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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Prenatal and postpartum maternal mental health and neonatal motor outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic

Alissa Papadopoulos; Emily S. Nichols; Yalda Mohsenzadeh (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders Reports

Rates of prenatal and postpartum stress and depression in pregnant individuals have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Perinatal maternal mental health has been linked to worse motor development in offspring, with motor deficits appearing in infancy and early childhood. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between prenatal and postpartum stress and depression and motor outcome in infants born during the COVID-19 pandemic. One hundred and seventeen participants completed an online prospective survey study at two timepoints: during pregnancy and within 2 months postpartum. Depression was self-reported using the Edinburgh Perinatal/Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS), and stress via the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Mothers reported total infant motor ability (fine and gross) using the interRAI 0–3 Developmental Domains questionnaire.

Maintaining continuity of care for expectant mothers in Kenya during the COVID-19 pandemic: a study of MomCare

Teresa De Sanctis; Mary-Ann Etiebet; Wendy Janssens (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Global Health: Science and Practice
In Kenya, early coronavirus disease (COVID-19) modeling studies predicted that disruptions in antenatal care and hospital services could increase indirect maternal and neonatal deaths and stillbirths. As the Kenyan government enforced lockdowns and a curfew, many mothers-to-be were unable to safely reach hospital facilities, especially at night. Fear of contracting COVID-19, increasing costs of accessing care, stigma, and falling incomes forced many expectant mothers to give birth at home. MomCare, which primarily serves communities in remote areas and urban slums, links mothers-to-be with payers and health care providers, following a standardized pregnancy program based on World Health Organization guidelines at a predetermined cost and quality. Expectant mothers gain access to care through a mobile wallet on their feature phone (voice, text, and basic internet), and providers are paid after appropriate care is given. Within the first 3 weeks of the pandemic in Kenya, the following services were added to the MomCare bundle: emergency ambulance services during curfew hours, extended bed allowances to encourage early care, phone calls to check on mothers approaching their delivery dates and to promote the generation of a birth plan, SMS messages to inform mothers of open facilities and COVID-19 protocols, and training for clinic staff in managing COVID-19 patients and infection prevention. We compare data collected through the MomCare platform during the 6 months before the first confirmed COVID-19 case in Kenya (September 2019–February 2020) with data collected during the 6 months that followed. This study shows that care-seeking behaviors (enrollment, antenatal/postnatal care, skilled deliveries) increased for mothers-to-be enrolled in MomCare during the COVID-19 lockdowns, while quality of care and outcomes were maintained. Public health practitioners can promote interactive, patient-driven technology like MomCare to augment traditional responses, quickly linking payments with patients and providers in times of crisis.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 10 | Issue: 4 | No. of pages: 12 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19 response, lockdown, maternal and child health services, pregnancy, pregnant women, social distance | Countries: Kenya
Food safety knowledge and risk perception among pregnant women: a cross-sectional study in Jordan during the COVID-19 pandemic

Safaa Almanasrah; Tareq M. Osaili; Anas A. Al-Nabulsi (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems

Pregnant women are at a higher risk of food poisoning compared to the general population. This can be detrimental to both the mother and the fetus. This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge and risk perception of basic food safety and handling among pregnant women in Jordan amid the COVID-19 pandemic. A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study among pregnant women in Jordan was conducted using an online questionnaire between November 2020 and January 2021. The survey included socio-demographic data, food safety knowledge, and risk perception questions as well as COVID-19 related questions.

Concerns of high-risk pregnancies during pandemic: COVID-19 and fear of birth

Öznur Tiryaki; Hamide Zengin; Koray Gök (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Florence Nightingale Journal of Nursing
This study was conducted to determine the fear of birth and coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnant women who applied to the high-risk pregnancy outpatient clinic during the pandemic and investigate whether there is a relationship between these fears. This study is a descriptive cross-sectional study using questionnaires. The Fear of COVID-19 Scale and Fear of Birth Scale for Pregnant Women were validated in Turkish in outpatient women with high-risk pregnancies. The study was carried out with 238 pregnant women between February 15 - April 15, 2021.
Systematic review: the effect of Covid-19 on anxiety in pregnant women

