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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Support for mask use as a COVID-19 public health measure among a large sample of Canadian secondary school students

AUTHOR(S)
Karen A. Patte; Terrance J. Wade; Adam J. MacNeil (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health

Youth voice has been largely absent from deliberations regarding public health measures intended to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission, despite being one of the populations most impacted by school-based policies. To inform public health strategies and messages, this study examined the level of student support of mask use in public spaces and school mask requirements, as well as factors associated with students’ perspectives. It used cross-sectional survey data from 42,767 adolescents attending 133 Canadian secondary schools that participated in the COMPASS study during the 2020/2021 school year. Multinomial regression models assessed support for i) wearing a mask in indoor public spaces and ii) schools requiring students to wear masks, in association with COVID-19 knowledge, concerns, and perceived risk.

Unravelling the role of the mandatory use of face covering masks for the control of SARS-CoV-2 in schools: a quasi-experimental study nested in a population-based cohort in Catalonia (Spain)

AUTHOR(S)
Ermengol Coma; Martí Català; Leonardo Méndez-Boo (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Archives of Disease in Childhood

This study aims to assess the effectiveness of mandatory use of face covering masks (FCMs) in schools during the first term of the 2021–2022 academic year. It is a retrospective population-based study conducted in the schools of Catalonia (Spain).

How middle and high school students wear their face masks in classrooms and school buildings

AUTHOR(S)
Gerald Jarnig; Reinhold Kerbl; Mireille N. M. van Poppel

Published: August 2022   Journal: Healthcare
In addition to other mitigation measures, face masks have been used in schools worldwide as a precondition for allowing school attendance during the COVID-19 pandemic. The quality and habits of mask wearing have, however, not been evaluated thus far, leaving uncertainty about the efficacy of this measure. It was the aim of this study to assess the accuracy of face mask wearing by children and adolescents in different school situations. In May and June 2022, students of two selected Austrian schools were asked to provide information about the different variations in wearing a face mask in different situations at school (in classrooms with or without the presence of a teacher, and in school buildings outside classrooms without the presence of a teacher).
[No] Knowledge of pre-school children on the covid-19 pandemic - in the light of parents and teachers' opinions

AUTHOR(S)
Aleksandra Romana Kruszewska; Stanisława Katarzyna Nazaruk; Ewa Grygiel

Published: August 2022   Journal: Rozprawy Społeczne/Social Dissertations
The main aim of the research was to find out about their knowledge or ignorance about the pandemic, about the principles of safe behavior, about virus transmission. The development of the proprietary research tools resulted from an objective fact, because no standardized measurement tools were found for the aforementioned research problems. Surveys, two types of research tools were used: an original questionnaire for parents and worksheets for children.
"Will it work as well on Zoom?" A natural experiment during the Covid-19 pandemic of delivering parenting groups via video conferencing or in person

AUTHOR(S)
Livia van Leuven; Maria Lalouni; Martin Forster

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of Child and Family Studies
While rates of child maltreatment increased during the Covid-19-pandemic, face-to-face interventions to support families got difficult to carry out due to restrictions. Meanwhile, many services do not have access to parenting programs designed for digital or remote delivery. A solution employed by some services was to use video conferencing (VC) to deliver their regular parenting programs. This study examined the effectiveness of the universal group-based parenting program ABC offered through VC instead of on-site meetings during the pandemic. Pre and post measurements were collected from 469 parents participating in either 1) ABC with VC meetings only, 2) on-site meetings only, or 3) blended – a combination of VC and on-site sessions. In addition, 74 group leaders completed a survey about their experiences of VC groups.
A systematic review and meta-analysis on the preventive behaviors in response to the COVID-19 pandemic among children and adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Feifei Li; Wei Liang; Ryan E. Rhodes (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health
The purpose of this review was to synthesize the empirical evidence of relevant studies related to preventive behaviors in response to the COVID-19 pandemic among children and adolescents. Further to this, we aimed to identify the demographic, psychological, and social and environmental correlates of such behaviors. Following PRISMA guidelines, eligible literature was identifed by searching seven databases (PsycINFO, PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PROSPERO registry platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov website) and reference list of included studies and relevant review papers from 1st Jan 2020 to 28th Feb 2021. The standardized mean diference and correlation coefcients r were extracted to estimate the efect sizes. Analyses were conducted using R software.
School health promotion in pandemic times. Results of the COVID-HL school principal study

AUTHOR(S)
Kevin Dadaczynski; Orkan Okan; Melanie Messer

Published: May 2022   Journal: Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz
Die vorliegende Studie untersucht, in welchem Ausmaß Schulen Maßnahmen der Gesundheitsförderung und Prävention während der COVID-19-Pandemie umsetzen. Von besonderem Interesse sind hierbei Unterschiede nach demografischen Variablen, Schulform, Bundesland und die Beteiligung an Landesinitiativen der Gesundheitsförderung.
Health literacy of COVID-19 and compliance with precautionary measures: a cross-sectional study in adolescents and young adults in Ireland

AUTHOR(S)
Finiki Nearchou; Clodagh Flinn; Aine French (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Youth
The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with an ‘infodemic’, and young people have reported difficulties dealing with COVID-19-related information. The present cross-sectional study aimed to explore health knowledge related to COVID-19 and accessing relevant information as aspects of health literacy in a cohort of adolescents and young adults residing in Ireland. It also aimed to explore COVID-19-related concerns and levels of compliance with precautionary measures. Data were collected from young people (n = 1009) aged 12–25 years old through an online anonymous survey.
Children’s judgments of interventions against norm violations: COVID-19 as a naturalistic case study

