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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 338
Intimate partner violence against pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Huldani Huldani; Walid Kamal Abdelbasset; Saade Abdalkareem Jasim (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Women & Health
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of (intimate partner violence) IPV against pregnant women in the COVID-19 pandemic. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus for observational studies regarding the prevalence of IPV against pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. The search was performed with the following keywords: intimate partner violence, domestic violence, battered women, wife assault, partner assault, wife abuse, partner abuse, femicide, domestic homicide, pregnancy, gestation, pregnant women, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, 2019-nCoV, Coronavirus Disease-19, 2019 Novel Coronavirus, Wuhan Coronavirus, SARS Coronavirus 2, Wuhan Seafood Market Pneumonia Virus. Heterogeneity between the studies was assessed using Cochran’s Q test and I2 index. In addition, a random-effects model was used to estimate the prevalence of IPV. Data analysis was performed in Stata software version 16.
Early impact of COVID-19 pandemic on childbearing plan in Bangladesh

AUTHOR(S)
Rahman Mahfuzur; Shafiul Alam; Arif Billah

Published: July 2022   Journal: Biodemography and Social Biology
The COVID-19 pandemic has already had many consequences for social life. This paper focused on the early impact of COVID-19 pandemic on pandemic-period childbearing plan that was made before the onset of the pandemic. Data were collected by posting survey questionnaire on social networks in Bangladesh. A total of 384 Bangladeshi men and women of reproductive age were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses after adjusting the data by applying sampling weights. One out of every five respondents was found to cancel their pandemic-period pregnancy plan by considering potential crises related to COVID-19 pandemic.
Outcomes in neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 during the second wave in India

AUTHOR(S)
Sushma Malik; Dipty Jain; Chandrakant M. Bokade (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: European Journal of Pediatric
COVID-19 pandemic has affected all age groups globally including pregnant women and their neonates. The aim of the study was to understand outcomes in neonates of mothers with COVID-19 during the first and second waves of COVID-19 pandemic. A retrospective analysis of 2524 neonates born to SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers was conducted during the first wave (n = 1782) and second wave (n = 742) of the COVID-19 pandemic at five study sites of the PregCovid registry in Maharashtra, India. A significant difference was noted in preterm birth, which was higher in the second wave (15.0%, 111/742) compared to the first wave (7.8%, 139/1782) (P < 0.001). The proportion of neonates requiring NICU admission was significantly higher in the second wave (19.0%, 141/742) as compared to that in the first wave (14.8%, 264/1782) (P < 0.05). On comparing regional differences, significantly higher neonatal complications were reported from Mumbai metropolitan region (P < 0.05). During the second wave of COVID-19, birth asphyxia and prematurity were 3.8- and 2.1-fold higher respectively (P < 0.001). Neonatal resuscitation at birth was significantly higher in second wave (3.4%, 25/742 vs 1.8%, 32/1782) (P < 0.05). The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates was comparable (4.2% vs 4.6%) with no significant difference between the two waves.
Impact of the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic on coverage of reproductive, maternal, and newborn health interventions in Ethiopia: a natural experiment

AUTHOR(S)
Emily D. Carter; Linnea Zimmerman; Jiage Qian (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

The COVID-19 pandemic and response have the potential to disrupt access and use of reproductive, maternal, and newborn health (RMNH) services. Numerous initiatives aim to gauge the indirect impact of COVID-19 on RMNH. This study assessed the impact of COVID-19 on RMNH coverage in the early stages of the pandemic using panel survey data from PMA-Ethiopia. Enrolled pregnant women were surveyed 6-weeks post-birth. It compared the odds of service receipt, coverage of RMNCH service indicators, and health outcomes within the cohort of women who gave birth prior to the pandemic and the COVID-19 affected cohort. We calculated impacts nationally and by urbanicity.

Breastfeeding promotion during the COVID-19 pandemic in northeastern Brazil

AUTHOR(S)
Brena Carvalho Pinto de Melo; Glaucia Virgínia de Queiroz Lins Guerra; Judith Correa (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: World Nutrition Journal
Early COVID-19 delivery room reports routinely described maternal and neonatal physical distancing, in both confirmed or suspected cases. Immediately, breastfeeding experts expressed their concern for the potential catastrophic consequences of such separation, with great potential for breastfeeding discontinuity, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This manuscript reports a positive experience of early breastfeeding promotion and maintenance in labour and delivery room, from the time of the first cases of COVID-19, confirmed or suspected, at a Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) and tertiary teaching hospital in Recife, in the northeastern region of Brazil.
A mother's perspective of consent for maternal and neonatal COVID-19 testing: can we do more?

