Logo UNICEF Innocenti
Office of Research-Innocenti
menu icon

Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

RESULTS:   50     SORT BY:


Select one or more filter options and click search below.

UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
Open Access
1 - 15 of 50
Parenting and adjustment problems among preschoolers during COVID-19

Jamie M. Ostrov; Dianna Murray-Close; Kristin J. Perry (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Journal of Child and Family Studies
A critical area of developmental science explores factors that confer risk or protection as young children and their families experience stressful circumstances related to sociohistorical events. This study contributes to this important area by assessing relations between family context and child adjustment as children transitioned from preschool to home learning during COVID-19, and whether children higher in stress levels, indexed by morning basal cortisol, were more strongly affected. Parents of 74 children (Mage = 53.56 months, SDage = 3.68 months) completed reports spanning the home learning transition; children’s pre-COVID-19 transition salivary cortisol levels were assessed. Path analyses were used to test the preregistered study aims. Significant interactions were decomposed using simple slopes and Preacher’s Regions of Significance (ROS) method. Across the COVID-19 transition to home-based school, children with higher morning basal cortisol experienced the sharpest increase in anger when exposed to harsh/inconsistent parenting contexts. Importantly, these effects held when controlling for household chaos, socioeconomic resources, and supportive parenting. Parallel models with supportive parenting were also tested and are discussed. This study is one of the first to test and provide support for biological sensitivity to context theory within the context of a natural experiment like COVID-19.
COVID-19 pandemic impact on family life and exacerbated emotional and behavioral health among preschool children: a longitudinal study

Xiuxiu Ding; Haixia Liu; Hao Wang (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology

This study aimed to examine associations of the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on family life with emotional and behavioral health among preschool children. A longitudinal study including 1595 preschool children aged 3–6 years and their families was conducted in Anhui Province. The linear regression was applied to examine associations between the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on family life and emotional and behavioral health.

Emotional and behavioral health among Portuguese toddlers during the COVID-19 crisis: the impact of social isolation and caregiving distress

Carolina Toscano; Patrícia Lopes; Cláudia Ramos (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Child Indicators Research
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant changes in the lives of families with young children. The present study aimed to explore whether child social isolation due to the COVID-19 crisis was associated with toddlers’ emotional and behavioral health (EBH) and whether this association was moderated by caregiving distress, during the second mandatory lockdown in Portugal. Participants included 315 toddlers and their primary caregivers. Caregivers were invited to complete a set of questionnaires in order to report about toddlers’ social isolation from other significant family members, other children, and activities outside the house, and to provide ratings of caregiving distress and toddlers’ EBH. Family socioeconomic factors, including stressors resulted from the pandemic, were also measured.
Survey and 10-day diary data on infant nutrition, development, and home learning environment during the COVID-19 pandemic from the LEARN-COVID pilot study

Tilman Reinelt; Clarissa Frey; Rebecca Oertel (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of Open Psychology Data
The LEARN-COVID pilot study collected data on infants and their parents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Assessments took place between April and July 2021. Parents (N = 357) from Switzerland (predominantly), Germany, and Austria answered a baseline questionnaire on their behaviour related to the pandemic, social support, infant nutrition, and infant regulation. Subsequently, parents (n = 222) answered a 10-day evening diary on infant nutrition, infant regulation, parental mood, and parental soothing behaviour. Data and documentation are stored on Zenodo, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6946048. These data may be valuable to researchers interested in infant development and parenting during the pandemic as well as to researchers interested in daily variability in infant behaviour, parenting, and nutrition.
[No] Knowledge of pre-school children on the covid-19 pandemic - in the light of parents and teachers' opinions

Aleksandra Romana Kruszewska; Stanisława Katarzyna Nazaruk; Ewa Grygiel

Published: August 2022   Journal: Rozprawy Społeczne/Social Dissertations
The main aim of the research was to find out about their knowledge or ignorance about the pandemic, about the principles of safe behavior, about virus transmission. The development of the proprietary research tools resulted from an objective fact, because no standardized measurement tools were found for the aforementioned research problems. Surveys, two types of research tools were used: an original questionnaire for parents and worksheets for children.
"Assessment of children's readiness for school by preschool teachers /reminiscences from the time of the pandemic/"

