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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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The COVID-19 pandemic: implications for maternal mental health and early childhood development

Bonnie D. Kerker; Erica Willheim; J. Rebecca Weis (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: American Journal of Health Promotion
Women are particularly susceptible to mental health challenges during the perinatal period. With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, much concern was raised about the impact that the associated isolation, uncertainty, grief, loss and economic upheaval would have on mental health. Women experienced a disproportionate amount of environmental strain during this time, including economic stress and challenges associated with being essential workers; stressors were perhaps most prevalent in communities of color and immigrant groups. For women who were pregnant during the height of the pandemic, it is clear that stress, anxiety, and depression were increased due to changes in medical care and decreases in social support. Increased mental health challenges in the perinatal period have been shown to impact social-emotional, cognitive and behavioral health in infants and children, so the potential consequences of the COVID-19 era are great. This paper discusses these potential impacts and describes important pathways for future research.
The impact of COVID-19 on pregnant women and children: recommendations for health promotion

Whitney Perkins Witt; Nicole Harlaar; Ashley Palmer (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: American Journal of Health Promotion
COVID-19 continues to have severe repercussions on children and pregnant women. The repercussions include not only the direct impact of COVID-19 (ie, children getting infected by COVID-19) but also indirect impacts (eg, safeguarding from child maltreatment, obesogenic behaviors, language and socioemotional development, educational consequences [eg, interrupted learning]; social isolation; mental health; behavioral health [eg, increased substance use in adolescence]; health and economic impact of COVID-19 on caregivers and family relationships. It has also shed light on long-standing structural and socioeconomic issues, including equity in nutrition and food security, housing, childcare, and internet access. Using a socioecological, life course, and population health approach, this study discusses the implications for pregnant women and children’s health and well-being and give recommendations for mitigating the short and long-term deleterious impact COVID- 19 on women, children, and their families.
Maternal psychopathological profile during childbirth and neonatal development during the COVID-19 pandemic: a pre-posttest study

Sergio Martinez-Vazquez; Blanca Riquelme-Gallego; Leydi Jhoansy Lugo-Toro (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Behavioral Sciences
The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 generated an alert that became a state of emergency in health issues worldwide, a situation that affected the entire population, including pregnant women. The present study aims to understand the effect of the psychopathological profile of a sample of pregnant women at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic on themselves during childbirth (Phase 1) and after childbirth and the anthropometric measures of the neonate at birth (Phase 2). The total sample comprises 81 pregnant women aged 32.07 years (SD = 5.45) and their neonates. Sociodemographic and obstetric data of the sample were collected. During pregnancy, psychopathology was measured by means of the SCL-90, as well as other psychological measures on stress and social support. Cluster k-means techniques were used to uncover the heterogeneous profiles of psychopathology in Phase 1.
Magnitude and determinants of food insecurity among pregnant women in Rwanda during the COVID-19 pandemic

Erigene Rutayisire; Michael Habtu; Nicholas Ngomi (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Journal of Agriculture and Food Research

Globally, food insecurity is becoming a major public health concern, and has seriously been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. In the last decade, Rwanda has made significant improvement in terms of overall household food security. However, the magnitude of food insecurity among pregnant women is not well known. This study investigated the magnitude and factors associated with food insecurity among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. It was a cross-sectional study conducted in 30 health facilities across the country where a total of 1159 pregnant women in their first trimester of pregnancy were recruited during antenatal care visits (ANC).

Mothers' impressions and beliefs about taking a booster dose for COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy and lactation

Esra' O. Taybeh; Rawan Alsharedeh; Shereen Hamadneh

Published: December 2022   Journal: Cureus

This study aimed to explore perceptions and willingness to get coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) booster vaccination among pregnant and lactating women in Jordan. A cross-sectional study using a 29-item web-based questionnaire was conducted. Sociodemographic characteristics, vaccine acceptance, confidence in the booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine, perception of risk for COVID-19, and acceptance to participate in COVID-19 booster vaccine clinical trials were prospectively evaluated. Logistic regression was used to identify factors that might affect the participants’ acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine and their willingness to enroll in clinical trials of a booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine.