Anita Dewi Anggraini; Budi Prasetyo; Rachmah Indawati (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Science Midwifery
Pregnancy is a very vulnerable period in a woman's life. Hormonal changes during pregnancy can affect emotional instabilityThe anxiety caused will have an impact on the health of mothers and children such as the risk of preeclampsia, premature birth, low birth weight, and fetal growth restriction. This study aims to determine the existing literature on the impact of COVID-19 on anxiety in  pregnant women. This study used a systematic literature review method. The population in this study were journals from the Pubmed, Science Direct, Sage, Emerald, and Proquest databases published between 2020 and 2021.
Social consequences of COVID-19 on fertility preference consistency and contraceptive use among Nigerian women: insights from population-based data

Joshua O. Akinyemi; Oluwafemi I. Dipeolu; Ayodeji M. Adebayo (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Contraception and Reproductive Medicine

Emerging evidence from high income countries showed that the COVID-19 pandemic has had negative effects on population and reproductive health behaviour. This study provides a sub-Saharan Africa perspective by documenting the social consequences of COVID-19 and its relationship to fertility preference stability and modern contraceptive use in Nigeria. It analysed panel data collected by Performance Monitoring for Action in Nigeria. Baseline and Follow-up surveys were conducted before the COVID-19 outbreak (November 2019-February 2020) and during the lockdown respectively (May-July 2020). Analysis was restricted to married non-pregnant women during follow-up (n = 774). Descriptive statistics and generalized linear models were employed to explore the relationship between selected social consequences of COVID-19 and fertility preferences stability (between baseline and follow-up) as well as modern contraceptives use.

COVID-19: consequences on pregnant women and neonates

Kritika S. Sharma; Rekha Sharma; Sapna Nehra (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Health Sciences Review

Human species is confronting with a gigantic global COVID-19 pandemic. Initially, it was observed in Wuhan, China, and the COVID-19 cases spread across the globe with lightning speed and resulted in the 21st century pandemic. If scientific reports are taken care of, it is noteworthy that this virus possesses more specific characteristics due to its structure. The distinctive structure has a higher binding affinity with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein, and this is used as an access point to gain access to hosts. A complete literature search was conducted using PubMed, Google Scholar, SciFinder, and deep-diving Google Search using keywords such as "Pregnancy, COVID-19, Newborn, Fetus, Coronavirus 2019, Neonate, Pregnant women, and vertical transmission".

COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy in pregnant and breastfeeding women and strategies to increase vaccination compliance: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Francesco Paolo Bianchi; Pasquale Stefanizzi; Maria Cristina Di Gioia (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Expert Review of Vaccines

Pregnant and breastfeeding women are at an increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19. Despite this, low vaccination coverages are reported in this population sub-group. The purpose of this study is to estimate the proportion of pregnant and breastfeeding women expressing hesitation to the COVID-19 vaccine worldwide. Forty-six studies were included, selected from scientific articles available in three scientific databases between 1 January 2020 and 6 February 2022. The vaccine hesitation rate among pregnant and breastfeeding women was 48.4% (95%CI=43.4–53.4%). In a sub analysis by study period, it was 40.0% (95%CI=31.6–46.6%) considering surveys administered in 2020, 58.0% (95%CI=48.9–66.9%) considering surveys administered in the first semester of 2021, and 38.1% (95%CI=25.9–51.2%) considering surveys administered in the second semester of 2021. The main reasons for vaccine hesitation were lack of information about vaccination, opinion that the vaccine is unsafe, and fear of adverse events.

Intimate partner violence against pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Huldani Huldani; Walid Kamal Abdelbasset; Saade Abdalkareem Jasim (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Women & Health
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of (intimate partner violence) IPV against pregnant women in the COVID-19 pandemic. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus for observational studies regarding the prevalence of IPV against pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. The search was performed with the following keywords: intimate partner violence, domestic violence, battered women, wife assault, partner assault, wife abuse, partner abuse, femicide, domestic homicide, pregnancy, gestation, pregnant women, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, 2019-nCoV, Coronavirus Disease-19, 2019 Novel Coronavirus, Wuhan Coronavirus, SARS Coronavirus 2, Wuhan Seafood Market Pneumonia Virus. Heterogeneity between the studies was assessed using Cochran’s Q test and I2 index. In addition, a random-effects model was used to estimate the prevalence of IPV. Data analysis was performed in Stata software version 16.
Early impact of COVID-19 pandemic on childbearing plan in Bangladesh