AUTHOR(S)
Natalie Anne East; Sunitha Ramaiah; Kimberley Morris

Published: June 2022   Journal: British Journal of Midwifery

There is ongoing research on the effects of COVID-19 on pregnancy and whether vertical viral transmission occurs. This study aimed to determine maternal opinions of COVID-19 testing for pregnant women and newborns in order to influence future clinical practice while advancing global knowledge of the impact of testing on patient experiences. This service evaluation assessed the opinions of 292 pregnant women who were tested for COVID-19 along with their newborn babies using nasopharyngeal swabs and the SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test between 28 April and 21 May 2020.

Association of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy with incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in infants.

AUTHOR(S)
Ellen Øen Carlsen; Maria C. Magnus; Laura Oakley (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: JAMA Internal Medicine

Pregnant women are recommended to receive COVID-19 vaccination to reduce risk of severe COVID-19. Whether vaccination during pregnancy also provides passive protection to infants after birth remains unclear. This study aimed to determine whether COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy was associated with reduced risk of COVID-19 in infants up to age 4 months during COVID-19 pandemic periods dominated by Delta and Omicron variants. This nationwide, register-based cohort study included all live-born infants born in Norway between September 1, 2021, and February 28, 2022.

Experiences with antenatal care, breastfeeding education, and employment during the COVID-19 pandemic: perspectives from mothers and healthcare workers in Kenya

AUTHOR(S)
Scott Ickes; Hellen Lemein; Kelly Arensen (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Current Developments in Nutrition

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on breastfeeding practices in low and middle-income countries is not well understood. Modifications in breastfeeding guidelines and delivery platforms for breastfeeding education are hypothesized to have affected breastfeeding practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to understand the experiences with perinatal care, breastfeeding education and practice among mothers who delivered infants during the COVID-19 pandemic. It conducted key informant interviews among 35 mothers with deliveries since March 2020 and 10 healthcare workers (HCW) from two public health facilities in Naivasha, Kenya.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 6 | Issue: Supplement 1 | No. of pages: 1 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: breastfeeding, COVID-19, infectious disease, maternal and child health, pandemic, pregnancy, pregnant women | Countries: Kenya
Body mass index and Edinburgh postnatal depression scale score of pregnant women & breastfeeding mothers during COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Ummu Erliana; Alyce Fly; Pengcheng Xun

Published: June 2022   Journal: Current Developments in Nutrition,

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the association between BMI and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score among pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers. An online survey was used to obtain sociodemographic data and EPDS scores from pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers in Indiana from July 27, 2020 until July 30, 2021. Potential participants were invited through a Facebook group. The inclusion criteria were pregnant women and exclusive breastfeeding mothers,18 years of age or older, with a singleton pregnancy, who intended to breastfeed after delivery, and used English as a primary language. Data were collected using Qualtrics and descriptive statistics, including mean, standard deviation (SD) and percentages, were used to characterize demographic variables. Multiple linear regression was performed to examine the association [beta coefficient (β) with 95% confidence interval (CI)] between BMI and EPDS with adjustment for potential confounding factors (e.g., sociodemographic factors).

Implementation evaluation of HUGS/Abrazos during the COVID-19 pandemic: a program to foster resiliency in pregnancy and early childhood