Stanisława Katarzyna Nazaruk; Magdalena Szydłowska

Published: August 2022   Journal: Rozprawy Społeczne = Social Dissertations
The aim of the undertaken research was to find out the assessment carried out by preschool education teachers on the school readiness of children during the pandemic. The research was carried out by the method of survey using the author's questionnaire survey among 90 teachers in kindergartens on the territory of Biała Podlaska and Biała district.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 16 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 15 | Language: English | Topics: Education | Tags: COVID-19 response, lockdown, preschool children, preschool education, social distance, teachers, teaching methods | Countries: Poland
Parents perceptions of online physical activity and leisure with early years children during Covid-19 and beyond

Georgia Allen; Philippa Velija

Published: August 2022   Journal: Leisure Studies
Prior to Covid-19, businesses offering enrichment activities for pre-school aged children were saturating the early years (0–5 years) market. However, the pandemic caused sudden changes to family routines with regular leisure activities cancelled. Using Lareau’s theory of concerted cultivation as a framework, this study explored how physical activity (PA) was managed by parents of pre-school children and how routines changed during the pandemic. A UK national online survey was completed by 925 parents. Sixteen tailored, follow-up semi-structured interviews were undertaken with parents.
The effects of the home-based exercise during COVID-19 school closure on the physical fitness of preschool children in China

Zhenwen Liang; Cheng Deng; Dan Li (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics

Social distancing and school closures during the COVID-19 pandemic reduced the physical activities of the preschool children living in China. However, the effects of home-based exercise on the physical fitness of Chinese preschool children during COVID-19 school closures are still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of home-based exercise on the physical fitness of Chinese preschool children during COVID-19 school closure. In this retrospective analysis, data from 1,608 Chinese preschool children (aged 3–5.5 years) in a second-tier city of Guangdong Province of China (Zhongshan city) were extracted from three successive National Physical Fitness Measurement (NPFM) from 2019 to 2021. NPFM consists of weight, height, and six subtests of physical fitness including 10-m shuttle run test (SRT), standing long jump (SLJ), balance beam walking (BBW), sit-and-reach (SR), tennis throwing (TT), and double-leg timed hop (DTH) tests.

Children's anxiety and parenting self-efficacy during the COVID-19-related home confinement

Paraskevi Tatsiopoulou; Vasiliki Holeva; Vasiliki- Aliki Nikopoulou (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Child: Care, Health and Development

The COVID-19 crisis influenced the lives of families and preschoolers, worldwide. School closures and restriction measures introduced distance learning for preschoolers and remote working for parents. Social distancing narrowed opportunities to meet with peers and enjoy leisure activities. Additionally, social and mental services closures limited young children's accessibility to mental, speech and occupational health services. The aim of the current study was to investigate how home confinement during the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic affected parenting self-efficacy and preschoolers' anxiety. An online survey based on a convenience sample took place on April 2021 to evaluate how home confinement to halt the third wave of COVID-19 pandemic influenced children's anxiety and parenting self-efficacy (PSE). Parents of 146 children (65 girls [44.5%] and 81 boys [55.5%]; aged 2–6 years old) were enrolled and completed a demographics form, the Preschool Anxiety Scale (PAS) and the Tool to Measure Parenting Self-efficacy (TOPSE).

Child–parent relationship during the Wuhan COVID-19 lockdown: role of changes in preschool children's daily routines

Tony Xing Tan; Joy Huanhuan Wang; Peng Wang (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Family Relations

This study examined the impact of the strict lockdown on 130 preschool-age children's daily routines and how their routine changes from pre-lockdown were related to child–parent relationship quality during the lockdown. To contain the spread of the COVID-19, the city of Wuhan underwent a strict 76-day lockdown, during which children's routines were drastically altered, yet families did not have a frame of reference to use to determine how changes in children's routines would be related to their family dynamics.