Rahman Mahfuzur; Shafiul Alam; Arif Billah

Published: July 2022   Journal: Biodemography and Social Biology
The COVID-19 pandemic has already had many consequences for social life. This paper focused on the early impact of COVID-19 pandemic on pandemic-period childbearing plan that was made before the onset of the pandemic. Data were collected by posting survey questionnaire on social networks in Bangladesh. A total of 384 Bangladeshi men and women of reproductive age were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses after adjusting the data by applying sampling weights. One out of every five respondents was found to cancel their pandemic-period pregnancy plan by considering potential crises related to COVID-19 pandemic.
Outcomes in neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 during the second wave in India

Sushma Malik; Dipty Jain; Chandrakant M. Bokade (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: European Journal of Pediatric
COVID-19 pandemic has affected all age groups globally including pregnant women and their neonates. The aim of the study was to understand outcomes in neonates of mothers with COVID-19 during the first and second waves of COVID-19 pandemic. A retrospective analysis of 2524 neonates born to SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers was conducted during the first wave (n = 1782) and second wave (n = 742) of the COVID-19 pandemic at five study sites of the PregCovid registry in Maharashtra, India. A significant difference was noted in preterm birth, which was higher in the second wave (15.0%, 111/742) compared to the first wave (7.8%, 139/1782) (P < 0.001). The proportion of neonates requiring NICU admission was significantly higher in the second wave (19.0%, 141/742) as compared to that in the first wave (14.8%, 264/1782) (P < 0.05). On comparing regional differences, significantly higher neonatal complications were reported from Mumbai metropolitan region (P < 0.05). During the second wave of COVID-19, birth asphyxia and prematurity were 3.8- and 2.1-fold higher respectively (P < 0.001). Neonatal resuscitation at birth was significantly higher in second wave (3.4%, 25/742 vs 1.8%, 32/1782) (P < 0.05). The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates was comparable (4.2% vs 4.6%) with no significant difference between the two waves.
Impact of the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic on coverage of reproductive, maternal, and newborn health interventions in Ethiopia: a natural experiment

Emily D. Carter; Linnea Zimmerman; Jiage Qian (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

The COVID-19 pandemic and response have the potential to disrupt access and use of reproductive, maternal, and newborn health (RMNH) services. Numerous initiatives aim to gauge the indirect impact of COVID-19 on RMNH. This study assessed the impact of COVID-19 on RMNH coverage in the early stages of the pandemic using panel survey data from PMA-Ethiopia. Enrolled pregnant women were surveyed 6-weeks post-birth. It compared the odds of service receipt, coverage of RMNCH service indicators, and health outcomes within the cohort of women who gave birth prior to the pandemic and the COVID-19 affected cohort. We calculated impacts nationally and by urbanicity.

Breastfeeding promotion during the COVID-19 pandemic in northeastern Brazil

Brena Carvalho Pinto de Melo; Glaucia Virgínia de Queiroz Lins Guerra; Judith Correa (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: World Nutrition Journal
Early COVID-19 delivery room reports routinely described maternal and neonatal physical distancing, in both confirmed or suspected cases. Immediately, breastfeeding experts expressed their concern for the potential catastrophic consequences of such separation, with great potential for breastfeeding discontinuity, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This manuscript reports a positive experience of early breastfeeding promotion and maintenance in labour and delivery room, from the time of the first cases of COVID-19, confirmed or suspected, at a Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) and tertiary teaching hospital in Recife, in the northeastern region of Brazil.
A mother's perspective of consent for maternal and neonatal COVID-19 testing: can we do more?

Natalie Anne East; Sunitha Ramaiah; Kimberley Morris

Published: June 2022   Journal: British Journal of Midwifery

There is ongoing research on the effects of COVID-19 on pregnancy and whether vertical viral transmission occurs. This study aimed to determine maternal opinions of COVID-19 testing for pregnant women and newborns in order to influence future clinical practice while advancing global knowledge of the impact of testing on patient experiences. This service evaluation assessed the opinions of 292 pregnant women who were tested for COVID-19 along with their newborn babies using nasopharyngeal swabs and the SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test between 28 April and 21 May 2020.

Association of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy with incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in infants.

Ellen Øen Carlsen; Maria C. Magnus; Laura Oakley (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: JAMA Internal Medicine

Pregnant women are recommended to receive COVID-19 vaccination to reduce risk of severe COVID-19. Whether vaccination during pregnancy also provides passive protection to infants after birth remains unclear. This study aimed to determine whether COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy was associated with reduced risk of COVID-19 in infants up to age 4 months during COVID-19 pandemic periods dominated by Delta and Omicron variants. This nationwide, register-based cohort study included all live-born infants born in Norway between September 1, 2021, and February 28, 2022.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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