AUTHOR(S)
Meisui Liu; Meg Simione; Meghan E. Perkins (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health
Early life adversity can significantly impact child development and health outcomes throughout the life course. With the COVID-19 pandemic exacerbating preexisting and introducing new sources of toxic stress, social programs that foster resilience are more necessary now than ever. The Helping Us Grow Stronger (HUGS/Abrazos) program fills a crucial need for protective buffers during the COVID-19 pandemic, which has escalated toxic stressors affecting pregnant women and families with young children. HUGS/Abrazos combines patient navigation, behavioral health support, and innovative tools to ameliorate these heightened toxic stressors. We used a mixed-methods approach, guided by the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework, to evaluate the implementation of the HUGS/Abrazos program at Massachusetts General Hospital from 6/30/2020–8/31/2021.
Overview of breastfeeding under COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Zehan Pang; Ruolan Hu; Lili Tian (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Immunology
During the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), pregnant and lactating women are at higher risk of infection. The potential of viral intrauterine transmission and vertical transmission by breastfeeding has raised wide concerns. Breastmilk is rich in nutrients that contribute to infant growth and development, and reduce the incidence rate of infant illness and death, as well as inhibit pathogens significantly, and protect infants from infection. Although it is controversial whether mothers infected with COVID-19 should continue to breastfeed, many countries and international organizations have provided recommendations and guidance for breastfeeding. This review presents the risks and benefits of breastfeeding for mothers infected with COVID-19, and the reasons for the absence of SARS-CoV-2 active virus in human milk. In addition, the antiviral mechanisms of nutrients in breastmilk, the levels of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies in breastmilk from COVID-19 infected mothers and vaccinated mothers are also summarized and discussed, aiming to provide some support and recommendations for both lactating mothers and infants to better deal with the COVID-19 pandemic.
Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness and perinatal outcomes of COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy.

AUTHOR(S)
Smriti Prasad; Erkan Kalafat; Helena Blakeway (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Nature Communications
Safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy is a particular concern affecting vaccination uptake by this vulnerable group. Here we evaluated evidence from 23 studies including 117,552 COVID-19 vaccinated pregnant people, almost exclusively with mRNA vaccines. This study shows that the effectiveness of mRNA vaccination against RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection 7 days after second dose was 89·5% (95% CI 69·0-96·4%, 18,828 vaccinated pregnant people, I2 = 73·9%). The risk of stillbirth was significantly lower in the vaccinated cohort by 15% (pooled OR 0·85; 95% CI 0·73–0·99, 66,067 vaccinated vs. 424,624 unvaccinated, I2 = 93·9%). There was no evidence of a higher risk of adverse outcomes including miscarriage, earlier gestation at birth, placental abruption, pulmonary embolism, postpartum haemorrhage, maternal death, intensive care unit admission, lower birthweight Z-score, or neonatal intensive care unit admission (p > 0.05 for all). COVID-19 mRNA vaccination in pregnancy appears to be safe and is associated with a reduction in stillbirth.
Uptake of COVID-19 vaccines among pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Petros Galanis; Irene Vraka; Olga Siskou (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Vaccines
Mass vaccination against COVID-19 is essential to control the pandemic. COVID-19 vaccines are now recommended during pregnancy to prevent adverse outcomes. This review aimed to evaluate the evidence in the literature regarding the uptake of COVID-19 vaccinations among pregnant women. A comprehensive search was performed in PubMed, Medline, Scopus, ProQuest, Web of Science, CINAHL, and medRxiv from inception to 23 March 2022. A meta-analysis to estimate the overall proportion of pregnant women vaccinated against COVID-19 was performed. 11 studies including 703,004 pregnant women were found.
"Separated during the first hours"—Postnatal care for women and newborns during the COVID-19 pandemic: A mixed-methods cross-sectional study from a global online survey of maternal and newborn healthcare providers

AUTHOR(S)
Aline Semaan; Teesta Dey; Amani Kikula (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: PLOS Glob Public Health
Routine postnatal care (PNC) allows monitoring, early detection and management of complications, and counselling to ensure immediate and long-term wellbeing of mothers and newborns; yet effective coverage is sub-optimal globally. The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted availability and quality of maternal and newborn care despite established guidelines promoting continuity of essential services. We conducted a cross-sectional global online survey of 424 maternal and newborn healthcare providers from 61 countries, to explore PNC provision, availability, content and quality following the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. The questionnaire (11 languages), included four multiple-choice and four open-text questions on changes to PNC during the pandemic. Quantitative and qualitative responses received between July and December 2020 were analysed separately and integrated during reporting.
Pandemic beyond the virus: maternal COVID-related postnatal stress is associated with infant temperament.

AUTHOR(S)
Catherine Bianco; Ayesha Sania; Margaret H. Kyle

Published: April 2022   Journal: Pediatric Research
Studies have shown that infant temperament varies with maternal psychosocial factors, in utero illness, and environmental stressors. This study predicted that the pandemic would shape infant temperament through maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and/or maternal postnatal stress. To test this, it examined associations among infant temperament, maternal prenatal SARS-CoV-2 infection, maternal postnatal stress, and postnatal COVID-related life disruptions.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.