Mealtime regularity Is associated with dietary balance among preschool children in Japan: a study of lifestyle changes during the COVID-19 pandemic

Yuki Tada; Yukari Ueda; Kemal Sasaki (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Nutrients
The novel coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has considerably impacted children’s lives. The aim of this study was to determine whether the pandemic affected mealtime regularity among preschool children and whether maintaining regular mealtimes or changes in mealtime regularity during the pandemic were related to dietary balance, including chronological relationships. This online cross-sectional survey involving individuals registered with a company that provides meals to children aged 2−6 years was conducted in February 2021. Using a 40-point scale, a healthy diet score (HDS) was developed to evaluate children’s dietary balance. The participants were divided into four groups based on their responses, and multiple regression analyses were performed with the HDS as the dependent variable. Maintaining regular mealtimes was associated with practices such as waking and going to bed earlier, less snacking, and eating breakfast every day.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 14 | Issue: 14 | No. of pages: 14 | Language: English | Topics: Health, Nutrition | Tags: behavioural change, child health, child nutrition, COVID-19 response, lockdown, preschool children, social distance | Countries: Japan
Vulnerable preschoolers mental health during the Covid-19 pandemic in Argentina: a cross-sectional study

Agustina Aragón-Daud; Andrea Abadi; Pablo López (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Early Child Development and Care
Since the Covid-19 pandemic began, children have presented with increased psychiatric symptoms. Little research has been done regarding early childhood mental health, particularly those from vulnerable socioeconomic contexts who are exposed to adversity. This study aimed to assess mental health and the impacts of the pandemic on this population. A survey and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire were administered to the caregivers of preschoolers who were enrolled in a food-assistance programme. The participants were 807 preschoolers from the City of Buenos Aires, Argentina, which was ranked among the cities with the longest lockdown.
Factors influencing parents' willingness to vaccinate their preschool children against COVID-19: results from the mixed-method study in China

Mengmou Zheng; Wanzhen Zhong; Xiyue Chen (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
During the COVID-19 pandemic, little is known about parental hesitancy to receive the COVID-19 vaccine for preschool children who are the potential vaccinated population in the future. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to explore the factors influencing Chinese parents’ decision to vaccinate their children aged 3–6 years old against COVID-19. In July 2021,  semi-structured interviews (n = 19) and a cross-sectional survey (n = 2605) were conducted with parents of kindergarten children in an urban-rural combination pilot area in China. According to the qualitative study, most parents were hesitant to vaccinate their children with the COVID-19 vaccine.
The impact of COVID-19 measures on parent-reported restricted and repetitive behaviours in pre-school children with autism

Sofie Boterberg; Arianna Zanatta; Floor Moerman (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Heliyon
COVID-19 restrictive measures have had a considerable impact on daily life routines, which may be especially challenging for families of children with autism. In pre-schoolers with autism, it is likely that the disruption of routines mainly impacts the presence of restrictive and repetitive behaviours (RRBs). Furthermore, influence of comorbid conditions, secondary behavioural difficulties and home environment characteristics on RRBs was explored. A cross-sectional online survey design was used to collect parent-report data on 254 children with autism (2.5–6 years) during lockdown in the early months of the pandemic. RRBs were assessed using the Repetitive Behaviour Scale-Revised (RBS-R).
Lockdown due to COVID-19 in Spanish children up to 6 years: consequences on diet, lifestyle, screen viewing, and sleep

Mercedes Díaz-Rodríguez; Jesús Carretero-Bravo; Celia Pérez-Muñoz (et al.)

Published: June 2022

This study aimed to record how the habits of children under 6 years of age in Cadiz have changed during lockdown, in order to identify those that could be a handicap for the problem of overweight and obesity. It developed a new questionnaire to analyse family living habits. The questionnaire was administered online to parents of children aged zero-six years. Eating habits, sedentary lifestyles, screen viewing, and sleep changes were evaluated.

1 - 15 of 50

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Subscribe to updates on new research about COVID-19 & children



facebook twitter linkedin google+ reddit print email
Article Article

Check our quarterly thematic digests on children and COVID-19

Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
Campaign Campaign

COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.