Giving birth in unpredictable conditions: association between parents' COVID-19 related concerns, family functioning, dyadic coping, perceived social support and depressive symptoms

Theano Kokkinaki; Katerina Koutra; Olga Michopoulou (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Healthcare
The way postpartum parents’ COVID-19-related concerns are associated with the family environment, support resources and depressive symptoms areunder-investigated. Two hundred and forty-three new parents (132 mothers, 111 fathers) completed self-report questionnaires within an 8-week period after birth. Parental concerns for COVID-19-related life changes were assessed with the COVID-19 Questionnaire, perceived social support with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, perceived family functioning with the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales IV Package, dyadic coping behaviors with the Dyadic Coping Inventory and maternal/paternal postnatal depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.
COVID-19: impact of original, gamma, delta, and omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 in vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant and postpartum women

Fabiano Elisei Serra; Elias Ribeiro Rosa Junior; Patricia de Rossi (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Vaccines
This study compares the clinical characteristics and disease progression among vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant and postpartum women who tested positive for different variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) using the Brazilian epidemiological data. Data of pregnant or postpartum patients testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and presenting with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from February 2020 to July 2022 were extracted from Brazilian national database. The patients were grouped based on vaccination status and viral variant (original, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron variants), and their demographics, clinical characteristics, comorbidities, symptoms, and outcomes were compared retrospectively. Data of 10,003 pregnant and 2361 postpartum women were extracted from the database. For unvaccinated postpartum women, intensive care unit (ICU) admission was more likely; invasive ventilation need was more probable if they tested positive for the original, Gamma, and Omicron variants; and chances of death were higher when infected with the original and Gamma variants than when infected with other variants. Vaccinated patients had reduced adverse outcome probability, including ICU admission, invasive ventilation requirement, and death. Postpartum women showed worse outcomes, particularly when unvaccinated, than pregnant women. Hence, vaccination of pregnant and postpartum women should be given top priority.
The effect of pregnant women's health-seeking behavior and preference for mode of birth on pregnancy distress during the COVID-19 pandemic

Songül Aktaş; Ruveyde Aydın; Dilek Kaloğlu Binici

Published: December 2022   Journal: Health Care for Women International
In this study, the researchers investigated to the impact of pregnant women’s health-seeking behavior and mode of birth preferences on pregnancy distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was conducted with 351 pregnant women. The risk rate of pregnancy distress using the Tilburg Pregnancy Distress Scale (TPDS) cut-off point was 16.5%. 13.3% of pregnant women changed their mode of birth preferences due to the pandemic. The risk of pregnancy distress in women who changed their mode of birth preferences due to the pandemic increased 5.4 times more than in those who preferred vaginal birth before and during the pandemic (OR: 5.4, p<0.001).
Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Pregnant women in Northern Bangladesh: a community-based cross-sectional study

Homyra Tasnim; Md. Bony Amin; Nitai Roy (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Behavioral Sciences
COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, remains a global public health concern despite the availability of effective antiviral treatment against multiple strains. Studies have shown that pregnant women are more susceptible to COVID-19 due to altered physiology and immunological features. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate pregnant women’s knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) to prevent COVID-19 and determine the factors associated with KAP. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 425 pregnant women in Northern Bangladesh. The samples were obtained using a simple random sampling technique from 5 April to 15 June 2020. The data were collected by face-to-face survey with a structured and pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 25. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed, and p-values < 0.05 at 95% CI were considered statistically significant.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 13 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 14 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, disease prevention, infectious disease, pandemic, pregnancy, pregnant women | Countries: Bangladesh
COVID-19 anxiety and quality of life among adolescent pregnant women: a cross-sectional study

Mohammad Saeed Jadgal; Hadi Alizadeh-Siuki; Nayyereh Kasiri (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

This study aims to determine the relationship between the COVID-19 anxiety and the quality of life among adolescent pregnant women in Dashtiari city, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 216 adolescent pregnant women in Dashtiari city, Iran in 2021 who met the inclusion criteria participated in a multi-stage sampling. Data collection tools included: demographic information, COVID-19 Anxiety Scale and a questionnaire of quality of life. Finally, the obtained data were analyzed in SPSS software version 21 using descriptive, Chi-square, Tukey and logistic regression tests.

COVID-19-related attitude and risk perception among pregnant women attending antenatal care, and the associated factors, at public health facilities of East Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia, 2020: a multi-center cross-sectional study

Keralem Anteneh Bishaw; Yibelu Bazezew Bitewa; Mamaru Getie Fetene (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Public Health

This study aimed to assess COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019)-related attitude and risk perception among pregnant women attending antenatal care, and the associated factors, at public health facilities of the East Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia. A multi-center cross-sectional study was conducted, from December 1–30, 2020. A total of 847 pregnant women were included in the study using a simple random sampling technique. To collect the data, we used an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Bi-variable and multi-variable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with pregnancy-related anxiety. A p-value of < 0.05 with a 95% confidence level was used to declare statistical significance.