AUTHOR(S)
Young-Eun Lee; Julia Marshall; Paul Deutchman (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of experimental child psychology
The coronavirus pandemic has had a significant influence on social interactions, introducing novel social norms such as mask-wearing and social distancing to protect people's health. Because these norms and associated practices are completely novel, it is unknown how children assess what kinds of interventions are appropriate under what circumstances and what principles they draw on in their decisions. We investigated children's reasoning about interventions against individuals who failed to adhere to COVID-19 norms. In this pre-registered study (N = 128), 4- to 7-year-olds heard stories about a norm violator, that is, a person who refuses to wear a mask in class (COVID condition) or wear indoor shoes in class when his or her shoes are muddy (Muddy Shoes condition). Children evaluated four different interventions-giving a mask/indoor shoes (Giving), preventing the person from entering (Exclusion), throwing a paper ball at the person (Throwing), and not intervening (Doing Nothing)-in terms of their rightness, niceness, and effectiveness.
Empowering parents to protect children during COVID-19 with message strategy based on efficacy, threat levels, and channel preferences

AUTHOR(S)
Sejin Park; Elizabeth Johnson Avery

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Health Communication

A national survey (n = 500) was administered in March 2020 at the peak of COVID-19 uncertainty to access parents’ perceived abilities to protect children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using the threat/efficacy matrix in Witte’s (1992) extended parallel processing model (EPPM), parents’ behavioral intentions to protect children from coronavirus and their perceived COVID-19 knowledge levels are examined based on their positions within the matrix.

Using community–academic partnerships and a creative excpression contest to engage youth in the development of communication materials for promoting behaviors that prevent COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Jacob Szeszulski; Ghadir Helal Salsa; Paula Cuccaro (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Health Promotion Practice
Youth can transmit COVID-19 to adults, but few communication materials exist for engaging youth in COVID-19 prevention behaviors. This study describes the process of leveraging a community–academic partnership in a rapid response initiative to engage youth in a contest (i.e., Youth-Led Creative Expression Contest to Prevent COVID-19 across Texas) to develop creative public health messaging centered on the prevention of COVID-19 transmission and infection for their peers. Core activities included developing a request for applications that solicited submission of creative expression materials promoting the use of COVID-19 prevention behaviors (mask-wearing, social distancing, handwashing, not touching the face) from Texas youth in elementary, middle, and/or high school; sending the request for applications to 48 organizations in Austin, Brownsville, Dallas, El Paso, Houston, and San Antonio in summer 2020; and recruiting a youth advisory board to score submissions and award prizes.
Knowledge and perception of middle school students regarding COVID-19 disease at the start of the pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Maria Manuel Azevedo; Elisa Saraiva; Fátima Baltazar

Published: January 2022   Journal: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Facing recent threats of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), an educational strategy was designed and applied to middle school students in order to reinforce related knowledge and behaviors. A group of 65 middle school students (14–18 years old) developed several designed online curricular activities. After the intervention, students answered a questionnaire to assess if they: (a) were familiar with the terms COVID 19 and SARS-CoV-2; (b) were conscious about the importance of preventive measures to stop the spread of this disease; (c) were engaged in these activities; (d) were motivated to research on health-related issues. This study was a first to attempt to evaluate student's perceptions about SARS-CoV-2 infection and support education regarding COVID-19, mainly on the reinforcement of preventive measures.
Missed and delayed preventive health care visits among US children due to the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Lydie A. Lebrun-Harris; Olivia R. Sappenfield; Michael D. Warren

Published: December 2021   Journal: Public Health Reports

The COVID-19 pandemic led to a substantial drop in US children's preventive care, which had not fully rebounded by the end of 2020. We sought to estimate the overall prevalence of missed, skipped, or delayed preventive checkups among households with children in the last 12 months because of the pandemic. We used data from the US Census Bureau's Household Pulse Survey, Phase 3.1 (collected April-May 2021). The analytic sample included 48 824 households with ≥1 child or adolescent aged <18 years. We estimated both national and state-level prevalences, examined associations with sociodemographic and household characteristics, and described reasons for missed or delayed preventive visits.

Building long-term family resilience through universal prevention: 10-year parent and child outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Mark E. Feinberg; Lindsey Gedaly; Jacqueline Mogle (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Family Process
As the COVID-19 pandemic has been highly stressful for parents and children, it is clear that strategies that promote long-term family resilience are needed to protect families in future crises. One such strategy, the Family Foundations program, is focused on promoting supportive coparenting at the transition to parenthood. In a randomized trial, we tested the long-term intervention effects of Family Foundations on parent, child, and family well-being one to two months after the imposition of a national shelter-in-place public health intervention in 2020. This study used regression models to test intervention impact on outcomes reported on by parents in a standard questionnaire format and a series of 8 days of daily reports. It also tested moderation of intervention impact by parent depression and coparenting relationship quality.
Good knowledge but poor practice toward COVID-19 among Indonesian youth

AUTHOR(S)
Ahmad Fuady; Levina Chandra Khoe; Tiara Berliana Azzahra (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health
COVID-19 cases have been increasing among young people as they are often considered to have low compliance with COVID-19 preventive measures. Given that challenge, there have been limited studies exploring this issue. Through a nationwide online survey, this study assessed knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward COVID-19 among Indonesian youth and potential interventions to improve their behavior.
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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.