrant and refugee; in residential care; rural; and isolated CYP.
Screening for economic hardship for child welfare-involved families during the COVID-19 pandemic: a rapid partnership response

AUTHOR(S)
Barbara Fallon; Rachael Lefebvre; Delphine Collin-Vézina (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect
Given the range of negative consequences related to the pandemic and the evolving supports available to families, child protection workers needed a clinical tool to guide and support work with families informed by an understanding of economic hardship. The objective of this paper is to report on the development and implementation strategy of a tool to be used for practice intervention during the pandemic.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Child Protection | Tags: child care, child care services, family assistance, poverty | Countries: Canada
Parental perceptions of COVID-19 pandemic: adherence to laid down containment measures

AUTHOR(S)
Ezeonwu Bertilla; Joseph Ajanwaenyi; Uwadia Omozele (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: American Journal of Pediatrics
This article aims to ascertain, the perceptions of caregivers of children on covid-19 containment measures, the need for adherence to the measures to understand the reasons for poor compliance. The interviewees expressed their difficulties and frustrations in maintaining the rigors of application of these measures but would that government should expedite action towards the discovery of Protective vaccines because of the effect these measures had on their economic means of livelihoods.
Cite this research | Vol.: 6 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 357-361 | Language: English | Topics: Child Protection, Social Protection, Well-being and Equity | Tags: community participation, COVID-19 response, lockdown, poverty | Countries: Nigeria
The social safety net in the wake of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Marianne Bitler; Hilary W. Hoynes; Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach

Published: September 2020
The COVID-19 crisis has led to spiking unemployment rates with disproportionate impacts on low-incomefamilies. School and child-care center closures have also meant lost free- and reduced-price schoolmeals. Food prices have increased sharply leading to reduced purchasing power for families’ limited income. Real time data show significant distress – notably food insecurity rates have increased almost three times overthe pre-COVID rates and food pantry use has also spiked. In this paper, we explore why there is so much unmet need despite a robust policy response.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.