Worries, beliefs and factors influencing perinatal COVID-19 vaccination: a cross-sectional survey of preconception, pregnant and lactating individuals

Serine Ramlawi; Katherine A. Muldoon; Sandra I. Dunn (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health

COVID-19 vaccines are recommended for pregnant and lactating individuals, and there is substantial evidence for their safety and effectiveness. As the pandemic continues, information on worries and beliefs surrounding perinatal COVID-19 vaccination remains important to inform efforts aimed at improving vaccine uptake. Our objectives were to assess factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination among perinatal individuals; and to explore motivational factors associated with willingness to be vaccinated among unvaccinated perinatal individuals. This was a cross-sectional web-based survey of preconception, pregnant, and lactating individuals in Canada. The outcomes of interest were vaccination with at least one dose of any COVID-19 vaccine and willingness to be vaccinated among unvaccinated individuals. Sample characteristics were summarized using frequencies and percentages. The association between eight prespecified risk factors and two outcomes (vaccination status and willingness to be vaccinated) was assessed by logistic regression. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the total sample, and across perinatal sub-groups.

Assessment of knowledge, attitudes and self-protective measures of postpartum women regarding COVID 19

A. Ali Doha; Entisar M. Youness; A. Ahmed Amal

Published: December 2022   Journal: Assiut Scientific Nursing Journal

Because of the physiological changes and a resulting immune-compromised state that render postpartum women more susceptible to COVID-19. This study aims to assess the levels of postpartum women's knowledge, attitudes and self-protective measures regarding COVID 19. Dscriptive cross sectional study design at Sohag University Hospital on 350 postpartum women by using an interviewing questionnaire, assess postpartum women`s knowledge and Likert scale to assess attitudes toward COVID -19 infection& prevention. 

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 10 | Issue: 33 | No. of pages: 64-75 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, infectious disease, postnatal care, pregnancy, pregnant women | Countries: Egypt
COVID-19 vaccination status and pregnancy outcome during third wave

Pranjali Dhume; Madhusudan Dey; Shyamji Tiwari (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Gynecology Obstetrics & Reproductive Medicine

Omicron was declared as a variant of concern by WHO on 26 Nov 2021. Omicron is highly transmissible, but the disease severity and morbidity were lesser compared to the Delta variant. However, COVID-19 Vaccine efficacy was reduced for the Omicron variant whereas it was highly efficacious for the Delta variant. Hence, for evidence-based counseling in pregnant patients about expected outcomes depending on their vaccination status, this prospective cohort study was conducted. This study was conducted in Base Hospital Delhi Cantt, New Delhi, India during the third wave of SARS-CoV-2 i.e. from Jan 2022 to Mar 2022. All COVID-19-positive patients who were admitted for delivery were followed up till discharge from the hospital. The outcomes in terms of severity of COVID-19 infection, period of gestation at the time of delivery, intrapartum/postpartum complications, fetal distress, meconium staining of liquor, the requirement of neonatal intensive care unit admission were documented and data was analyzed to assess clinical severity of the disease in fully/partially vaccinated+unvaccinated women.

Differentiated mental health patterns in pregnancy during COVID-19 first two waves in Sweden: a mixed methods study using digital phenotyping

Emma Fransson; Maria Karalexi; Mary Kimmel (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Scientific Reports
To utilize modern tools to assess depressive and anxiety symptoms, wellbeing and life conditions in pregnant women during the first two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden. Pregnant women (n = 1577) were recruited through the mobile application Mom2B. Symptoms of depression, anxiety and wellbeing were assessed during January 2020–February 2021. Movement data was collected using the phone’s sensor. Data on Google search volumes for “Corona” and Covid-related deaths were obtained. Qualitative analysis of free text responses regarding maternity care was performed. Two peaks were seen for depressive symptoms, corresponding to the two waves. Higher prevalence of anxiety was only noted during the first wave. A moderating effect of the two waves in the association of depression, anxiety, and well-being with Covid deaths was noted; positive associations during the first wave and attenuated or became negative during the second wave. Throughout, women reported on cancelled healthcare appointments and worry about partners not being allowed in hospital. The association of mental health outcomes with relevant covariates may vary during the different phases in a pandemic, possibly due to adaptation strategies on a personal and societal/healthcare level. Digital phenotyping can help healthcare providers and governmental bodies to in real time monitor high-risk groups during crises, and to adjust the support offered.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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